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Neila Maria R de Lima, Emerson de O Ferreira, Mara Yone S D Fernandes, Francisco Arnaldo V de Lima, Kelly Rose T Neves, Marta Regina S do Carmo, Geanne M de Andrade
Inflammation plays a pivotal role in the development of ischemic brain damage. Astrocyte activation promotes the production of several proinflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α and iNOS. Eventually, neuronal death occurs, leading to the development of motor and memory deficits in patients. Boldine is the main alkaloid in the leaves and bark of the Peumus boldus Molina, and has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The aim of this work was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of boldine on neuroinflammation and memory deficits induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) in mice...
October 19, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
Su-Min Lim, Hyun Sik Choi, Jin-Ju Jeong, Seung-Won Han, Dong-Hyun Kim
We investigated the effect of DWac on the gut microbiota composition in mice with 2,3,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid- (TNBS-) induced colitis. Treatment with DWac restored TNBS-disturbed gut microbiota composition and attenuated TNBS-induced colitis. Moreover, we examined the effect of DWac in mice with mesalazine-resistant colitis (MRC). Intrarectal injection of TNBS in MRC mice caused severe colitis, as well as colon shortening, edema, and increased myeloperoxidase activity. Treatment with mesalazine (30 mg/kg) did not attenuate TNBS-induced colitis in MRC mice, whereas treatment with DWac (30 mg/kg) significantly attenuated TNBS-induced colitis...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Sergio Pina-Oviedo, Carlos A Torres-Cabala, Roberto N Miranda, Michael T Tetzlaff, Selina Singh, Ronald P Rapini, Victor G Prieto, Phyu P Aung
Leukemia cutis develops in <4% of all acute leukemias. Concurrent acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is rare, with most cases involving lymph nodes or spleen, and no cutaneous involvement. We report the case of a 59-year-old man who presented with fever, malaise, and fatigue. The CBC showed leukocytosis (30.4 × 10/L, 9% blasts), anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Bone marrow biopsy was diagnosed with AML, not otherwise specified, with mutations of FLT3 and IDH2 (R140Q). The patient developed skin rash on the right flank with the clinical differential diagnosis of herpes simplex virus or varicella-zoster virus infection/reactivation versus leukemia cutis...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Yeter Topcu-Tarladacalisir, Melike Sapmaz-Metin, Turan Karaca
Curcumin has several biological functions particularly antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. The aims of this study are determination of the protective effects of curcumin on cisplatin-induced renal tubular cell apoptosis and related pathways in kidney. Eighteen male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 6): the control, cisplatin (CP), and cisplatin + curcumin (CP + CUR). Acute renal damage was induced by single dose of cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg) injected by intraperitoneally (i...
October 19, 2016: Renal Failure
Ester Pagano, Raffaele Capasso, Fabiana Piscitelli, Barbara Romano, Olga A Parisi, Stefania Finizio, Anna Lauritano, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Angelo A Izzo, Francesca Borrelli
Anecdotal and scientific evidence suggests that Cannabis use may be beneficial in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Here, we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol (CBD), here named CBD BDS for "CBD botanical drug substance," on mucosal inflammation and hypermotility in mouse models of intestinal inflammation. Colitis was induced in mice by intracolonic administration of dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS). Motility was evaluated in the experimental model of intestinal hypermotility induced by irritant croton oil...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Habibullah Janyaro, Juan Wan, Adnan H Tahir, Manoj K Shah, Xiao-Jing Li, Ming-Xing Ding
BACKGROUND: Visceral pain is a common symptom of several gastrointestinal disorders. Despite tremendous progress in understanding its basic mechanisms, it remains a significant health challenge for clinicians. The present study quantified the intensity of visceral pain using ileocecal ligament traction on an inflamed ileum in goats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 36 male goats weighing 20.05±2.1 kg were randomly allocated equally into a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) group (n=18) and a saline group (n=18)...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
Jing Gao, Hiroshi Iwamoto, Jukka Koskela, Harri Alenius, Noboru Hattori, Nobuoki Kohno, Tarja Laitinen, Witold Mazur, Ville Pulkkinen
Asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) is a commonly encountered chronic airway disease. However, ACOS is still a consensus-based clinical phenotype and the underlying inflammatory mechanisms are inadequately characterized. To clarify the inflammatory mediatypical for ACOS, five biomarkers, namely interleukin (IL)-13, myeloperoxidase (MPO), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), chitinase-like protein (YKL-40), and IL-6, were selected. This study hypothesized that sputum biomarkers relevant for airway inflammation in asthma (IL-13), COPD (MPO, NGAL), or in both asthma and COPD (YKL-40, IL-6) could be used to differentiate ACOS from COPD and asthma...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Rosaria Talarico, Simone Barsotti, Elena Elefante, Chiara Baldini, Chiara Tani, Marta Mosca
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide a critical analysis of the recent literature on this topic, with particular focus on the most relevant studies published over the last year. RECENT FINDINGS: Many studies are published every year on the diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment of pulmonary involvement in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). The main subjects covered by this article are the pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical aspects of lung involvement in ANCA-associated vasculitis and non-ANCA-associated vasculitis...
October 17, 2016: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
Haruka Yokota, Ayaka Tsuzuki, Yuki Shimada, Azusa Imai, Daichi Utsumi, Takuya Tsukahara, Misaki Matsumoto, Kikuko Amagase, Kazumi Iwata, Akio Nakamura, Chihiro Yabe-Nishimura, Shinichi Kato
NOX1/NADPH oxidase, a non-phagocytic isoform of reactive oxygen species-producing enzymes, is highly expressed in the colon, but the physiological and pathophysiological roles of this isoform are not fully understood. The present study investigated the role of NOX1 in the development of colonic inflammation in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced murine colitis model. Intrarectal injection of TNBS caused severe colitis accompanied by body weight loss, diarrhea, and increased MPO activity in wild-type (WT) mice...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
T Chen, Z-P Guo, L-X Fu, N Cao, S Qin
BACKGROUND: Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine, which is closely associated with the pathogenesis of various types of cutaneous vasculitis (CV). AIM: To investigate the therapeutic effects of an anti-TWEAK monoclonal antibody (mAb) in a mouse model of cutaneous reverse passive Arthus (RPA) reaction. METHODS: Cutaneous RPA reaction was induced in BALB/c mice by intradermal injection of anti-ovalbumin IgG into the left ear followed immediately by intravenous injection of chicken ovalbumin...
October 18, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Brajesh K Yadav, Shanker K Singh, Udayraj P Nakade, Vivek K Singh, Abhishek Sharma, Mukesh Srivastava, Brijesh Yadav, Yajuvendra Singh, Rajneesh Sirohi, Satish K Garg
Twelve apparently healthy multiparous parturient Sahiwal cows were allocated into two groups having six cows in each one. Six cows were supplemented with antioxidant mixture (mixture containing Cu, Mn, Cr, Zn, and vitamins A and D3) daily from 21 days before parturition till the day relative to calving. Whereas, remaining non-supplemented six cows were kept as the control group. Blood samples were obtained five times: at enrolment (21 days pre-partum), and again at days 0, +7, +14, and +21 relative to calving...
October 17, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Jiajin Yang, Heng Ge, Caroline J Poulton, Susan L Hogan, Yichun Hu, Britta E Jones, Candace D Henderson, Elizabeth A McInnis, William F Pendergraft, J Charles Jennette, Ronald J Falk, Dominic J Ciavatta
BACKGROUND: Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by destructive vascular inflammation. Two prominent ANCA autoantigens are myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proteinase 3 (PR3), and transcription of MPO and PRTN3, the genes encoding the autoantigens, is associated with disease activity. We investigated whether patients with AAV have alterations in histone modifications, particularly those associated with transcriptional activation, at MPO and PRTN3...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
Ivana Milosevic
A 76-years old man presented with leucocytosis (86x109/l), fever, pneumonia and significant weight loss. He had a history of chronic lymphocytic leukemia diagnosed five years earlier and he responded with partial remission to the treatment with continuous low doses of chlorambucil. Analysis of blood smear, bone marrow aspiration and bone marrow biopsy revealed predomination of small lymphocytes, but 22% of cells were blasts negative to cytochemical stainings (Figure 1). Flow cytometric analysis showed two distinct populations: 65% of cells was small to moderate in size, CD19+, CD45+, CD5+, CD20+/-, but 30% of cells were large, CD34+, CD13+, HLA DR+, CD65+, CD45+, MPO weakly positive and CD33, CD14, CD15, CD16 negative...
October 18, 2016: Turkish Journal of Haematology: Official Journal of Turkish Society of Haematology
Gan Chen, Xiang Song, Bo Wang, Guoxing You, Jingxiang Zhao, Sha Xia, Yuhua Zhang, Lian Zhao, Hong Zhou
Hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation involves overwhelming reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause oxidative stress, inflammation, and subsequent tissue injury. We investigated the effects of the potent antioxidant carboxyfullerene (C3) on acute liver injury during hemorrhage shock/resuscitation. C3 infusion reduced the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, methemoglobin content, malondialdehyde content, myeloperoxidase activity and expression levels of tumor necrosis factor -α and interleukin-6; it increased superoxide dismutase activity in the liver...
October 12, 2016: Biomaterials
Eline Houben, Willem A Bax, Bastiaan van Dam, Walentina A T Slieker, Gideon Verhave, Fenneke C P Frerichs, Izhar C van Eijk, Wim G Boersma, Guido T M de Kuyper, Erik L Penne
Currently no validated diagnostic system for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is available. Therefore, diagnosing AAV is often challenging. We aimed to identify factors that lead to a clinical diagnosis AAV in ANCA positive patients in a teaching hospital in The Netherlands.In this study, all patients that tested positive for ANCA proteinase 3 (PR3) and/or myeloperoxidase (MPO) between 2005 and 2015 were analysed. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of AAV were compared with patients without a clinical diagnosis of AAV...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Akbar Ahmad, Domokos Gerö, Gabor Olah, Csaba Szabo
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been proposed to exert pro- as well as anti-inflammatory effects in various models of critical illness. In this study, we compared bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced changes in inflammatory mediator production, indices of multiple organ injury and survival in wild‑type (WT) mice and in mice with reduced expression of one of the three H2S‑producing enzymes, cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) or 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST)...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Limin Shi, Qinlu Lin, Tao Yang, Ying Nie, Xinhua Li, Bo Liu, Junjun Shen, Ying Liang, Yiping Tang, Feijun Luo
To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of β-glucans from Lentinus edodes, and its molecular mechanism, the dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS) induced colitis model of mice and the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cell inflammation model were used in this study. 40 ICR male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: Control, DSS (DSS treated only), DSS + low-βGs (500 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) and DSS + high-βGs (1000 mg kg(-1) d(-1)). The body weight of the mice with Lentinus edodes β-glucan supplementation increased significantly compared to the DSS group and the disease activity index (DAI) was improved in both βG-treated groups...
October 17, 2016: Food & Function
Mara de Moura Gondim Prata, A Havt, D T Bolick, R Pinkerton, Aam Lima, R L Guerrant
Fecal biomarkers have emerged as important tools to assess intestinal inflammation and enteropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between the fecal markers, myeloperoxidase (MPO), lactoferrin (FL), calprotectin (FC) and lipocalin-2 (Lcn-2), and to compare differences by breastfeeding status as well as normalization by fecal protein or by fecal weight. Simultaneous, quantitative MPO, FL, FC and Lcn-2, levels were determined in frozen fecal specimens collected from 78 children (mean age 15...
2016: Journal of Translational Science
Sha Xia, Gan Chen, Bo Wang, Yujing Yin, Zhenwei Sun, Jingxiang Zhao, Penglong Li, Lian Zhao, Hong Zhou
RBCs undergo numerous changes during storage and stored RBCs may induce adverse effects, ultimately resulting in organ injury in transfusion recipients. We tested the hypothesis that the addition of SP to stored RBCs would improve the quality of the stored RBCs and mitigate liver injury after transfusion in a murine model. RBCs were harvested from C57BL/6J mice and stored for 14 days in CPDA-1 containing either a solution of SP in saline or saline alone. Haemolysis, the 24-hour posttransfusion recovery, the oxygen-carrying capacity, and the SOD activity of stored RBCs were evaluated...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Shinya Kawamoto, Ryo Koda, Atsunori Yoshino, Tetsuro Takeda, Yoshihiko Ueda
Medullary cystic kidney disease (MCKD) is a hereditary disease associated with bilateral medullary polycysts and interstitial fibrosis. MCKD is typically associated with slowly progressive renal dysfunction. We herein report two rare elderly cases with enlarged kidneys and rapidly progressive renal dysfunction without myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA), PR3-ANCA, or anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies. Renal biopsies revealed extensive tubular dilatation and atrophy with interstitial fibrosis consistent with MCKD...
2016: Internal Medicine
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