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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617401/magnetic-resonance-imaging-does-not-reveal-structural-alterations-in-the-brain-of-grapheme-color-synesthetes
#1
Michel Dojat, Fabrizio Pizzagalli, Jean-Michel Hupé
Several publications have reported structural changes in the brain of synesthetes compared to controls, either local differences or differences in connectivity. In the present study, we pursued this quest for structural brain differences that might support the subjective experience of synesthesia. In particular, for the first time in this field, we investigated brain folding in comparing 45 sulcal shapes in each hemisphere of control and grapheme-color synesthete populations. To overcome flaws relative to data interpretation based only on p-values, common in the synesthesia literature, we report confidence intervals of effect sizes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549713/synesthetic-hallucinations-induced-by-psychedelic-drugs-in-a-congenitally-blind-man
#2
Sara Dell'Erba, David J Brown, Michael J Proulx
This case report offers rare insights into crossmodal responses to psychedelic drug use in a congenitally blind (CB) individual as a form of synthetic synesthesia. BP's personal experience provides us with a unique report on the psychological and sensory alterations induced by hallucinogenic drugs, including an account of the absence of visual hallucinations, and a compelling look at the relationship between LSD induced synesthesia and crossmodal correspondences. The hallucinatory experiences reported by BP are of particular interest in light of the observation that rates of psychosis within the CB population are extremely low...
April 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507195/rare-variants-in-axonogenesis-genes-connect-three-families-with-sound-color-synesthesia
#3
Amanda K Tilot, Katerina S Kucera, Arianna Vino, Julian E Asher, Simon Baron-Cohen, Simon E Fisher
Synesthesia is a rare nonpathological phenomenon where stimulation of one sense automatically provokes a secondary perception in another. Hypothesized to result from differences in cortical wiring during development, synesthetes show atypical structural and functional neural connectivity, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. The trait also appears to be more common among people with autism spectrum disorder and savant abilities. Previous linkage studies searching for shared loci of large effect size across multiple families have had limited success...
March 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406149/why-is-the-synesthete-s-a-red-using-a-five-language-dataset-to-disentangle-the-effects-of-shape-sound-semantics-and-ordinality-on-inducer-concurrent-relationships-in-grapheme-color-synesthesia
#4
Nicholas B Root, Romke Rouw, Michiko Asano, Chai-Youn Kim, Helena Melero, Kazuhiko Yokosawa, Vilayanur S Ramachandran
Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which viewing a grapheme elicits an additional, automatic, and consistent sensation of color. Color-to-letter associations in synesthesia are interesting in their own right, but also offer an opportunity to examine relationships between visual, acoustic, and semantic aspects of language. Research using large populations of synesthetes has indeed found that grapheme-color pairings can be influenced by numerous properties of graphemes, but the contributions made by each of these explanatory factors are often confounded in a monolingual dataset (i...
February 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378205/coordinated-neural-behavioral-and-phenomenological-changes-in-perceptual-plasticity-through-overtraining-of-synesthetic-associations
#5
Nicolas Rothen, David J Schwartzman, Daniel Bor, Anil K Seth
Synesthesia is associated with additional perceptual experiences, which are automatically and consistently triggered by specific inducing stimuli. Synesthesia is also accompanied by more general sensory and cortical changes, including enhanced modality-specific cortical excitability. Extensive cognitive training has been shown to generate synesthesia-like phenomenology but whether these experiences are accompanied by neurophysiological changes characteristic of synesthesia remains unknown. Addressing this question provides a unique opportunity to elucidate the neural basis of perceptual plasticity relevant to conscious experiences...
March 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305318/behavioral-phenotyping-of-calcium-channel-cacn-subunit-%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-3-knockout-mice-consequences-of-sensory-cross-modal-activation
#6
Julia Landmann, Franziska Richter, Joseph Classen, Angelika Richter, Josef M Penninger, Ingo Bechmann
Sensory cross-activation is still ill-defined and research concerning the consequences of sensory mergence on normal brain function is very limited. Human studies describe behavioral benefits of people with synesthesia- a peculiar form of perception possibly due to cross-modal activation- regarding sensory and memory abilities. Here, we studied behavioral alterations in calcium channel (CACN) subunit α2δ3 knockout (KO) mice exhibiting pain-induced cortical cross-modal activation. Knockout mice exhibited an increased response upon touch of a pinna and impaired audition, while elementary olfaction, vision, somatosensation and motor function were not altered...
January 2, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259260/musical-pitch-classes-have-rainbow-hues-in-pitch-class-color-synesthesia
#7
Kosuke Itoh, Honami Sakata, Ingrid L Kwee, Tsutomu Nakada
Synesthesia, an anomalous blending of senses in which stimulation of one sensory modality produces sensation in a different modality, provides a unique opportunity to study how multimodal information is represented in the human brain. We investigated how pitch classes (do, re, mi, etc.) are associated with the three dimensions of color (hue, saturation, and value/brightness) in 15 subjects who possessed "pitch class-color synesthesia". Across-subject averaging of reported colors revealed that pitch classes have rainbow hues, beginning with do-red, re-yellow, and so forth, ending with si-violet, accompanied by a decrease in saturation...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188078/one-shot-synesthesia
#8
Alexandra Kirschner, Danko Nikolić
Synesthesia is commonly thought to be a phenomenon of fixed associations between an outside inducer and a vivid concurrent experience. Hence, it has been proposed that synesthesia occurs due to additional connections in the brain with which synesthetes are born. Here we show that synesthesia can be a much richer and more flexible phenomenon with a capability to creatively construct novel synesthetic experiences as events unfold in people's lives. We describe here cases of synesthetes who occasionally generate novel synesthetic experience, called one-shot synesthesias...
2017: Translational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094306/early-sensory-experience-influences-the-development-of-multisensory-thalamocortical-and-intracortical-connections-of-primary-sensory-cortices
#9
Julia U Henschke, Anja M Oelschlegel, Frank Angenstein, Frank W Ohl, Jürgen Goldschmidt, Patrick O Kanold, Eike Budinger
The nervous system integrates information from multiple senses. This multisensory integration already occurs in primary sensory cortices via direct thalamocortical and corticocortical connections across modalities. In humans, sensory loss from birth results in functional recruitment of the deprived cortical territory by the spared senses but the underlying circuit changes are not well known. Using tracer injections into primary auditory, somatosensory, and visual cortex within the first postnatal month of life in a rodent model (Mongolian gerbil) we show that multisensory thalamocortical connections emerge before corticocortical connections but mostly disappear during development...
April 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052461/beyond-the-subjective-experience-of-colour-an-experimental-case-study-of-grapheme-texture-synesthesia
#10
Hayaki Banno, Hiroki Koga, Hiroki Yamamoto, Jun Saiki
This study was a case investigation of grapheme-texture synestheste TH, a female who subjectively reported experiencing a visual association between grapheme and colour/texture. First, we validated the existence of a synesthetic association in an objective manner. Involuntarily elicited experience is a major hallmark that is common to different types of synesthetes. Our results indicated interference between physical and synesthetic texture, suggesting the involuntary occurrence of synesthetic textural experience...
July 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697672/projectors-associators-visual-imagery-and-the-time-course-of-visual-processing-in-grapheme-color-synesthesia
#11
Ben D Amsel, Marta Kutas, Seana Coulson
In grapheme-color synesthesia, seeing particular letters or numbers evokes the experience of specific colors. We investigate the brain's real-time processing of words in this population by recording event-related brain potentials (ERPs) from 15 grapheme-color synesthetes and 15 controls as they judged the validity of word pairs ('yellow banana' vs. 'blue banana') presented under high and low visual contrast. Low contrast words elicited delayed P1/N170 visual ERP components in both groups, relative to high contrast...
October 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666185/multilevel-analysis-of-individual-differences-in-regularities-of-grapheme-color-associations-in-synesthesia
#12
Daisuke Hamada, Hiroki Yamamoto, Jun Saiki
Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon where visual perception of letters and numbers stimulates perception of a specific color. Grapheme-color correspondences have been shown to be systematically associated with grapheme properties, including visual shape difference, ordinality, and frequency. However, the contributions of grapheme factors differ across individuals. In this study, we applied multilevel analysis to test whether individual differences in regularities of grapheme-color associations could be explained by individual styles of processing grapheme properties...
June 27, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643033/the-role-of-sensory-perception-emotionality-and-lifeworld-in-auditory-word-processing-evidence-from-congenital-blindness-and-synesthesia
#13
Judith Papadopoulos, Frank Domahs, Christina Kauschke
Although it has been established that human beings process concrete and abstract words differently, it is still a matter of debate what factors contribute to this difference. Since concrete concepts are closely tied to sensory perception, perceptual experience seems to play an important role in their processing. The present study investigated the processing of nouns during an auditory lexical decision task. Participants came from three populations differing in their visual-perceptual experience: congenitally blind persons, word-color synesthetes, and sighted non-synesthetes...
December 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607666/synesthesia-and-the-mccollough-effect
#14
V S Ramachandran, Zeve Marcus
Synesthetes, who see printed black letters and numbers as being colored, are thought to have enhanced cross-activation between brain modules for color and form. Since the McCollough effect also results from oriented contours (i.e., form) evoking specific colors, we conjectured that synesthetes may experience an enhanced McCollough effect, and find that this is indeed true.
May 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597194/a-social-bouba-kiki-effect-a-bias-for-people-whose-names-match-their-faces
#15
David N Barton, Jamin Halberstadt
The "bouba/kiki effect" is the robust tendency to associate rounded objects (vs. angular objects) with names that require rounding of the mouth to pronounce, and may reflect synesthesia-like mapping across perceptual modalities. Here we show for the first time a "social" bouba/kiki effect, such that experimental participants associate round names ("Bob," "Lou") with round-faced (vs. angular-faced) individuals. Moreover, consistent with a bias for expectancy-consistent information, we find that participants like targets with "matching" names, both when name-face fit is measured and when it is experimentally manipulated...
June 8, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587556/methodological-guidelines-to-investigate-altered-states-of-consciousness-and-anomalous-experiences
#16
Alexander Moreira-Almeida, Francisco Lotufo-Neto
Anomalous experiences (AE) (uncommon experiences or one that is believed to deviate from the usually accepted explanations of reality: hallucinations, synesthesia, experiences interpreted as telepathic…) and altered states of consciousness (ASC) have been described in all societies of all ages. Even so, scientists have long neglected the studies on this theme. To study AE and ASC is not necessary to share the beliefs we explore, they can be investigated as subjective experiences and correlated with other data, like any other human experience...
June 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447622/modern-clinical-research-on-lsd
#17
REVIEW
Matthias E Liechti
All modern clinical studies using the classic hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in healthy subjects or patients in the last 25 years are reviewed herein. There were five recent studies in healthy participants and one in patients. In a controlled setting, LSD acutely induced bliss, audiovisual synesthesia, altered meaning of perceptions, derealization, depersonalization, and mystical experiences. These subjective effects of LSD were mediated by the 5-HT2A receptor. LSD increased feelings of closeness to others, openness, trust, and suggestibility...
October 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348537/graphemes-sharing-phonetic-features-tend-to-induce-similar-synesthetic-colors
#18
Mi-Jeong Kang, Yeseul Kim, Ji-Young Shin, Chai-Youn Kim
Individuals with grapheme-color synesthesia experience idiosyncratic colors when viewing achromatic letters or digits. Despite large individual differences in grapheme-color association, synesthetes tend to associate graphemes sharing a perceptual feature with similar synesthetic colors. Sound has been suggested as one such feature. In the present study, we investigated whether graphemes of which representative phonemes have similar phonetic features tend to be associated with analogous synesthetic colors. We tested five Korean multilingual synesthetes on a color-matching task using graphemes from Korean, English, and Japanese orthography...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276863/when-synesthesia-and-savant-abilities-are-mistaken-for-hallucinations-and-delusions-contribution-of-a-cognitive-approach-for-their-differential-diagnosis
#19
Lucie Bouvet, Jacques-Edouard Barbier, Nia Cason, Serge Bakchine, Nathalie Ehrlé
OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is characterized by hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech and behavior, and other symptoms that cause social or occupational dysfunction. However, some of these symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions, can be indicative of other phenomena such as synesthesia and savant abilities. The aim of this paper is to highlight how neurological and psychiatric conditions can be confused and how formal neuropsychological evaluations can be necessary to distinguish them...
November 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263797/do-graphemes-attract-spatial-attention-in-grapheme-color-synesthesia
#20
G Volberg, A S Chockley, M W Greenlee
Grapheme-color synesthetes perceive concurrent colors for some objectively achromatic graphemes (inducers). Using oscillatory responses in the electroencephalogram, we tested the hypothesis that inducers automatically attract spatial attention and, thus, favor a conscious experience of color. Achromatic inducers and real-colored non-inducers were presented to the left or to the right visual hemifield and orientation judgments were required for subsequently presented Gabor patches. The graphemes were irrelevant for the task so that the related brain response was purely stimulus-driven...
May 2017: Neuropsychologia
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