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Phenobarbitone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706399/comparative-effect-of-divided-doses-of-adult-solid-and-liquid-oral-formulations-of-antiepileptic-drugs-in-the-management-of-pediatric-epilepsy
#1
Ravi Prasad Nidanapu, Bascarane Tamijarassy, Subramanian Mahadevan, Batmanabane Gitanjali
OBJECTIVE: To compare the differences in the efficacy and safety of the commonly prescribed AEDs in the management of epilepsy in children when using divided doses of adult solid oral formulations (DDSF) with the liquid oral formulations (LFs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who had one or more seizures per month and prescribed with DDSF were recruited. Initially the patients were continued on DDSF for 4 months following which they were switched over to LF for the subsequent 4 months...
April 2017: Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661008/antiepileptic-drug-monotherapy-for-epilepsy-a-network-meta-analysis-of-individual-participant-data
#2
REVIEW
Sarah J Nevitt, Maria Sudell, Jennifer Weston, Catrin Tudur Smith, Anthony G Marson
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common neurological condition with a worldwide prevalence of around 1%. Approximately 60% to 70% of people with epilepsy will achieve a longer-term remission from seizures, and most achieve that remission shortly after starting antiepileptic drug treatment. Most people with epilepsy are treated with a single antiepileptic drug (monotherapy) and current guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the United Kingdom for adults and children recommend carbamazepine or lamotrigine as first-line treatment for partial onset seizures and sodium valproate for generalised onset seizures; however a range of other antiepileptic drug (AED) treatments are available, and evidence is needed regarding their comparative effectiveness in order to inform treatment choices...
June 29, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653385/cricopharyngeal-dysphagia-and-phenobarbitone-responsive-sialoadenosis-in-a-miniature-poodle
#3
Sam McCann, M le Chevoir, L Lacorcia, Bgj Wernham, C S Mansfield
CASE REPORT: An 11-year-old male neutered Miniature Poodle was investigated for ptyalism, weight loss and anorexia. Cricopharyngeal dysphagia was diagnosed using fluoroscopy, and non-inflammatory salivary disease was diagnosed using a combination of cytology and computed tomography. The dog was successfully managed with phenobarbitone. CONCLUSION: To the authors' knowledge this is the first time acquired cricopharyngeal dysphagia and phenobarbitone-responsive sialoadenosis have been described together...
July 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598192/evaluation-of-a-human-neural-stem-cell-culture-method-for-prediction-of-the-neurotoxicity-of-anti-epileptics
#4
Abdal-Jabbar Al-Rubai, Peter Wigmore, Margaret K Pratten
Human neural stem cells have been proposed as an in vitro model to predict neurotoxicity. In this study, the potential of in vitro cultures of human-derived neurospheres to predict the effects of various anti-epileptic drugs (sodium valproate, phenytoin, carbamazepine and phenobarbitone) was evaluated. In general, these drugs had no significant effects on cell viability, total cellular protein, and neuronal process length at low doses, but at high doses these parameters were reduced significantly. Therapeutic doses of sodium valproate and phenytoin had a clear effect on neurosphere size and cell migration, with a significant reduction in both parameters when compared with the control group...
May 2017: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540206/acute-kidney-injury-from-different-poisonous-substances
#5
Rubina Naqvi
AIM: To report our experience of acute kidney injury (AKI) developed after exposure to poisonous substance. METHODS: Retrospective study where data was collected from case records of patients coming to this institute during January 1990 to May 2016. This institution is a tertiary care center for renal care in the metropolitan city of Karachi, Pakistan. History of ingested substance, symptoms on presentation, basic laboratory tests on arrival, mode of treatment and outcome were recorded from all patients and are presented here...
May 6, 2017: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396847/patch-testing-and-cross-sensitivity-study-of-adverse-cutaneous-drug-reactions-due-to-anticonvulsants-a-preliminary-report
#6
T N Shiny, Vikram K Mahajan, Karaninder S Mehta, Pushpinder S Chauhan, Ritu Rawat, Rajni Sharma
AIM: To evaluate the utility of patch test and cross-sensitivity patterns in patients with adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDR) from common anticonvulsants. METHODS: Twenty-four (M:F = 13:11) patients aged 18-75 years with ACDR from anticonvulsants were patch tested 3-27 mo after complete recovery using carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbitone, lamotrigine, and sodium valproate in 10%, 20% and 30% conc. in pet. after informed consent. Positive reactions persisting on D3 and D4 were considered significant...
March 26, 2017: World Journal of Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372475/in-vivo-antitumour-potential-of-camel-s-milk-against-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-rats-and-its-improvement-of-cisplatin-renal-side-effects
#7
Hala M F El Miniawy, Kawkab A Ahmed, Sameeh A Mansour, Marwa M Salah Khattab
CONTEXT: Camel milk (CM) is recommended for liver disease patients in Egypt for a strong belief that it has a curative effect. OBJECTIVE: The effect of consumption of CM with or without chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin was evaluated on induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar male rats (56) were divided into eight groups (7 rats each). Group I was control. Hepatocarcinogenesis was initiated by a single dose of intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (DENA) (200 mg/kg BW) and promoted by phenobarbitone (500 ppm) in drinking water in groups V, VI, VII and VIII...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225210/prophylactic-drug-management-for-febrile-seizures-in-children
#8
REVIEW
Martin Offringa, Richard Newton, Martinus A Cozijnsen, Sarah J Nevitt
BACKGROUND: Febrile seizures occurring in a child older than one month during an episode of fever affect 2% to 4% of children in Great Britain and the United States and recur in 30%. Rapid-acting antiepileptics and antipyretics given during subsequent fever episodes have been used to avoid the adverse effects of continuous antiepileptic drugs. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate primarily the effectiveness and safety of antiepileptic and antipyretic drugs used prophylactically to treat children with febrile seizures; but also to evaluate any other drug intervention where there was a sound biological rationale for its use...
February 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155287/primary-health-workers-knowledge-and-practices-relating-to-neonatal-jaundice-in-ibadan-nigeria
#9
Adebola E Orimadegun, Adeola O Ojebiyi
BACKGROUND: Over half of births and newborn care occur in primary healthcare facilities in Nigeria, but information on activities of personnel working there is scarce. AIM: To assess the knowledge and practices relating to neonatal jaundice (NNJ) among community health workers (CHWs) and community birth attendants (CBAs) in Nigeria. SETTING: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of all 227 CHWs and 193 registered CBAs in Ibadan, Nigeria...
January 30, 2017: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103503/sedative-hypnotic-like-effect-and-molecular-docking-of-di-naphthodiospyrol-from-diospyros-lotus-in-an-animal-model
#10
Abdur Rauf, Taibi Ben Hadda, Ghias Uddin, José P Cerón-Carrasco, Jorge Peña-García, Horacio Pérez-Sánchez, Haroon Khan, Saud Bawazeer, Seema Patel, Mohammad S Mubarak, Tareq Abu-Izneid, Yahia Nasser Mabkhot
BACKGROUND: Diospyros lotus Linn commonly known as date-plum, or Caucasian persimmon has multiple uses in folk medicine. Various parts of this plant is used for alleviating lumbago, dysponea, hemorrhage, insomnia, and hiccup. The plant extracts possess a variety of biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, sedative, febrifuge, anti-microbial, vermifuge, and anti-hypertensive. AIM/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the present work is to investigate the sedative-hypnotic effect of a rare dimeric napthoquione 1 obtained from the chloroform soluble fraction of D...
April 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088734/in-vivo-and-in-silico-sedative-hypnotic-like-activity-of-7-methyljuglone-isolated-from-diospyros-lotus-l
#11
Abdur Rauf, Sengul Uysal, Taibi Ben Hadda, Ghias Uddin, Muhammad Asif Nawaz, Haroon Khan, Bina S Siddiqui, Muslim Raza, Saud Bawazeer, Gokhan Zengin
Diospyros lotus L. possesses different therapeutic activities such as antioxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-microbial and sedative. However, no studies on the sedative-hypnotic activity of 7-methyljuglone are reported. In the present study, we have evaluated in vivo the anxiolytic-hypnotic like effects of 7-methyljuglone in mice with open field and phenobarbitone-induced sleeping time tests. We have also assessed in silico the involvement of GABAA, GABAB and 5HT1 neurotransmission in its mechanism of action...
March 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076313/ethnopharmacological-investigation-of-the-aerial-part-of-phragmites-karka-poaceae
#12
Ramiz Ahmed Sultan, Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Mir Muhammad Nasir Uddin, Mohi Uddin, Zobaer Al Mahmud, Sheikh Zahir Raihan, Nazmul Qais
BACKGROUND: In this ethnopharmacological study, methanolic extract of the aerial plant parts of Phragmites karka (Family: Poaceae) and its petroleum ether and carbon tetrachloride fractions were investigated for bioactivities in Swiss-albino mice, namely, analgesic, central nervous system (CNS) depressant, hypoglycemic, and antidiarrheal activity. METHODS: The cold methanolic extract of the aerial plant parts of Phragmites karka (MEPK) was first prepared, and it was then further fractionated as petroleum ether (PEFMEPK) and carbon tetrachloride (CTFMEPK) fractions...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070612/macrolide-antibiotics-differentially-influence-human-hepg2-cytotoxicity-and-modulate-intrinsic-extrinsic-apoptotic-pathways-in-rat-hepatocellular-carcinoma-model
#13
Nagwa I Abdel-Hamid, Mona F El-Azab, Yasser M Moustafa
This study was designed to examine the potential antitumor effect of some macrolides: clarithromycin, azithromycin, and erythromycin on chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats and on human hepatoma cells (HepG2) as well. The possible underlying antiapoptotic mechanisms were investigated. Antiproliferative activity was assessed in HepG2 using Sulforhodamine-B staining method. In vivo, HCC was induced in rats by initiation-selection-promotion protocol using diethylnitrosamine (200 mg/kg, single i...
April 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976799/carbamazepine-versus-phenobarbitone-monotherapy-for-epilepsy-an-individual-participant-data-review
#14
REVIEW
Sarah J Nolan, Anthony G Marson, Jennifer Weston, Catrin Tudur Smith
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review, first published in Issue 1, 2003 and updated in 2015. This review is one in a series of Cochrane Reviews investigating pair-wise monotherapy comparisons.Epilepsy is a common neurological condition in which abnormal electrical discharges from the brain cause recurrent unprovoked seizures. It is believed that with effective drug treatment, up to 70% of individuals with active epilepsy have the potential to become seizure-free and go into long-term remission shortly after starting drug therapy with a single antiepileptic drug in monotherapy...
December 15, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917768/iatrogenic-medication-errors-in-a-paediatric-intensive-care-unit-in-durban-south-africa
#15
A Gokhul, P M Jeena, A Gray
BACKGROUND: Iatrogenic medication errors due to calculation errors are an under-reported concern in children. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and source of iatrogenic medication errors in a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in the PICU at Inkosi Albert Luthuli Hospital, Durban, South Africa, over a 3-month period in 2014. Medication-related calculation skills of medical practitioners and nurses were assessed through the voluntary anonymous completion of a questionnaire...
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889710/effect-of-withholding-phenobarbitone-maintenance-in-neonatal-seizures-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Pranjali Saxena, Abhishek Singh, Amit Upadhyay, Priyanka Gupta, Sangeeta Sharma, Sreenivas Vishnubatla
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of withholding maintenance phenobarbitone on breakthrough seizures. DESIGN: A double blind randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Level II neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a teaching hospital in Northern India. PARTICIPANTS: 152 term and near term neonates (34 weeks of gestation age) with admission weight ≥2 kg with clinically apparent seizures who received intravenous (IV) loading dose of 20 mg/kg of phenobarbitone...
December 15, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851887/suspected-phenobarbitone-hypersensitivity-with-acute-liver-failure-in-a-dog
#17
L Bosseler, I Cornelis, P Defauw, S Daminet, R Ducatelle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2016: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771659/serum-phenobarbitone-levels-in-neonates-with-seizures-some-clarifications
#18
A Shashidhar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749249/ionophore-based-potentiometric-pvc-membrane-sensors-for-determination-of-phenobarbitone-in-pharmaceutical-formulations
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Haitham Alrabiah, Abdulrahman Al-Majed, Mohammed Abounassif, Gamal A E Mostafa
The fabrication and development of two polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane sensors for assaying phenobarbitone sodium are described. Sensors 1 and 2 were fabricated utilizing β- or γ-cyclodextrin as ionophore in the presence of tridodecylmethylammonium chloride as a membrane additive, and PVC and dioctyl phthalate as plasticizer. The analytical parameters of both sensors were evaluated according to the IUPAC guidelines. The proposed sensors showed rapid, stable anionic response (-59.1 and -62.0 mV per decade) over a relatively wide phenobarbitone concentration range (5...
December 1, 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704404/tablet-splitting-of-antiepileptic-drugs-in-pediatric-epilepsy-potential-effect-on-plasma-drug-concentrations
#20
Ravi Prasad Nidanapu, Sundaram Rajan, Subramanian Mahadevan, Batmanabane Gitanjali
INTRODUCTION: Tablet splitting is the process of dividing a tablet into portions to obtain a prescribed dose of medication. Very few studies have investigated whether split parts of a tablet deliver the expected amount of drug to patients. OBJECTIVE: Our objectives were to evaluate the split parts of adult-dose tablet formulations for percentage of weight deviation, weight uniformity, weight loss, drug content, and the content uniformity of four antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) prescribed to pediatric patients...
December 2016: Paediatric Drugs
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