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Haitham Alrabiah, Abdulrahman Al-Majed, Mohammed Abounassif, Gamal A E Mostafa
The fabrication and development of two polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane sensors for assaying phenobarbitone sodium are described. Sensors 1 and 2 were fabricated utilizing β- or γ-cyclodextrin as ionophore in the presence of tridodecylmethylammonium chloride as a membrane additive, and PVC and dioctyl phthalate as plasticizer. The analytical parameters of both sensors were evaluated according to the IUPAC guidelines. The proposed sensors showed rapid, stable anionic response (-59.1 and -62.0 mV per decade) over a relatively wide phenobarbitone concentration range (5...
December 1, 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica
Ravi Prasad Nidanapu, Sundaram Rajan, Subramanian Mahadevan, Batmanabane Gitanjali
INTRODUCTION: Tablet splitting is the process of dividing a tablet into portions to obtain a prescribed dose of medication. Very few studies have investigated whether split parts of a tablet deliver the expected amount of drug to patients. OBJECTIVE: Our objectives were to evaluate the split parts of adult-dose tablet formulations for percentage of weight deviation, weight uniformity, weight loss, drug content, and the content uniformity of four antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) prescribed to pediatric patients...
October 5, 2016: Paediatric Drugs
Tahira Assad, Rafeeq Alam Khan
Currently available anxiolytics cause numerous adverse effects and show craving and tolerance during long term treatment. Currently traditional medicines have been re-evaluated widely through work on various plant species. Numerous plants in traditional system show pharmacological activity with unlimited prospective for therapeutic use. Hence we planned to evaluate the effect of methanol extract of T. foenum-graecum L. seeds on anxiety, sedation and motor coordination in mice at different doses following 15 days of oral feeding...
September 17, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
M Maharaj, N Dungwa
A 1-week-old infant was brought to a regional hospital with a history of recurrent seizures following lower abdominal septic skin infection. She was found to have neonatal tetanus, and a spatula test was positive. The tetanus infection was associated with a superficial skin infection, common in neonates. Treatment included sedatives (diazepam, chlorpromazine, phenobarbitone and morphine), muscle relaxants, antibiotics and ventilation in the neonatal intensive care unit. Intrathecal and intramuscular immunoglobulin were given, and the wound was treated...
September 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Lakshminarayanapuram G Viswanathan, Parthasarathy Satishchandra, Bipin C Bhimani, Janardhan Yc Reddy, Batchu S Rama Murthy, Doddaballapura K Subbakrishna, Sanjib Sinha
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to discuss the prevalence of polycystic ovary (PCO) and Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women with epilepsy (WWE) on valproate (VPA), carbamazepine (CBZ), or phenobarbitone (PB), drug naive WWE and women with bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) on VPA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study included 190 women aged 18-45 years, who had epilepsy or BPAD (on VPA), and consented for study. Patients were grouped as Group 1 (n = 40): WWE on VPA, Group 2 (n = 50): WWE on CBZ, Group 3 (n = 50): WWE on PB, Group 4 (n = 30): drug naïve WWE, and Group 5 (n = 20): women with BPAD on VPA...
July 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Md Sharif Hasan, Narhari Das, Zobaer Al Mahmud, S M Abdur Rahman
Purpose. The present study was designed to investigate the antinociceptive, anxiolytic, CNS depressant, and hypoglycemic effects of the naproxen metal complexes. Methods. The antinociceptive activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing method and radiant heat tail-flick method while anxiolytic activity was evaluated by elevated plus maze model. The CNS depressant activity of naproxen metal complexes was assessed using phenobarbitone-induced sleeping time test and the hypoglycemic test was performed using oral glucose tolerance test...
2016: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
E J Suiter, R M A Packer, H A Volk
Idiopathic epilepsy (IE) is a common chronic neurological disease of the dog. Previous studies of anti-epileptic drug (AED) treatment have indicated that acceptable AED adverse effects are as important to owners as reductions in seizure frequency. AEDs in both dogs and human beings are frequently associated with the adverse-effect ataxia. The aim of this study was to compare ataxia levels in dogs with IE treated chronically with phenobarbitone or imepitoin, the two currently available first-line AED treatments...
June 25, 2016: Veterinary Record
Sanober Wasim, Amit Upadhyay, Monica Roy, Pranjali Saxena, Neelam Chillar
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate serum phenobarbitone levels in neonates with seizures and to evaluate the effect of repeated loading dose on serum phenobarbitone levels. METHODS: In this prospective observational study conducted in a tertiary care centre of Northern India during 2011- 2012, 99 neonates admitted with seizureswere included.Serum phenobarbitone levels in neonates with seizures at 20 minutes and 12 hours after the first loading dose of phenobarbitone were measured...
May 8, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
M Battin, L Sadler, V Masson, C Farquhar
AIM: To establish the incidence of moderate to severe neonatal encephalopathy (NE) in term infants from New Zealand and to document demographic characteristics and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: Cases were reported monthly via the New Zealand Paediatric Surveillance Unit (NZPSU). Data were collected from paediatricians for neonatal items and lead maternity carers for pregnancy and birth details. Term neonatal deaths in the Perinatal and Maternal Mortality Review Committee dataset that were because of hypoxia and/or neonatal deaths from hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy were added to the cases identified via the NZPSU, if they had not previously been ascertained...
June 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Nadin M Abdel Razeq, Akuma O Akuma, Sue Jordan
Current pain assessment and management in neonates need to be fully described before neonatal pain care can be optimized. This study's purpose was to report neonatal nurses' knowledge, existing pain assessment practice, and pharmacological pain management of neonates in Jordan. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. Eighteen neonatal intensive care units in Jordan were included in the study. One hundred eighty-four neonatal nurses participated. Questionnaires were distributed by and returned to the neonatal intensive care units' managers between June and August 2014...
August 2016: Pain Management Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses
Alisha Nitin Chaubal, Ruchir Patel, Dhaval Choksi, Kaivan Shah, Meghraj Ingle, Prabha Sawant
Crigler Najjar syndrome is associated with indirect hyperbilirubinemia due to a deficiency of enzyme Uridine Di Phospho Glucoronosyl Transferase (UDPGT). Presented here is a case of a female in the first trimester of pregnancy, who was diagnosed to have type 2 Crigler Najjar syndrome. We also discuss the management of this rare disease especially in pregnancy. Unconjugated bilirubin can cross the placental barrier causing neurological damage in the newborn. Patient was carefully monitored during pregnancy and treatment with phenobarbitone in low doses was adjusted such that the serum bilirubin levels were below 10 mg/dL...
April 18, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
Evonne Low, Nathan J Stevenson, Sean R Mathieson, Vicki Livingstone, Anthony C Ryan, Janet M Rennie, Geraldine B Boylan
BACKGROUND: Phenobarbitone is the most common first-line anti-seizure drug and is effective in approximately 50% of all neonatal seizures. OBJECTIVE: To describe the response of electrographic seizures to the administration of intravenous phenobarbitone in neonates using seizure burden analysis techniques. METHODS: Multi-channel conventional EEG, reviewed by experts, was used to determine the electrographic seizure burden in hourly epochs...
2016: Neonatology
Roland Chidi Ibekwe, Appolos Chidi Ndukuba, Ann Ebele Aronu, Christopher Bismarck Eke, MaryAnn Ugochi Ibekwe, Ngozi Chinyelu Ojinnaka
Purpose. To determine the frequency and determinants of noncompliance to clinic appointment and medication among Nigerian children with epilepsy. Method. This is a cross-sectional survey of noncompliance to clinic appointments and medication among 113 consecutive children with epilepsy attending the Paediatric Neurology Clinic of University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, southeastern Nigeria. Results. Noncompliance to clinic appointment and medication was 23% and 15.3%, respectively. The major reasons given were lack of finance, clashing with school time, and forgetting to take the drugs...
2016: Behavioural Neurology
S Ahmed, S T Alam, M M Rahman, S Akhter
Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological disorder in children. Incidence is highest in children less than 3 years of age. This cross sectional study was conducted at outpatient department of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka from January 2010 to December 2010 to explore clinical profile of early childhood epilepsy. Total 50 Children with two or more unprovoked seizure after 28 days up to 36 months of age were included in this study. Majority cases were in the age group of 1 to 12 months (56%) with male predominance (78%)...
January 2016: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Naghme Adab, Catrin Tudur Smith, Jacqui Vinten, Paula R Williamson, Janine B Winterbottom, Andrew J McKay, Rebecca Bromley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 17, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Vivek Karan, S Harsha, B S Keshava, R Pradeep, T S Sathyanarayana Rao, Chittaranjan Andrade
BACKGROUND: Sexual functioning and variables that influence sexual functioning have not been studied in Indian women with epilepsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a pilot study, female (age, 18-45 years) outpatients with epilepsy who were in a stable sexual relationship for at least 1-year were screened using the mini international neuropsychiatric interview. Those without anxiety or depressive disorders (n = 60) were studied using the female sexual function index (FSFI; higher scores indicate better functioning)...
July 2015: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Orakwue A Molokwu, Birinus A Ezeala-Adikaibe, Ikenna O Onwuekwe
BACKGROUND: Levetiracetam-induced rage is a rare neurobehavioral adverse effect of levetiracetam that is characterized by seething rage, uncontrollable anger, fits of fury, depression, violence, and suicidal tendencies. It occurs more in patients with prior mood or psychotic disturbances. No such case has been reported in Nigeria. METHOD: We report two cases of levetiracetam-induced rage. The first patient was a 29-year-old male with a 14-year history of intractable posttraumatic epilepsy...
2015: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
Gianni de Polo, Romina Romaniello, Annamary Otim, Karlina Benjamin, Paolo Bonanni, Renato Borgatti
PURPOSE: To describe the neurophysiological and clinical features of Nodding Syndrome (NS) in South Sudan. METHODS: The study was performed at the Epilepsy Service of "Usratuna" sited in Juba, South Sudan. The clinical history of each subject was collected along with an EEG tracing. RESULTS: Twenty-one children (10 females) were diagnosed with NS. Fifteen (72%) children were classified as Probable NS and six (28%) as Confirmed NS. They ranged in age between 6 and 14 years, and age at seizure onset ranged from 5 to 12 years...
September 2015: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Maggie Lo-Yee Yau, Eva Lai-Wah Fung, Pak Cheung Ng
AIM: To review the clinical response to levetiracetam (LEV) in neonatal seizure management in intensive care unit. METHODS: Medical records of neonates who received LEV from January 2009 to August 2014 were reviewed. Their demographic data, clinical characteristics, etiology, seizures, electroencephalograms, response to treatment and outcome were noted. Literature review of use of LEV in neonates were also performed via PubMed and EMBASE with keywords - "neonates", "seizures", "epilepsy" and "LEV" up to Sep 2014 and retrieved the publications...
August 8, 2015: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
Rozafa Koliqi, Carlo Polidori, Hilmi Islami
OBJECTIVE: This paper reveals the studies of carbamazepine monitoring in the manifestation of side effects during clinical use. It is important to realize that these ranges are derived statistically, with most patients who have high levels suffering side effects and some with poor control having low levels. Broadly, the newer agents have advantages of lower risk of side effects and less drug interaction. At the presence they are more expensive than the, than "older" agents. Current recommendations and practice are to use newer agents as second line drugs, although in some countries there are gaining favour as potential first line agents...
June 2015: Materia Socio-medica
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