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Betrayal trauma

Blair E Wisco, Brian P Marx, Casey L May, Brenda Martini, John H Krystal, Steven M Southwick, Robert H Pietrzak
BACKGROUND: Combat exposure is associated with increased risk of mental disorders and suicidality. Moral injury, or persistent effects of perpetrating or witnessing acts that violate one's moral code, may contribute to mental health problems following military service. The pervasiveness of potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) among U.S. combat veterans, and what factors are associated with PMIEs in this population remains unknown. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study (NHRVS), a contemporary and nationally representative survey of a population-based sample of U...
March 29, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
Kerry L Gagnon, Michelle Seulki Lee, Anne P DePrince
Interpersonal trauma exposure is linked with a host of seemingly disparate outcomes for victims, such as psychological distress, post-trauma appraisals (e.g., alienation, shame), poor cognitive functioning, expectations of harm in relationships, and revictimization risk. The presence of interpersonal trauma alone may not fully explain this range of outcomes. The current paper applies Betrayal Trauma Theory (BTT), which was originally articulated two decades ago as a framework for understanding memory disruptions following interpersonal trauma, as a framework to understand the diverse outcomes that can occur when interpersonal trauma is perpetrated by a close other...
May 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Vedat Şar
The nature of consciousness and the autonomy of the individual's mind have been a focus of interest throughout the past century and inspired many theories and models. Revival of studies on psychological trauma and dissociation, which remained outside mainstream psychiatry, psychology, and psychoanalysis for the most part of the past century, has provided a new opportunity to revisit this intellectual and scientific endeavor. This paper attempts to integrate a series of empirical and theoretical studies on psychological consequences of developmental traumatization, which may yield further insight into factors which threaten the integrity of human consciousness...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Deb Laaser, Heather L Putney, Matthew Bundick, David L Delmonico, Elizabeth J Griffin
The research literature on relational betrayal in a committed relationship has focused on the resulting trauma from the betrayal; however, few studies investigated the potential for posttraumatic growth following a relational betrayal. This study investigated the presence of posttraumatic growth in relationally betrayed women. The research focused on women's perceptions of the relational betrayal, and factors that facilitated posttraumatic growth. Results indicated relationally betrayed women perceived the betrayal as a traumatic event, to the extent that some met criteria for PTSD diagnosis...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
Vanessa M Jacoby, Elisa Krackow, Joseph R Scotti
Attachment-based theories and related research illustrate that emotion regulation develops in the context of a secure relationship between a child and caregiver. When a secure bond is broken, such as in the context of betrayal trauma, children fail to develop necessary emotion regulation skills which can lead to an array of relational problems. The current study examined the relations between betrayal trauma history, type of communication during a stressful interpersonal laboratory task, and emotion regulation difficulties in a sample of trauma-exposed adolescents...
March 2017: International Journal of Aging & Human Development
Noga Zerubavel, Terri L Messman-Moore, David DiLillo, Kim L Gratz
Betrayal trauma theory proposes a relation between intimate partner violence (IPV) and dissociation, suggesting that dissociation among victims of IPV may function to restrict awareness of abuse in order to preserve attachments perceived as vital. We investigated two factors that may moderate the relation between IPV and dissociation-childhood sexual abuse (CSA) severity and fear of abandonment-among 348 women currently in a relationship. The relation between frequency of IPV (sexual and physical) and dissociation (amnesia and depersonalization) was moderated by CSA severity and fear of abandonment...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Grant W Edmonds, Sarah E Hampson, Hélène C F Côté, Patrick L Hill, Bridget Klest
Conscientiousness is associated with longevity. As such, identifying the biological pathways linking personality to mortality is important. This study employs longitudinal data spanning >40 years to test prospective associations with Leukocyte Telomere Length (LTL), a potential marker of cellular aging. Because telomeres shorten over time, and are sensitive to oxidative stress, shorter LTL may reflect cumulative damage associated with negative health behaviors and past stressful events. We investigated childhood conscientiousness as a protective factor, expecting an association with longer LTL in adulthood, possibly reflecting slower LTL shortening...
September 2016: European Journal of Personality
Justyna Kucharska
OBJECTIVE: The current study is an investigation of the relationship between the appraisal of traumatic events and mental disorder symptoms: internalizing symptoms and externalizing/substance-abuse symptoms. Cumulative trauma over the lifetime was taken into account. Also, specific effects related to traumatic events of various types (i.e., betrayal trauma, accident involving a family member, physical violence, and natural disaster) were assessed. Participants, 190 young men and 277 young women, were asked to evaluate the strength with which the traumatic event impacted their lives...
December 8, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Lynne McCormack, Sherilyn Thomson
Objective: No known research explores the double-edged phenomenon of childhood trauma/adult mental health consumer. Therefore, whether receiving a psychiatric diagnosis in light of childhood trauma supports or impedes psychological wellbeing in adult life, is unknown. Method: Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) provided the methodological framework. Data were collected through the use of semistructured interviews. Analysis sought thematic representation from subjective interpretations of the experienced phenomenon: childhood trauma survivor/mental health consumer...
October 6, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Lori S Katz
This is a program evaluation of the Warrior Renew treatment protocol delivered in an outpatient therapy group for survivors of military sexual trauma (MST) at a Department of Veterans Affairs medical center. The group was delivered via a manualized protocol with 12 weekly topics. It includes coping skills for affect management (e.g., triggers and anxiety) and addresses unique aspects of MST including anger/resentments because of injustice and lack of closure, betrayal, and self-blame. It also addresses interpersonal factors such as relationship patterns and healthy interpersonal skills...
August 18, 2016: Psychological Services
Jennifer M Gómez, Carly P Smith, Robyn L Gobin, Shin Shin Tang, Jennifer J Freyd
The Hoffman Report (Hoffman et al., 2015) documented devastating information about the American Psychological Association (APA) and the profession of psychology in the United States, prompting a public apology and a formal commitment by APA to correct its mistakes (APA, 2015). In the current article, we utilize betrayal trauma theory (Freyd, 1997), including betrayal blindness (e.g., Freyd, 1996; Tang, 2015) and institutional betrayal (Smith & Freyd, 2014b), to understand and learn from APA's behaviors. We further situate this discussion in the context of inequality, both within APA and in American society generally...
October 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Andreea Tamaian, Bridget Klest, Christina Mutschler
Individuals who struggle with chronic medical conditions frequently use medical services and may depend on the medical system to ensure their overall well-being. As a result, they may be at a greater risk of feeling betrayed by the medical system when their needs are not being met. The current study aimed to qualitatively assess patients' negative experiences with the medical system that may lead to feelings of institutional betrayal. A total of 14 Canadian adults struggling with various chronic conditions completed an online open-ended questionnaire...
January 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Sarah E Hampson, Grant W Edmonds, Lewis R Goldberg, Maureen Barckley, Bridget Klest, Joan P Dubanoski, Teresa A Hillier
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether lifetime experience of trauma is related to personality through instrumental and reactive trait processes, and whether lifetime trauma is a mechanism underlying the association between childhood conscientiousness and objectively assessed adult physical health. METHOD: Participants (N = 831) were 442 women and 389 men from the Hawaii longitudinal study of personality and health. Teacher assessments of personality were obtained when the participants were in elementary school...
July 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Lindsey L Monteith, Nazanin H Bahraini, Bridget B Matarazzo, Kelly A Soberay, Carly Parnitzke Smith
OBJECTIVES: We examined perceptions of institutional betrayal among Veterans exposed to military sexual trauma (MST) and whether perceptions of institutional betrayal are associated with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and suicidal ideation and attempt after MST. METHOD: A total of 49 Veterans with MST completed self-report measures and interviews in a Veterans Health Administration setting. RESULTS: Many participants reported perceptions that a military institution created an environment in which MST seemed common, likely to occur, and did not proactively prevent such experiences...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Linda Grabbe, Janell Ball, Joanne M Hall
PURPOSE: This research explored the understanding of trauma from the perspective of women who had experienced abuse and neglect in childhood. The goal was to better conceptualize potential avenues or interventions for prevention and treatment. DESIGN: Qualitative description of the accounts of eight women who were childhood trauma survivors and in treatment for addiction. Open-ended interviews focused on key events or experiences during childhood and adolescence and the use of drugs and alcohol...
May 2016: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
Elise C Hocking, Raluca M Simons, Renata J Surette
Previous research has demonstrated a positive association between child maltreatment and adult interpersonal trauma (Arata, 2000; Crawford & Wright, 2007). From a betrayal trauma theory perspective, evidence suggests that the experience of trauma high in betrayal (e.g., child maltreatment by parents or guardians) increases ones risk of betrayal trauma as an adult (Gobin & Freyd, 2009). However, the mechanisms explaining these associations are not well understood; attachment theory could provide further insight...
February 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Ulrik Helt Haahr, Tor Ketil Larsen, Erik Simonsen, Bjørn Rishovd Rund, Inge Joa, Jan Ivar Rossberg, Jan Olav Johannessen, Johannes Langeveld, Julie Evensen, Anne Marie Hyldgaard Trauelsen, Per Vaglum, Stein Opjordsmoen, Wenche Ten Velden Hegelstad, Svein Friis, Thomas McGlashan, Ingrid Melle
AIM: Interpersonal traumas are highly prevalent in patients with psychotic disorders. Trauma caused by those close to the patient might have a more profound impact than other types of trauma and may influence early life social functioning. The aim is to investigate the associations between different types of trauma, in particular close interpersonal traumas experienced before the age of 18, premorbid factors and baseline clinical characteristics in a sample of first-episode psychosis patients...
January 23, 2016: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Christina Gamache Martin, Mark J Van Ryzin, Thomas J Dishion
OBJECTIVE: With an emphasis on betrayal trauma, this study used latent profile analysis to examine how childhood traumas co-occur and whether trauma patterns differentially predicted psychological distress. METHOD: A community sample of 806 adolescents and young adults participated. Youths reported their trauma histories, and lifetime DSM-IV disorders were assessed using a structured diagnostic interview. RESULTS: Latent profile analysis yielded 5 profiles: high betrayal trauma physical violence and emotional abuse (HBTPE), high betrayal trauma sexual and emotional abuse (HBTSE), low betrayal trauma (LBT), parent death (PD), and a no/low trauma profile...
March 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Jennifer M Gómez, Jenn K Lewis, Laura K Noll, Alec M Smidt, Pamela J Birrell
As the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders has become increasingly medicalized (Conrad & Slodden, 2013), consideration for the relational nature of trauma has been minimized in the healing process. As psychiatrist R. D. Laing (1971) outlined in his essays, the medical model is an approach to pathology that seeks to find medical treatments for symptoms and syndromes based on categorized diagnoses. We argue that such a model implicitly locates the pathology of trauma within the individual instead of within the person(s) who perpetrated the harm or the social and societal contexts in which it took place...
2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Kerry L Gagnon, Anne P DePrince, Ann T Chu, McKayla Gorman, Megan M Saylor
Both mothers' and children's exposures to interpersonal violence-including betrayal traumas-are linked with heightened risk for children developing internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Despite this association, little research has examined additional factors that may explain this risk, such as emotion skills. The current study examined the relationship between mother-child emotion understanding abilities and use of emotion language on a behavioral facial affect perception task and betrayal trauma exposure in relation to child internalizing/externalizing symptoms...
2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
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