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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097489/enhanced-histone-acetylation-in-the-infralimbic-prefrontal-cortex-is-associated-with-fear-extinction
#1
Sarfraj Ahmad Siddiqui, Sanjay Singh, Vandana Ranjan, Rajesh Ugale, Sudipta Saha, Anand Prakash
The molecular processes that establish fear memory are complex and involve a combination of genetic and epigenetic influences. Dysregulation of these processes can manifest in humans as a range of fear-related anxiety disorders like post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). In the present study, immunohistochemistry for acetyl H3, H4, c-fos, CBP (CREB-binding protein) in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IL-PFC) and prelimbic prefrontal cortex (PL-PFC) of mPFC (medial prefrontal cortex) and basal amygdala (BA), lateral amygdala (LA), centrolateral amygdala (CeL), centromedial amygdala (CeM) of the amygdala was performed to link region-specific histone acetylation to fear and extinction learning...
January 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996983/-complicated-grief-in-dsm-5-era
#2
Claudia Carmassi, Ciro Conversano, Marialisa Pinori, Carlo Antonio Bertelloni, Riccardo Dalle Luche, Camilla Gesi, Liliana Dell'Osso
An increasing number of data has been recently focused on recognizing pathological grief reactions and on the distinction from physiological processes. Particularly, several studies have supported Complicated Grief (CG) as an independent disorder, in order to define the failure of spontaneous physiological mourning resolution. Upon these studies, the latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) with the name of "Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder". This article aims at retracing the history of clinical research about the physiological and psychopathological processes related to grief and aims at presenting the main scientific studies that have described the features of the CG defining it as a distinct disorder...
November 2016: Rivista di Psichiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989268/the-factor-structure-of-complex-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-traumatized-refugees
#3
Angela Nickerson, Marylene Cloitre, Richard A Bryant, Ulrich Schnyder, Naser Morina, Matthis Schick
BACKGROUND: The construct of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) has attracted much research attention in previous years, however it has not been systematically evaluated in individuals exposed to persecution and displacement. Given that CPTSD has been proposed as a diagnostic category in the ICD-11, it is important that it be examined in refugee groups. OBJECTIVE: In the current study, we proposed to test, for the first time, the factor structure of CPTSD proposed for the ICD-11 in a sample of resettled treatment-seeking refugees...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986702/a-systems-science-approach-to-understanding-polytrauma-and-blast-related-injury-bayesian-network-model-of-data-from-a-survey-of-the-florida-national-guard
#4
Peter A Toyinbo, Rodney D Vanderploeg, Heather G Belanger, Andrea M Spehar, William A Lapcevic, Steven G Scott
We sought to further define the epidemiology of the complex, multiple injuries collectively known as polytrauma/blast-related injury (PT/BRI). Using a systems science approach, we performed Bayesian network modeling to find the most accurate representation of the complex system of PT/BRI and identify key variables for understanding the subsequent effects of blast exposure in a sample of Florida National Guard members (1,443 deployed to Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom and 1,655 not deployed) who completed an online survey during the period from 2009 to 2010...
December 16, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960534/ptsd-symptoms-among-tsunami-exposed-mothers-in-sri-lanka-the-role-of-disaster-exposure-culturally-specific-coping-strategies-and-recovery-efforts
#5
Thulitha Wickrama, K A S Wickrama, Alyssa Banford, Jessica Lambert
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Women in Sri Lanka have been uniquely exposed to a complex and protracted set of stressors stemming from a civil war conflict spanning over 25 years and the tsunami which struck Southeast Asia in 2004. This study investigates coping strategies and their association with trauma-related symptoms of tsunami-exposed mothers in Sri Lanka at two time points. DESIGN: Data for this study come from surveys administered in two waves of data collection to investigate both mothers' and adolescent children's post-tsunami mental health in early 2005, three months after the tsunami struck, and again in 2008, three years later...
December 29, 2016: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960122/a-socioecological-model-of-posttraumatic-stress-among-australian-midwives
#6
Julia Leinweber, Debra K Creedy, Heather Rowe, Jenny Gamble
OBJECTIVE: to develop a comprehensive model of personal, trauma event-related and workplace-related risk factors for posttraumatic stress subsequent to witnessing birth trauma among Australian midwives. DESIGN: a descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. PARTICIPANTS: members of the Australian College of Midwives were invited to complete an online survey. MEASUREMENTS: the survey included items about witnessing a traumatic birth event and previous experiences of life trauma...
December 6, 2016: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914507/psychiatric-psychological-injury-and-law-introduction
#7
EDITORIAL
Gerald Young
This special issue on psychiatric/psychological injury and law covers major developments in the field, and illustrates the complexities for mental health professionals in dealing with psychiatric/psychological injuries in court. The articles vary in the range of topics covered, and include ones on posttraumatic stress disorder, other trauma reactions, dissociation, disability, pain, and traumatic brain injury, in particular but also new areas, such as the effects of early penile injury. Work in the area of psychiatric/psychological injury and law needs to be scientifically-informed, comprehensive, and impartial, and the series of articles to follow will help workers in the area meet this standard...
November 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913193/neuropeptide-y-resilience-and-ptsd-therapeutics
#8
REVIEW
Marin Kautz, Dennis S Charney, James W Murrough
Resilience to traumatic stress is a complex psychobiological process that protects individuals from developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or other untoward consequences of exposure to extreme stress, including depression. Progress in translational research points toward the neuropeptide Y (NPY) system - among others - as a key mediator of stress response and as a potential therapeutic focus for PTSD. Substantial preclinical evidence supports the role of NPY in the modulation of stress response and in the regulation of anxiety in animal models...
November 29, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890743/considering-future-pharmacotherapy-for-ptsd
#9
REVIEW
Matthew J Friedman, Nancy C Bernardy
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent, disabling, and often chronic condition that may develop following exposure to a traumatic event. Despite the immense social and economic ramifications of PTSD, there has been relatively little recent development of new pharmacotherapies. The majority of pharmacological randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that has been conducted are now dated. Existing treatments for PTSD primarily have come out of research that tested medications developed for other disorders such as antidepressants, anti-hypertensives, antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, and anxiolytics...
November 24, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878907/from-childhood-trauma-to-self-harm-an-investigation-of-theoretical-pathways-among-female-prisoners
#10
Ruth Howard, Thanos Karatzias, Kevin Power, Adam Mahoney
BACKGROUND: Despite empirical evidence suggesting complex associations between childhood trauma and self-harm, there is a dearth of research investigating this association in the female prison population. The current study explored pathways to self-harm following childhood trauma, by investigating the mediating roles of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms, emotion regulation and dissociation, in this relationship, within a sample of 89 female prisoners. METHODS: Cross-sectional, interview-format, questionnaire study within a female prison population...
November 22, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876453/-i-can-t-tell-whether-it-s-my-hand-a-pilot-study-of-the-neurophenomenology-of-body-representation-during-the-rubber-hand-illusion-in-trauma-related-disorders
#11
Daniela Rabellino, Sherain Harricharan, Paul A Frewen, Dalila Burin, Margaret C McKinnon, Ruth A Lanius
BACKGROUND: Early traumatic experiences are thought to be causal factors in the development of trauma-related dissociative experiences, including depersonalization and derealization. The rubber hand illusion (RHI), a well-known paradigm that measures multi-sensorial integration of a rubber hand into one's own body representation, has been used to investigate alterations in the experience of body ownership and of body representation. Critically, however, it has never been studied in individuals with trauma-related disorders...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873466/cortical-folding-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-after-motor-vehicle-accidents-regional-differences-in-gyrification
#12
Chun Chu, Mingguo Qiu, Kaijun Liu, Liwen Tan, Yi Wu, Bing Xie, Wei Chen, Shaoxiang Zhang
AIM: Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have revealed evidence of brain abnormalities in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients. Cortical complexity and local gyrification index (lGI) reflects potential biological processes associated with normal or abnormal cognitive functioning. In the current study, lGI is used to explore cortical folding in PTSD patients involved in motor vehicle accidents (MVCs). METHODS: MRI brain scans were acquired from 18PTSD patients who suffered MVCs at least 6 months previously and 18 healthy control subjects...
November 21, 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867101/regulation-of-fear-extinction-by-long-term-depression-the-roles-of-endocannabinoids-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#13
REVIEW
Maxwell R Bennett, Jonathon Arnold, Sean N Hatton, Jim Lagopoulos
The extinction of a conditioned fear response is of great interest in the search for a means of ameliorating adverse neurobiological changes resulting from stress. The discovery that endocannibinoid (EC) levels are inversely related to the extent of such stress, and that the amygdala is a primary site mediating stress, suggests that ECs in this brain region might play a major role in extinction. Supporting this are the observations that the basolateral complex of the amygdala shows an increase in ECs only during extinction and that early clinical trials indicate that cannabinoid-like agents, when taken orally by patients suffering from post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), reduce insomnia and nightmares...
February 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863803/research-domain-criteria-and-the-study-of-trauma-in-children-implications-for-assessment-and-treatment-research
#14
REVIEW
Carla Smith Stover, Brooks Keeshin
By definition, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) requires exposure to a traumatic event. Yet, the DSM diagnostic requirements for children and adolescents for PTSD may fail to capture traumatized youth with significant distress and functional impairment. Many important studies have utilized PTSD diagnosis as a mechanism for grouping individuals for comparative studies examining brain functioning, neuroendocrinology, genetics, attachment, and cognition; however, focusing only on those with the diagnosis of PTSD can miss the spectrum of symptoms and difficulties that impact children who experience trauma and subsequent impairment...
November 9, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859347/commentary-the-evolving-conception-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-reflections-on-danzi-and-la-greca-2016
#15
Chris R Brewin
As first formulated in 1980, the description of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was based on people exposed to severe and repeated traumatic events. Although the conceptualisation of PTSD in successive versions of the DSM has changed, the symptom picture remains complex and there have been concerns over whether the threshold is too high. In contrast, ICD-11 proposes a simpler diagnosis based on six symptoms and a distinction between PTSD and Complex PTSD. This approach may be more clinically useful and easier to employ for children in younger age groups...
December 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846150/exercise-maintains-dendritic-complexity-in-an-animal-model-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#16
Jay R Hoffman, Hadas Cohen, Ishay Ostfeld, Zeev Kaplan, Joseph Zohar, Hagit Cohen
INTRODUCTION: This study examined the effect of endurance exercise on dendritic arborization in the dentate gyrus subregion in rodents exposed to a predator scent stress (PSS). METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups. In two of the groups, rats were unexposed to PSS but either remained sedentary (SED + UNEXP) or were exercised (EX + UNEXP). In the other two groups, rats were exposed to the PSS but either remained sedentary (SED + PSS) or were exercised (EX + PSS)...
December 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836200/ptsd-in-court-i-introducing-ptsd-for-court
#17
Gerald Young
The first part of the series of three articles on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Court to appear in the journal reviews the history of the construct of PTSD and its presentation in the DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) and the ICD-11 (International Classification of Diseases, 11th Edition; World Health Organization, 2018). There are 20 symptoms of PTSD in the DSM-5. PTSD symptoms are arranged into a four-cluster model, which has received partial support in the literature...
November 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835034/novel-pharmacological-treatment-strategies-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#18
Eileen Thomas, Dan J Stein
A wide range of medications have been studied for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a number are registered for this indication. Nevertheless, current pharmacotherapies are only partially effective in some patients, and are minimally effective in others. Thus novel treatment avenues need to be explored. Areas covered: In considering novel pharmacological agents for the treatment of PTSD, this paper takes a translational approach. We outline how advances in our understanding of the underlying neurobiology of PTSD may inform the identification of potential new treatment targets, including glutamatergic, noradrenergic and opioid pathways...
November 11, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810112/assessing-older-adults-in-civil-litigation-cases
#19
Eileen A Kohutis
With the population aging, the legal and mental health systems need to be prepared for cases that involve older adults beyond the customary matters of guardianship and competency. Assessing older adults with the current tests raises concerns because these measures may not be adequately normed for this age group. Malingering, factitious disorders, and somatoform disorders are discussed due to health-related issues of normal aging. These topics complicate the assessment procedure and need consideration because they may affect the claimant's performance or symptom presentation...
November 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806889/forensic-implications-of-changes-in-dsm-5-criteria-for-responses-to-trauma-and-stress
#20
Madelyn Simring Milchman
DSM-5 significantly changed the diagnostic criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) relative to DSM-IV/DSM-IV-TR. These changes do not alter its basic approach to diagnosing mental disorders, which treats each disorder as a separate category. This article analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of the categorical approach, and reviews empirical evidence regarding the impact of changes within it on the ease or difficulty of receiving the PTSD diagnosis. It especially analyzes the impact of newly included symptoms that are meant to identify cases in which trauma exposure was associated with changes in more serious PTSD cases, known as Complex PTSD (C-PTSD)...
November 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
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