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Complex ptsd

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944108/the-association-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-chronic-medical-conditions-by-ethnicity
#1
Sarah E Valentine, Carrie J Nobles, Monica W Gerber, Adin Vaewsorn, Derri L Shtasel, Luana Marques
Our study extends the literature on associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and chronic medical conditions by assessing differences in the magnitude of these relations by ethnicity. We examined group differences in the magnitude of the relation between PTSD and chronic medical conditions (cardiovascular disease [CVD], hypertension, obesity, diabetes). We obtained data from Latino (n = 3,224) and non-Latino white (n = 4,180) respondents from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys...
August 2017: Journal of Latina/o Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888982/disrupting-nnos-psd-95-coupling-in-the-hippocampal-dentate-gyrus-promotes-extinction-memory-retrieval
#2
Jun Li, Zhou Han, Bo Cao, Cheng-Yun Cai, Yu-Hui Lin, Fei Li, Hai-Ying Wu, Lei Chang, Chun-Xia Luo, Dong-Ya Zhu
Granule cells in the dentate gyrus regenerate constantly in adult hippocampus and then integrate into neural circuits in the hippocampus thereby providing the neural basis for learning and memory. Promoting the neurogenesis in the hippocampus facilitates learning and memory such as spatial learning, object identification, and extinction learning. The interaction between neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) is reported to negatively regulate neurogenesis in brain, so we hypothesized that disrupting this interaction might facilitate the neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) and thus enhance the extinction memory retrieval of fear learning...
September 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888533/an-overview-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-genetic-studies-by-analyzing-and-integrating-genetic-data-into-genetic-database-ptsdgene
#3
REVIEW
Kunlin Zhang, Susu Qu, Suhua Chang, Gen Li, Chengqi Cao, Kechi Fang, Miranda Olff, Li Wang, Jing Wang
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric syndrome with complex etiology. Studies aiming to explore genetic susceptibility and environmental triggers of PTSD have been increasing. However, the results are limited and highly heterogeneous. To understand the genetic study status of PTSD and explore more reliable candidates, we obtained 105 PTSD related genetic studies by comprehensively literature searching and filtering 1762 studies. Detailed phenotype and sample information for each study and association results for each genetic marker were extracted...
September 6, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869097/cbt-in-the-prevention-of-psychosis-and-other-severe-mental-disorders-in-patients-with-an-at-risk-mental-state-a-review-and-proposed-next-steps
#4
Mark van der Gaag, David van den Berg, Helga Ising
Patients with an 'At risk mental state' (ARMS) for developing psychosis can be treated successfully with CBT to postpone and prevent the transition to a first psychotic episode. A characteristic of individuals that meet ARMS criteria is that they are still open for multiple explanations for extraordinary experiences. CBT aims to normalize extraordinary experiences with education and to prevent delusional explanations. The treatment is not only effective, but also cost-saving in averting psychosis as well as in reducing disability adjusted life years at 18- and 48-month follow-up...
August 28, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861023/the-role-of-ptsd-in-bi-directional-intimate-partner-violence-in-military-and-veteran-populations-a-research-review
#5
REVIEW
Gabriela Misca, Mary Ann Forgey
Evidence supporting the higher prevalence of PTSD linked to combat-related trauma in military personnel and veteran populations is well-established. Consequently, much research has explored the effects that combat related trauma and the subsequent PTSD may have on different aspects of relationship functioning and adjustment. In particular, PTSD in military and veterans has been linked with perpetrating intimate partner violence (IPV). New research and theoretical perspectives suggest that in order to respond effectively to IPV, a more accurate understanding of the direction of the violence experienced within each relationship is critical...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836726/dynamic-causal-modeling-in-ptsd-and-its-dissociative-subtype-bottom-up-versus-top-down-processing-within-fear-and-emotion-regulation-circuitry
#6
Andrew A Nicholson, Karl J Friston, Peter Zeidman, Sherain Harricharan, Margaret C McKinnon, Maria Densmore, Richard W J Neufeld, Jean Théberge, Frank Corrigan, Rakesh Jetly, David Spiegel, Ruth A Lanius
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with decreased top-down emotion modulation from medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) regions, a pathophysiology accompanied by hyperarousal and hyperactivation of the amygdala. By contrast, PTSD patients with the dissociative subtype (PTSD + DS) often exhibit increased mPFC top-down modulation and decreased amygdala activation associated with emotional detachment and hypoarousal. Crucially, PTSD and PTSD + DS display distinct functional connectivity within the PFC, amygdala complexes, and the periaqueductal gray (PAG), a region related to defensive responses/emotional coping...
August 24, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813319/reward-functioning-in-posttraumatic-stress-and-substance-use-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Anka A Vujanovic, Margaret C Wardle, Lia J Smith, Erin C Berenz
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) are complex psychiatric conditions that commonly co-occur. Research on PTSD-SUD comorbidity has increasingly focused upon better understanding biopsychosocial factors that may contribute to their co-occurring etiology, maintenance, and treatment. Anhedonia, defined as a lack of pleasure from or interest in rewards, stems from deficits in reward functioning and is associated with specific neurocircuitries. Few studies have investigated the role of reward functioning in PTSD-SUD...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813312/neuroendocrine-and-neuroimmune-markers-in-ptsd-pre-peri-and-post-trauma-glucocorticoid-and-inflammatory-dysregulation
#8
REVIEW
Miranda Olff, Mirjam van Zuiden
We review current knowledge on how posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with dysregulation of the most commonly studied markers of the endocrine and immune systems pre-, peri- and post-trauma. Lower basal cortisol output, enhanced glucocorticoid receptor function, and a proinflammatory state have been most consistently found in PTSD, with considerable variability among studies and participants. Longitudinal research is scarce, but there is converging evidence that biological dysregulation is present before PTSD onset...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813310/redefining-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-for-dsm-5
#9
REVIEW
Frank W Weathers
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was substantially redefined for DSM-5, with significant changes in nosology, definition of a traumatic stressor, and number and nature of symptom criteria. These updates, motivated by decades of empirical findings and clinical observation, provide better coverage of the full range of trauma-related clinical presentations while maintaining backward compatibility with previous versions of PTSD. Nonetheless, they have been criticized as being unwarranted, creating excessively complex criteria, and generating unacceptable levels of diagnostic discordance...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810979/women-veterans-a-population-at-risk-for-fibromyalgia-the-associations-between-fibromyalgia-symptoms-and-quality-of-life
#10
Rita F D'Aoust, Alicia Gill Rossiter, Amanda Elliott, Ming Ji, Cecile Lengacher, Maureen Groer
BACKGROUND: The Institute of Federal Health Care recently published an executive summary from a round table discussion indicating that active duty and retired female military personnel are at high risk for adverse health outcomes unique to military service including complications related to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), unreported sexual trauma, and musculoskeletal problems. In 2008, the Institute of Medicine began to review, evaluate, and summarize the literature on health outcomes in Gulf War-deployed and found sufficient evidence of a causal relationship with PTSD and suggestive evidence of an association with fibromyalgia (FM)...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805411/rural-american-indian-and-alaska-native-veterans-telemental-health-a-model-of-culturally-centered-care
#11
Cynthia W Goss, W J Buck Richardson, Nancy Dailey, Byron Bair, Herbert Nagamoto, Spero M Manson, Jay H Shore
American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) veterans living in rural areas have unique health care needs and face numerous barriers to accessing health care services. Among these needs is a disproportionate prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder and other mental illnesses. Since 2001, 14 rural communities have partnered with the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and the Centers for American Indian and Alaska Native Health at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus to extend telemental health clinics to American Indian veterans...
August 2017: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765006/rationale-design-and-implementation-of-a-clinical-trial-of-a-mindfulness-based-relapse-prevention-protocol-for-the-treatment-of-women-with-comorbid-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-substance-use-disorder
#12
Caroline Vrana, Therese Killeen, Victoria Brant, Jana Mastrogiovanni, Nathaniel L Baker
Comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) commonly co-occur and is associated with a more complex clinical presentation with poorer clinical outcomes when compared with either disorder alone, and untreated PTSD can predict relapse to substance abuse. A number of integrated treatment approaches addressing symptoms of both PTSD and SUD concurrently demonstrate that both disorders can safely and effectively be treated concurrently. However, attrition and SUD relapse rates remain high and there is need to further develop new treatment approaches...
October 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756781/self-complexity-and-perceived-self-aspect-control-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#13
Kerrie Channer, Laura Jobson
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder often brings about profound, lasting, structural changes to one's sense of self. AIMS: This study investigated self-complexity and self-aspect control in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHOD: Trauma survivors with (n = 103) and without (n = 102) PTSD completed an online questionnaire which involved the completion of a self-complexity task and measures of PTSD. RESULTS: It was found that those with PTSD had significantly greater overall self-complexity than those without PTSD...
July 31, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746833/can-an-experimental-self-efficacy-induction-through-autobiographical-recall-modulate-analogue-posttraumatic-intrusions
#14
Julie Krans, Adam D Brown, Michelle L Moulds
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Research has shown a link between self-efficacy appraisals and PTSD symptoms. Less is known about the relation between perceived self-efficacy and specific PTSD symptoms such as intrusions. These two experiments tested the causal relationship between perceived self-efficacy and intrusions from a trauma film. METHODS: In Experiment I, healthy student participants received a self-efficacy manipulation consisting of the recall of autobiographical memories of success (high self-efficacy condition), failure (low self-efficacy condition) or 'important' memories (control condition)...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741810/gender-differences-in-machine-learning-models-of-trauma-and-suicidal-ideation-in-veterans-of-the-iraq-and-afghanistan-wars
#15
Jaimie L Gradus, Matthew W King, Isaac Galatzer-Levy, Amy E Street
Suicide rates among recent veterans have led to interest in risk identification. Evidence of gender-and trauma-specific predictors of suicidal ideation necessitates the use of advanced computational methods capable of elucidating these important and complex associations. In this study, we used machine learning to examine gender-specific associations between predeployment and military factors, traumatic deployment experiences, and psychopathology and suicidal ideation (SI) in a national sample of veterans deployed during the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts (n = 2,244)...
August 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741031/inhibition-of-serotonin-transporters-disrupts-the-enhancement-of-fear-memory-extinction-by-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-mdma
#16
Matthew B Young, Seth D Norrholm, Lara M Khoury, Tanja Jovanovic, Sheila A M Rauch, Collin M Reiff, Boadie W Dunlop, Barbara O Rothbaum, Leonard L Howell
RATIONALE: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) persistently improves symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) when combined with psychotherapy. Studies in rodents suggest that these effects can be attributed to enhancement of fear memory extinction. Therefore, MDMA may improve the effects of exposure-based therapy for PTSD, particularly in treatment-resistant patients. However, given MDMA's broad pharmacological profile, further investigation is warranted before moving to a complex clinical population...
July 24, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735696/the-network-structure-of-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-in-children-and-adolescents-exposed-to-disasters
#17
Justin D Russell, Erin L Neill, Victor G Carrión, Carl F Weems
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate current theoretical assumptions about the nature of pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) by examining the network structure of PTSD in a sample of youth exposed to disasters and testing for age differences. Network analysis provides the opportunity to identify "central" symptoms that might hold an outsized influence over others and are important targets for research and treatment. The authors hypothesized that particular symptoms would exhibit greater influence over others...
August 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735645/psychiatric-consultation-in-the-collaborative-care-model-the-bipolar-sieve-effect
#18
James R Phelps, James James
Around the world, psychiatrists are in exceptionally short supply. The majority of mental health treatment is delivered in primary care. In the United States, the Collaborative Care Model (CCM) addresses the shortfall of psychiatrists by providing indirect consultation in primary care. A Cochrane meta-analysis affirms the efficacy this model for depression and anxiety. However, our experience with the CCM suggests that most patients referred for consultation have problems far more complex than simple depression and anxiety...
August 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734184/an-empirical-review-of-potential-mediators-and-mechanisms-of-prolonged-exposure-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Andrew A Cooper, Erin G Clifton, Norah C Feeny
Prolonged exposure (PE) is an empirically-supported treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the precise mechanism(s) by which PE promotes symptom change are not well established. Understanding how PE works is critical to improving clinical outcomes, advancing dissemination efforts, and enhancing transdiagnostic models of psychopathology. However, mechanisms research conducted in clinical treatment settings is complex, and findings may be difficult to interpret without appropriate context. This is the first review of potential mechanisms of PE to provide such context, by rigorously evaluating empirical findings in line with essential criteria for effective research on mechanisms (or mediators)...
August 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727660/alcohol-use-disorder-moderates-the-effect-of-age-on-heart-rate-variability-in-veterans-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#20
John M Ray, Jeffrey M Pyne, Richard N Gevirtz
Research on heart rate variability (HRV) in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbid alcohol use disorder (AUD) is limited despite its use as a biomarker of both disorders. This study examined whether AUD comorbidity contributes an additive effect on HRV for veterans with PTSD. HRV was assessed in 70 male Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans with PTSD, including 32 with co-occurring AUD. Mean HRV values for both groups were below the mean for healthy adults, but additive effects of PTSD and AUD on HRV were not observed...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
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