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Complex ptsd

Thanos Karatzias, Mark Shevlin, Claire Fyvie, Philip Hyland, Erifili Efthymiadou, Danielle Wilson, Neil Roberts, Jonathan I Bisson, Chris R Brewin, Marylene Cloitre
Among the conditions following exposure to traumatic life events proposed by ICD-11 are Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Complex PTSD (CPTSD). The primary aim of this study was to provide an assessment of the reliability and validity of a newly developed self-report measure of ICD-11 PTSD and CPTSD: the ICD-11 Trauma Questionnaire (ICD-TQ). Participants in this study were a sample of individuals who were referred for psychological therapy to a National Health Service (NHS) trauma centre in Scotland (N=193)...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Ruth Howard, Thanos Karatzias, Kevin Power, Adam Mahoney
PURPOSE: Despite empirical evidence suggesting complex associations between psychological trauma, substance misuse, and violent offending, there is a dearth of research investigating these associations in the female prison population. METHODS: A cross-sectional, interview-format questionnaire study was undertaken with a sample of 89 female prisoners. History of traumatic events, DSM-5 PTSD, drug use, and offending behaviour were assessed. RESULTS: Traumatic experiences had occurred in 97...
October 21, 2016: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Carol A Keane, Christopher A Magee, Peter J Kelly
Traumatic childhood experiences predict many adverse outcomes in adulthood including Complex-PTSD. Understanding complex trauma within socially disadvantaged populations has important implications for policy development and intervention implementation. This paper examined the nature of complex trauma experienced by disadvantaged individuals using a latent class analysis (LCA) approach. Data were collected through the large-scale Journeys Home Study (N=1682), utilising a representative sample of individuals experiencing low housing stability...
October 13, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Steve Kisely, Karolina Katarzyna Alichniewicz, Emma B Black, Dan Siskind, Geoffrey Spurling, Maree Toombs
Indigenous populations are considered at higher risk of psychiatric disorder but many studies do not include direct comparisons with similar non-Indigenous controls. We undertook a meta-analysis of studies that compared the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders in Indigenous populations in the Americas with those of non-Indigenous groups with similar socio-demographic features (Registration number: CRD42015025854). A systematic search of PubMed, Medline, PsycInfo, PsycArticles, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, and article bibliographies was performed...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Julian D Ford, Andres R Schneeberger, Irina Komarovskaya, Kristina Muenzenmaier, Dorothy Castille, Lewis A Opler, Bruce Link
A new clinician rating measure, the Symptoms of Trauma Scale (SOTS) was administered to adult psychiatric outpatients (46 men, 47 women) with severe mental illness (SMI) who reported a history of trauma exposure and were recently discharged from inpatient psychiatric treatment. SOTS composite severity scores for DSM-IV and DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), complex PTSD (cPTSD), and total PTSD/cPTSD severity had acceptable internal consistency reliability. SOTS scores' construct and convergent validity was supported by correlations with self-report measures of childhood and adult trauma history, and PTSD, dissociation, and anger symptoms...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Thanos Karatzias, Mark Shevlin, Claire Fyvie, Philip Hyland, Erifili Efthymiadou, Danielle Wilson, Neil Roberts, Jonathan I Bisson, Chris R Brewin, Marylene Cloitre
BACKGROUND: The WHO International Classification of Diseases, 11th version (ICD-11), has proposed two related diagnoses following exposure to traumatic events; Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Complex PTSD (CPTSD). We set out to explore whether the newly developed ICD-11 Trauma Questionnaire (ICD-TQ) can distinguish between classes of individuals according to the PTSD and CPTSD symptom profiles as per ICD-11 proposals based on latent class analysis. We also hypothesized that the CPTSD class would report more frequent and a greater number of different types of childhood trauma as well as higher levels of functional impairment...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
C Laurel Franklin, Jessica L Walton, Lisa-Ann Cuccurullo, Amanda Raines, Jaqueline Ball, Amanda Vaught, Jessica L Chambliss, Kelly P Maieritsch
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition-5 (DSM-5) has adopted a four-factor symptom model for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) that includes new symptom additions in criterion D (D2, D3, D4), negative alterations in cognition and mood. This article examines potential overlapping endorsement of these symptoms amongst one another and with the behavioral symptoms within PTSD criterion E (E1 and E3; alterations in arousal and reactivity), through the lenses of cognitive-behavioral theory. Responses of veteran participants (N=320) completing the PTSD Checklist-5 were used to determine overlap in symptom reporting...
October 3, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Navid Ghaffarzadegan, Alireza Ebrahimvandi, Mohammad S Jalali
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) stands out as a major mental illness; however, little is known about effective policies for mitigating the problem. The importance and complexity of PTSD raise critical questions: What are the trends in the population of PTSD patients among military personnel and veterans in the postwar era? What policies can help mitigate PTSD? To address these questions, we developed a system dynamics simulation model of the population of military personnel and veterans affected by PTSD...
2016: PloS One
Marlene A Wilson, Jim R Fadel
Cholinergic activation regulates cognitive function, particularly long-term memory consolidation. This Review presents an overview of the anatomical, neurochemical, and pharmacological evidence supporting the cholinergic regulation of Pavlovian contextual and cue-conditioned fear learning and extinction. Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons provide inputs to neocortical regions and subcortical limbic structures such as the hippocampus and amygdala. Pharmacological manipulations of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors support the role of cholinergic processes in the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex in modulating the learning and extinction of contexts or cues associated with threat...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Florence Dorr, Christian Firus, Rolf Kramer, Jürgen Bengel
Chronic interpersonal traumata systematically result in psychological impairments referred to as complex post-traumatic stress disorder (cPTSD or DESNOS). This diagnosis will be newly established in the ICD-11 system. However, there is need for diagnostic instruments to assess cPTSD. The aim was to develop a screening form to identify patients at risk for cPTSD. The Screening for complex PTSD (SkPTBS) tests a) experience of potential traumatic events, b) related influential features and risk factors, and c) symptoms of cPTSD...
September 29, 2016: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Cedric Sachser, Ferdinand Keller, Lutz Goldbeck
BACKGROUND: To evaluate whether the symptoms of children and adolescents with clinically significant posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) form classes consistent with the diagnostic criteria of complex PTSD (CPTSD) as proposed for the ICD-11, and to relate the emerging classes with treatment outcome of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT). METHODS: Latent classes analysis (LCA) was used to explore the symptom profiles of the clinical baseline assessment of N = 155 children and adolescents participating in a randomized controlled trial of TF-CBT...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Stefan O Reber, Dominik Langgartner, Sandra Foertsch, Teodor T Postolache, Lisa A Brenner, Harald Guendel, Christopher A Lowry
There is considerable individual variability in vulnerability for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); evidence suggests that this variability is related in part to genetic and environmental factors, including adverse early life experience. Interestingly, recent studies indicate that induction of chronic low-grade inflammation may be a common mechanism underlying gene and environment interactions that increase the risk for development of PTSD symptoms, and, therefore, may be a target for novel interventions for prevention or treatment of PTSD...
September 9, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Andrew A Nicholson, Tomas Ros, Paul A Frewen, Maria Densmore, Jean Théberge, Rosemarie C Kluetsch, Rakesh Jetly, Ruth A Lanius
OBJECTIVE: Electroencephalogram (EEG) neurofeedback aimed at reducing the amplitude of the alpha-rhythm has been shown to alter neural networks associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), leading to symptom alleviation. Critically, the amygdala is thought to be one of the central brain regions mediating PTSD symptoms. In the current study, we compare directly patterns of amygdala complex connectivity using fMRI, before and after EEG neurofeedback, in order to observe subcortical mechanisms associated with behavioural and alpha oscillatory changes among patients...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Paul A Boelen
In the Netherlands, every year 500,000 people are confronted with the death of a close relative. Many of these people experience little emotional distress. In some, bereavement precipitates severe grief, distress, and dysphoria. A small yet significant minority of bereaved individuals develops persistent and debilitating symptoms of persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) (also termed prolonged grief disorder), posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression. Knowledge about early identification of, and preventive care for complex grief has increased...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Meghan E McDevitt-Murphy, Matthew T Luciano, Jessica C Tripp, Jasmine E Eddinger
INTRODUCTION: Combat veterans are at increased risk for PTSD and alcohol misuse, and expectancies and motives for drinking may help explain the link between these comorbid issues. This investigation explored the relationships between PTSD symptoms, PTSD-related alcohol expectancies, motives for drinking, and alcohol consumption/misuse. METHOD: 67 veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) participated in this project...
August 27, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
V Speck, T Schlereth, F Birklein, C Maihöfner
BACKGROUND: Although specific psychological disorders in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) have not been identified, studies suggest that CRPS patients may have increased rates of traumatic life events. Because these events do not always lead to apparent psychological symptoms, we systematically screened CRPS patients for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to determine if PTSD could be a risk factor for CRPS. METHODS: Consecutive CRPS patients referred to two university hospital centres (University of Erlangen, UMC Mainz) between December 2011 and April 2013 were prospectively examined using a diagnostic PTSD instrument (Post-traumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS)...
September 21, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Thanos Karatzias, Sally Jowett, Amelie Begley, Suzanne Deas
BACKGROUND: Although the association between psychological trauma and early maladaptive schemas (EMS) is well established in the literature, no study to date has examined the relationship of EMS to PTSD and psychopathologies beyond depression and anxiety in a sample of adult survivors of interpersonal trauma. This information may be useful in helping our understanding on how to best treat interpersonal trauma. OBJECTIVE: We set out to investigate the association between EMS and common forms of psychopathology in a sample of women with a history of interpersonal trauma (n=82)...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Matthias Knefel, Ulrich S Tran, Brigitte Lueger-Schuster
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Complex PTSD, and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) share etiological risk factors and an overlapping set of associated symptoms. Since the ICD-11 proposal for trauma-related disorders, the relationship of these disorders has to be clarified. A novel approach to psychopathology, network analysis, allows for a detailed analysis of comorbidity on symptom level. METHODS: Symptoms were assessed in adult survivors of childhood abuse (N=219) using the newly developed ICD-11 Trauma-Questionnaire and the SCID-II...
October 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Daniela Rabellino, Maria Densmore, Paul A Frewen, Jean Théberge, Margaret C McKinnon, Ruth A Lanius
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by altered functional connectivity of the amygdala complexes at rest. However, amygdala complex connectivity during conscious and subconscious threat processing remains to be elucidated. Here, we investigate specific connectivity of the centromedial amygdala (CMA) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) during conscious and subconscious processing of trauma-related words among individuals with PTSD (n = 26) as compared to non-trauma-exposed controls (n = 20). Psycho-physiological interaction analyses were performed using the right and left amygdala complexes as regions of interest during conscious and subconscious trauma word processing...
2016: PloS One
Nora D Volkow, Aidan J Hampson, Ruben Baler
Cannabis enables and enhances the subjective sense of well-being by stimulating the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which plays a key role in modulating the response to stress, reward, and their interactions. However, over time, repeated activation of the ECS by cannabis can trigger neuroadaptations that may impair the sensitivity to stress and reward. This effect, in vulnerable individuals, can lead to addiction and other adverse consequences. The recent shift toward legalization of medical or recreational cannabis has renewed interest in investigating the physiological role of the ECS as well as the potential health effects, both adverse and beneficial, of cannabis...
September 2, 2016: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
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