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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914507/psychiatric-psychological-injury-and-law-introduction
#1
EDITORIAL
Gerald Young
This special issue on psychiatric/psychological injury and law covers major developments in the field, and illustrates the complexities for mental health professionals in dealing with psychiatric/psychological injuries in court. The articles vary in the range of topics covered, and include ones on posttraumatic stress disorder, other trauma reactions, dissociation, disability, pain, and traumatic brain injury, in particular but also new areas, such as the effects of early penile injury. Work in the area of psychiatric/psychological injury and law needs to be scientifically-informed, comprehensive, and impartial, and the series of articles to follow will help workers in the area meet this standard...
November 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913193/neuropeptide-y-resilience-and-ptsd-therapeutics
#2
REVIEW
Marin Kautz, Dennis S Charney, James W Murrough
Resilience to traumatic stress is a complex psychobiological process that protects individuals from developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or other untoward consequences of exposure to extreme stress, including depression. Progress in translational research points toward the neuropeptide Y (NPY) system - among others - as a key mediator of stress response and as a potential therapeutic focus for PTSD. Substantial preclinical evidence supports the role of NPY in the modulation of stress response and in the regulation of anxiety in animal models...
November 29, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890743/considering-future-pharmacotherapy-for-ptsd
#3
REVIEW
Matthew J Friedman, Nancy C Bernardy
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent, disabling, and often chronic condition that may develop following exposure to a traumatic event. Despite the immense social and economic ramifications of PTSD, there has been relatively little recent development of new pharmacotherapies. The majority of pharmacological randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that has been conducted are now dated. Existing treatments for PTSD primarily have come out of research that tested medications developed for other disorders such as antidepressants, anti-hypertensives, antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, and anxiolytics...
November 24, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878907/from-childhood-trauma-to-self-harm-an-investigation-of-theoretical-pathways-among-female-prisoners
#4
Ruth Howard, Thanos Karatzias, Kevin Power, Adam Mahoney
BACKGROUND: Despite empirical evidence suggesting complex associations between childhood trauma and self-harm, there is a dearth of research investigating this association in the female prison population. The current study explored pathways to self-harm following childhood trauma, by investigating the mediating roles of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms, emotion regulation and dissociation, in this relationship, within a sample of 89 female prisoners. METHODS: Cross-sectional, interview-format, questionnaire study within a female prison population...
November 22, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876453/-i-can-t-tell-whether-it-s-my-hand-a-pilot-study-of-the-neurophenomenology-of-body-representation-during-the-rubber-hand-illusion-in-trauma-related-disorders
#5
Daniela Rabellino, Sherain Harricharan, Paul A Frewen, Dalila Burin, Margaret C McKinnon, Ruth A Lanius
BACKGROUND: Early traumatic experiences are thought to be causal factors in the development of trauma-related dissociative experiences, including depersonalization and derealization. The rubber hand illusion (RHI), a well-known paradigm that measures multi-sensorial integration of a rubber hand into one's own body representation, has been used to investigate alterations in the experience of body ownership and of body representation. Critically, however, it has never been studied in individuals with trauma-related disorders...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873466/cortical-folding-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-after-motor-vehicle-accidents-regional-differences-in-gyrification
#6
Chun Chu, Mingguo Qiu, Kaijun Liu, Liwen Tan, Yi Wu, Bing Xie, Wei Chen, Shaoxiang Zhang
AIM: Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have revealed evidence of brain abnormalities in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients. Cortical complexity and local gyrification index (lGI) reflects potential biological processes associated with normal or abnormal cognitive functioning. In the current study, lGI is used to explore cortical folding in PTSD patients involved in motor vehicle accidents (MVCs). METHODS: MRI brain scans were acquired from 18PTSD patients who suffered MVCs at least 6 months previously and 18 healthy control subjects...
November 21, 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867101/regulation-of-fear-extinction-by-long-term-depression-the-roles-of-endocannabinoids-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#7
REVIEW
Maxwell R Bennett, Jonathon Arnold, Sean N Hatton, Jim Lagopoulos
The extinction of a conditioned fear response is of great interest in the search for a means of ameliorating adverse neurobiological changes resulting from stress. The discovery that endocannibinoid (EC) levels are inversely related to the extent of such stress, and that the amygdala is a primary site mediating stress, suggests that ECs in this brain region might play a major role in extinction. Supporting this are the observations that the basolateral complex of the amygdala shows an increase in ECs only during extinction and that early clinical trials indicate that cannabinoid-like agents, when taken orally by patients suffering from post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), reduce insomnia and nightmares...
November 17, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863803/research-domain-criteria-and-the-study-of-trauma-in-children-implications-for-assessment-and-treatment-research
#8
REVIEW
Carla Smith Stover, Brooks Keeshin
By definition, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) requires exposure to a traumatic event. Yet, the DSM diagnostic requirements for children and adolescents for PTSD may fail to capture traumatized youth with significant distress and functional impairment. Many important studies have utilized PTSD diagnosis as a mechanism for grouping individuals for comparative studies examining brain functioning, neuroendocrinology, genetics, attachment, and cognition; however, focusing only on those with the diagnosis of PTSD can miss the spectrum of symptoms and difficulties that impact children who experience trauma and subsequent impairment...
November 9, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859347/commentary-the-evolving-conception-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-reflections-on-danzi-and-la-greca-2016
#9
Chris R Brewin
As first formulated in 1980, the description of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was based on people exposed to severe and repeated traumatic events. Although the conceptualisation of PTSD in successive versions of the DSM has changed, the symptom picture remains complex and there have been concerns over whether the threshold is too high. In contrast, ICD-11 proposes a simpler diagnosis based on six symptoms and a distinction between PTSD and Complex PTSD. This approach may be more clinically useful and easier to employ for children in younger age groups...
December 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846150/exercise-maintains-dendritic-complexity-in-an-animal-model-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#10
Jay R Hoffman, Hadas Cohen, Ishay Ostfeld, Zeev Kaplan, Joseph Zohar, Hagit Cohen
INTRODUCTION: This study examined the effect of endurance exercise on dendritic arborization in the dentate gyrus subregion in rodents exposed to a predator scent stress (PSS). METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups. In two of the groups, rats were unexposed to PSS but either remained sedentary (SED + UNEXP) or were exercised (EX + UNEXP). In the other two groups, rats were exposed to the PSS but either remained sedentary (SED + PSS) or were exercised (EX + PSS)...
December 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836200/ptsd-in-court-i-introducing-ptsd-for-court
#11
Gerald Young
The first part of the series of three articles on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Court to appear in the journal reviews the history of the construct of PTSD and its presentation in the DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) and the ICD-11 (International Classification of Diseases, 11th Edition; World Health Organization, 2018). There are 20 symptoms of PTSD in the DSM-5. PTSD symptoms are arranged into a four-cluster model, which has received partial support in the literature...
November 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835034/novel-pharmacological-treatment-strategies-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#12
Eileen Thomas, Dan J Stein
A wide range of medications have been studied for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a number are registered for this indication. Nevertheless, current pharmacotherapies are only partially effective in some patients, and are minimally effective in others. Thus novel treatment avenues need to be explored. Areas covered: In considering novel pharmacological agents for the treatment of PTSD, this paper takes a translational approach. We outline how advances in our understanding of the underlying neurobiology of PTSD may inform the identification of potential new treatment targets, including glutamatergic, noradrenergic and opioid pathways...
November 11, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810112/assessing-older-adults-in-civil-litigation-cases
#13
Eileen A Kohutis
With the population aging, the legal and mental health systems need to be prepared for cases that involve older adults beyond the customary matters of guardianship and competency. Assessing older adults with the current tests raises concerns because these measures may not be adequately normed for this age group. Malingering, factitious disorders, and somatoform disorders are discussed due to health-related issues of normal aging. These topics complicate the assessment procedure and need consideration because they may affect the claimant's performance or symptom presentation...
November 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806889/forensic-implications-of-changes-in-dsm-5-criteria-for-responses-to-trauma-and-stress
#14
Madelyn Simring Milchman
DSM-5 significantly changed the diagnostic criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) relative to DSM-IV/DSM-IV-TR. These changes do not alter its basic approach to diagnosing mental disorders, which treats each disorder as a separate category. This article analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of the categorical approach, and reviews empirical evidence regarding the impact of changes within it on the ease or difficulty of receiving the PTSD diagnosis. It especially analyzes the impact of newly included symptoms that are meant to identify cases in which trauma exposure was associated with changes in more serious PTSD cases, known as Complex PTSD (C-PTSD)...
November 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803688/exposure-to-a-predator-scent-induces-chronic-behavioral-changes-in-rats-previously-exposed-to-low-level-blast-implications-for-the-relationship-of-blast-related-tbi-to-ptsd
#15
Georgina Perez-Garcia, Miguel A Gama Sosa, Rita De Gasperi, Margaret Lashof-Sullivan, Eric Maudlin-Jeronimo, James R Stone, Fatemeh Haghighi, Stephen T Ahlers, Gregory A Elder
Blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has been unfortunately common in veterans who served in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The postconcussion syndrome associated with these mTBIs has frequently appeared in combination with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The presence of PTSD has complicated diagnosis, since clinically, PTSD and the postconcussion syndrome of mTBI have many overlapping symptoms. In particular, establishing how much of the symptom complex can be attributed to the psychological trauma associated with PTSD in contrast to the physical injury of traumatic brain injury has proven difficult...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799774/impact-of-dissociation-on-treatment-of-depressive-and-anxiety-spectrum-disorders-with-and-without-personality-disorders
#16
Jan Prasko, Ales Grambal, Petra Kasalova, Dana Kamardova, Marie Ociskova, Michaela Holubova, Kristyna Vrbova, Zuzana Sigmundova, Klara Latalova, Milos Slepecky, Marta Zatkova
OBJECTIVE: The central goal of the study was to analyze the impact of dissociation on the treatment effectiveness in patients with anxiety/neurotic spectrum and depressive disorders with or without comorbid personality disorders. METHODS: The research sample consisted of inpatients who were hospitalized in the psychiatric department and met the ICD-10 criteria for diagnosis of depressive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, mixed anxiety-depressive disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorders, dissociative/conversion disorders, somatoform disorder, or other anxiety/neurotic spectrum disorder...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788315/the-complex-relationship-between-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-help-seeking
#17
Nicola T Fear, Norman Jones, Simon Wessely
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786510/co-occurring-posttraumatic-stress-and-substance-use-emerging-research-on-correlates-mechanisms-and-treatments-introduction-to-the-special-issue
#18
Anka A Vujanovic, Marcel O Bonn-Miller, Nancy M Petry
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) are complex psychiatric conditions that commonly co-occur. Despite the well-established prevalence of this diagnostic comorbidity, much less is known about underlying etiological and maintenance processes or most effective treatment avenues. The comorbidity is complex, difficult to treat, and marked by a more costly and chronic clinical course, when compared with either disorder alone. Therefore, this Special Issue is devoted to highlighting recent, theory-driven, scientifically rigorous, and clinically applicable advances in our understanding of the PTSD-SUD comorbidity across various populations...
November 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784650/how-veterans-with-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-comorbid-health-conditions-utilize-ehealth-to-manage-their-health-care-needs-a-mixed-methods-analysis
#19
Julia M Whealin, Emily C Jenchura, Ava C Wong, Donna M Zulman
BACKGROUND: Mental health conditions are prevalent among US veterans and pose a number of self-management and health care navigation challenges. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) with comorbid chronic medical conditions (CMCs) is especially common, in both returning Iraq or Afghanistan and earlier war-era veterans. Patient-facing electronic health (eHealth) technology may offer innovative strategies to support these individuals' needs. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to identify the types of eHealth tools that veterans with PTSD and comorbid CMCs use, understand how they currently use eHealth technology to self-manage their unique health care needs, and identify new eHealth resources that veterans feel would empower them to better manage their health care...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776256/an-initial-psychometric-assessment-of-an-icd-11-based-measure-of-ptsd-and-complex-ptsd-icd-tq-evidence-of-construct-validity
#20
Thanos Karatzias, Mark Shevlin, Claire Fyvie, Philip Hyland, Erifili Efthymiadou, Danielle Wilson, Neil Roberts, Jonathan I Bisson, Chris R Brewin, Marylene Cloitre
Among the conditions following exposure to traumatic life events proposed by ICD-11 are Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Complex PTSD (CPTSD). The primary aim of this study was to provide an assessment of the reliability and validity of a newly developed self-report measure of ICD-11 PTSD and CPTSD: the ICD-11 Trauma Questionnaire (ICD-TQ). Participants in this study were a sample of individuals who were referred for psychological therapy to a National Health Service (NHS) trauma centre in Scotland (N=193)...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
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