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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813319/reward-functioning-in-posttraumatic-stress-and-substance-use-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Anka A Vujanovic, Margaret C Wardle, Lia J Smith, Erin C Berenz
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) are complex psychiatric conditions that commonly co-occur. Research on PTSD-SUD comorbidity has increasingly focused upon better understanding biopsychosocial factors that may contribute to their co-occurring etiology, maintenance, and treatment. Anhedonia, defined as a lack of pleasure from or interest in rewards, stems from deficits in reward functioning and is associated with specific neurocircuitries. Few studies have investigated the role of reward functioning in PTSD-SUD...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813312/neuroendocrine-and-neuroimmune-markers-in-ptsd-pre-peri-and-post-trauma-glucocorticoid-and-inflammatory-dysregulation
#2
REVIEW
Miranda Olff, Mirjam van Zuiden
We review current knowledge on how posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with dysregulation of the most commonly studied markers of the endocrine and immune systems pre-, peri- and post-trauma. Lower basal cortisol output, enhanced glucocorticoid receptor function, and a proinflammatory state have been most consistently found in PTSD, with considerable variability among studies and participants. Longitudinal research is scarce, but there is converging evidence that biological dysregulation is present before PTSD onset...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813310/redefining-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-for-dsm-5
#3
REVIEW
Frank W Weathers
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was substantially redefined for DSM-5, with significant changes in nosology, definition of a traumatic stressor, and number and nature of symptom criteria. These updates, motivated by decades of empirical findings and clinical observation, provide better coverage of the full range of trauma-related clinical presentations while maintaining backward compatibility with previous versions of PTSD. Nonetheless, they have been criticized as being unwarranted, creating excessively complex criteria, and generating unacceptable levels of diagnostic discordance...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810979/women-veterans-a-population-at-risk-for-fibromyalgia-the-associations-between-fibromyalgia-symptoms-and-quality-of-life
#4
Rita F D'Aoust, Alicia Gill Rossiter, Amanda Elliott, Ming Ji, Cecile Lengacher, Maureen Groer
BACKGROUND: The Institute of Federal Health Care recently published an executive summary from a round table discussion indicating that active duty and retired female military personnel are at high risk for adverse health outcomes unique to military service including complications related to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), unreported sexual trauma, and musculoskeletal problems. In 2008, the Institute of Medicine began to review, evaluate, and summarize the literature on health outcomes in Gulf War-deployed and found sufficient evidence of a causal relationship with PTSD and suggestive evidence of an association with fibromyalgia (FM)...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805411/rural-american-indian-and-alaska-native-veterans-telemental-health-a-model-of-culturally-centered-care
#5
Cynthia W Goss, W J Buck Richardson, Nancy Dailey, Byron Bair, Herbert Nagamoto, Spero M Manson, Jay H Shore
American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) veterans living in rural areas have unique health care needs and face numerous barriers to accessing health care services. Among these needs is a disproportionate prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder and other mental illnesses. Since 2001, 14 rural communities have partnered with the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and the Centers for American Indian and Alaska Native Health at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus to extend telemental health clinics to American Indian veterans...
August 2017: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765006/rationale-design-and-implementation-of-a-clinical-trial-of-a-mindfulness-based-relapse-prevention-protocol-for-the-treatment-of-women-with-comorbid-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-substance-use-disorder
#6
Caroline Vrana, Therese Killeen, Victoria Brant, Jana Mastrogiovanni, Nathaniel L Baker
Comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) commonly co-occur and is associated with a more complex clinical presentation with poorer clinical outcomes when compared with either disorder alone, and untreated PTSD can predict relapse to substance abuse. A number of integrated treatment approaches addressing symptoms of both PTSD and SUD concurrently demonstrate that both disorders can safely and effectively be treated concurrently. However, attrition and SUD relapse rates remain high and there is need to further develop new treatment approaches...
July 29, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756781/self-complexity-and-perceived-self-aspect-control-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#7
Kerrie Channer, Laura Jobson
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder often brings about profound, lasting, structural changes to one's sense of self. AIMS: This study investigated self-complexity and self-aspect control in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHOD: Trauma survivors with (n = 103) and without (n = 102) PTSD completed an online questionnaire which involved the completion of a self-complexity task and measures of PTSD. RESULTS: It was found that those with PTSD had significantly greater overall self-complexity than those without PTSD...
July 31, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746833/can-an-experimental-self-efficacy-induction-through-autobiographical-recall-modulate-analogue-posttraumatic-intrusions
#8
Julie Krans, Adam D Brown, Michelle L Moulds
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Research has shown a link between self-efficacy appraisals and PTSD symptoms. Less is known about the relation between perceived self-efficacy and specific PTSD symptoms such as intrusions. These two experiments tested the causal relationship between perceived self-efficacy and intrusions from a trauma film. METHODS: In Experiment I, healthy student participants received a self-efficacy manipulation consisting of the recall of autobiographical memories of success (high self-efficacy condition), failure (low self-efficacy condition) or 'important' memories (control condition)...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741810/gender-differences-in-machine-learning-models-of-trauma-and-suicidal-ideation-in-veterans-of-the-iraq-and-afghanistan-wars
#9
Jaimie L Gradus, Matthew W King, Isaac Galatzer-Levy, Amy E Street
Suicide rates among recent veterans have led to interest in risk identification. Evidence of gender-and trauma-specific predictors of suicidal ideation necessitates the use of advanced computational methods capable of elucidating these important and complex associations. In this study, we used machine learning to examine gender-specific associations between predeployment and military factors, traumatic deployment experiences, and psychopathology and suicidal ideation (SI) in a national sample of veterans deployed during the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts (n = 2,244)...
August 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741031/inhibition-of-serotonin-transporters-disrupts-the-enhancement-of-fear-memory-extinction-by-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-mdma
#10
Matthew B Young, Seth D Norrholm, Lara M Khoury, Tanja Jovanovic, Sheila A M Rauch, Collin M Reiff, Boadie W Dunlop, Barbara O Rothbaum, Leonard L Howell
RATIONALE: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) persistently improves symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) when combined with psychotherapy. Studies in rodents suggest that these effects can be attributed to enhancement of fear memory extinction. Therefore, MDMA may improve the effects of exposure-based therapy for PTSD, particularly in treatment-resistant patients. However, given MDMA's broad pharmacological profile, further investigation is warranted before moving to a complex clinical population...
July 24, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735696/the-network-structure-of-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-in-children-and-adolescents-exposed-to-disasters
#11
Justin D Russell, Erin L Neill, Victor G Carrión, Carl F Weems
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate current theoretical assumptions about the nature of pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) by examining the network structure of PTSD in a sample of youth exposed to disasters and testing for age differences. Network analysis provides the opportunity to identify "central" symptoms that might hold an outsized influence over others and are important targets for research and treatment. The authors hypothesized that particular symptoms would exhibit greater influence over others...
August 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735645/psychiatric-consultation-in-the-collaborative-care-model-the-bipolar-sieve-effect
#12
James R Phelps, James James
Around the world, psychiatrists are in exceptionally short supply. The majority of mental health treatment is delivered in primary care. In the United States, the Collaborative Care Model (CCM) addresses the shortfall of psychiatrists by providing indirect consultation in primary care. A Cochrane meta-analysis affirms the efficacy this model for depression and anxiety. However, our experience with the CCM suggests that most patients referred for consultation have problems far more complex than simple depression and anxiety...
August 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734184/an-empirical-review-of-potential-mediators-and-mechanisms-of-prolonged-exposure-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Andrew A Cooper, Erin G Clifton, Norah C Feeny
Prolonged exposure (PE) is an empirically-supported treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the precise mechanism(s) by which PE promotes symptom change are not well established. Understanding how PE works is critical to improving clinical outcomes, advancing dissemination efforts, and enhancing transdiagnostic models of psychopathology. However, mechanisms research conducted in clinical treatment settings is complex, and findings may be difficult to interpret without appropriate context. This is the first review of potential mechanisms of PE to provide such context, by rigorously evaluating empirical findings in line with essential criteria for effective research on mechanisms (or mediators)...
August 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727660/alcohol-use-disorder-moderates-the-effect-of-age-on-heart-rate-variability-in-veterans-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#14
John M Ray, Jeffrey M Pyne, Richard N Gevirtz
Research on heart rate variability (HRV) in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbid alcohol use disorder (AUD) is limited despite its use as a biomarker of both disorders. This study examined whether AUD comorbidity contributes an additive effect on HRV for veterans with PTSD. HRV was assessed in 70 male Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans with PTSD, including 32 with co-occurring AUD. Mean HRV values for both groups were below the mean for healthy adults, but additive effects of PTSD and AUD on HRV were not observed...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713306/parenting-with-ptsd-a-review-of-research-on-the-influence-of-ptsd-on-parent-child-functioning-in-military-and-veteran-families
#15
REVIEW
Suzannah K Creech, Gabriela Misca
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is strongly associated with exposure to war related trauma in military and veteran populations. In growing recognition that PTSD may influence and be influenced by social support and family systems, research has begun to explore the effects that war related trauma and the ensuing PTSD may have on varied aspects of close relationship and family functioning. Far less research, however, has examined the influence of war-related PTSD on parent-child functioning in this population...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712089/increased-recruitment-of-cognitive-control-in-the-presence-of-traumatic-stimuli-in-complex-ptsd
#16
Julia I Herzog, Inga Niedtfeld, Sophie Rausch, Janine Thome, Meike Mueller-Engelmann, Regina Steil, Kathlen Priebe, Martin Bohus, Christian Schmahl
A neurocircuitry model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggests increased amygdala responses to emotional stimuli, coupled with hypoactivation of prefrontal regions associated with cognitive control. However, results are heterogenous across different subsamples of PTSD as well as different paradigms. We investigated cognitive control in a classic and emotional Stroop task in 28 female patients with complex PTSD (cPTSD), 28 female trauma-exposed healthy controls (TCs) and 28 female non-trauma-exposed healthy controls (HCs) using functional neuroimaging...
July 15, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696531/validation-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd-and-complex-ptsd-using-the-international-trauma-questionnaire
#17
P Hyland, M Shevlin, C R Brewin, M Cloitre, A J Downes, S Jumbe, T Karatzias, J I Bisson, N P Roberts
OBJECTIVE: The 11th version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) has proposed two related trauma diagnoses: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and Complex PTSD (CPTSD). Using a newly developed, disorder-specific measure of PTSD and CPTSD called the International Trauma Questionnaire (ITQ) the current study will (i) assess the factorial validity of ICD-11 PTSD and CPTSD; (ii) provide the first test of the discriminant validity of these constructs; and (iii) provide the first comparison of ICD-11, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), PTSD diagnostic rates using disorder-specific measures...
September 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691784/epigenome-wide-association-of-ptsd-from-heterogeneous-cohorts-with-a-common-multi-site-analysis-pipeline
#18
Andrew Ratanatharathorn, Marco P Boks, Adam X Maihofer, Allison E Aiello, Ananda B Amstadter, Allison E Ashley-Koch, Dewleen G Baker, Jean C Beckham, Evelyn Bromet, Michelle Dennis, Melanie E Garrett, Elbert Geuze, Guia Guffanti, Michael A Hauser, Varun Kilaru, Nathan A Kimbrel, Karestan C Koenen, Pei-Fen Kuan, Mark W Logue, Benjamin J Luft, Mark W Miller, Colter Mitchell, Nicole R Nugent, Kerry J Ressler, Bart P F Rutten, Murray B Stein, Eric Vermetten, Christiaan H Vinkers, Nagy A Youssef, Monica Uddin, Caroline M Nievergelt, Alicia K Smith
Compelling evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation play a role in stress regulation and in the etiologic basis of stress related disorders such as Post traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Here we describe the purpose and methods of an international consortium that was developed to study the role of epigenetics in PTSD. Inspired by the approach used in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, we brought together investigators representing seven cohorts with a collective sample size of N = 1147 that included detailed information on trauma exposure, PTSD symptoms, and genome-wide DNA methylation data...
July 10, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689495/machine-learning-methods-to-predict-child-posttraumatic-stress-a-proof-of-concept-study
#19
Glenn N Saxe, Sisi Ma, Jiwen Ren, Constantin Aliferis
BACKGROUND: The care of traumatized children would benefit significantly from accurate predictive models for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), using information available around the time of trauma. Machine Learning (ML) computational methods have yielded strong results in recent applications across many diseases and data types, yet they have not been previously applied to childhood PTSD. Since these methods have not been applied to this complex and debilitating disorder, there is a great deal that remains to be learned about their application...
July 10, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678690/emotional-freedom-techniques-to-treat-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-veterans-review-of-the-evidence-survey-of-practitioners-and-proposed-clinical-guidelines
#20
Dawson Church, Sheri Stern, Elizabeth Boath, Antony Stewart, David Feinstein, Morgan Clond
BACKGROUND: High prevalence rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in active military and veterans present a treatment challenge. Many PTSD studies have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT). OBJECTIVES: To develop clinical best practice guidelines for the use of EFT to treat PTSD, on the basis of the published literature, practitioner experience, and typical case histories. METHODS: We surveyed 448 EFT practitioners to gather information on their experiences with PTSD treatment...
2017: Permanente Journal
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