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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334642/examining-the-latent-structure-mechanisms-for-comorbid-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-major-depressive-disorder
#1
Margo C Hurlocker, Desirae N Vidaurri, Lisa-Ann J Cuccurullo, Kelly Maieritsch, C Laurel Franklin
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex psychiatric illness that can be difficult to diagnose, due in part to its comorbidity with major depressive disorder (MDD). Given that researchers have found no difference in prevalence rates of PTSD and MDD after accounting for overlapping symptoms, the latent structures of PTSD and MDD may account for the high comorbidity. In particular, the PTSD Negative Alterations in Cognition and Mood (NACM) and Hyperarousal factors have been characterized as non-specific to PTSD...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331353/mechanisms-of-sex-differences-in-fear-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#2
REVIEW
Teniel Sonya Ramikie, Kerry James Ressler
Following sexual maturity, females disproportionately have higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and experience greater symptom severity and chronicity as compared with males. This observation has led many to examine sex differences in PTSD risk factors. Though relatively few, these studies reveal that the root causes of PTSD sex differences are complex, and partly represent interactions between sex-specific nonbiological and biological risk factors, which differentially shape PTSD vulnerability...
November 21, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307748/number-and-type-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd-symptom-domains-are-associated-with-patient-reported-outcomes-in-patients-with-chronic-pain
#3
Dale J Langford, Brian R Theodore, Danica Balsiger, Christine Tran, Ardith Z Doorenbos, David J Tauben, Mark D Sullivan
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) commonly accompanies complex chronic pain, yet PTSD is often overlooked in chronic pain management. Using the 4-item Primary Care (PC)-PTSD screening tool, we evaluated the relationship between the number and type of PC-PTSD symptoms endorsed and a set of patient-reported outcomes, including: pain intensity and interference; function; mood; quality of life; and substance abuse risk in a consecutive sample of patients with chronic pain (n=4,402). Patients completed PainTracker™, a web-based patient-reported outcome tool that provides a multidimensional evaluation of chronic pain, as part of their intake evaluation at a specialty pain clinic in a community setting...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295020/disclosing-sex-trading-histories-to-providers-barriers-and-facilitators-to-navigation-of-social-services-among-women-impacted-by-commercial-sexual-exploitation
#4
Lara Gerassi, Tonya E Edmond, Vanessa Fabbre, Abby Howard, Andrea J Nichols
Sex trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) can lead to devastating health and mental health consequences for women, such as elevated rates of substance use, trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and HIV. Consequently, engagement with services that address addiction, mental health, and housing, and provide general advocacy is critically important to women's increased safety, stabilization, and quality of life. The purpose of this study is to identify perceived barriers and facilitators to service access and engagement with social services among women involved in CSE...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294979/the-complexities-of-intimate-partner-violence-mental-health-disabilities-and-child-abuse-history-for-white-indigenous-and-other-visible-minority-canadian-women
#5
Leslie M Tutty, H L Radtke, Christine A Ateah, E Jane Ursel, Wilfreda E Billie Thurston, Mary Hampton, Kendra Nixon
This research examines how mental health issues associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) relate to women's intersecting identities of race/ethnicity, disability status, and child abuse history. Data ( N = 595) from a Canadian triprovincial study included women who were White ( n = 263, 44.8%), Indigenous ( n = 292, 49.7%), or visible minority ( n = 32, 5.5%). Few demographic differences were found. None of the mental health measures (Symptom Checklist-Short Form [SCL-10], Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression [CES-D-10], Posttraumatic Stress Disorder [PTSD] Checklist) were in the clinical ranges...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294936/the-effect-of-the-moscow-theatre-siege-on-expectations-of-well-being-in-the-future
#6
Margarita Vorsina, Matthew Manning, Christopher M Fleming, Christine Smith
We employ the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey-Higher School of Economics (RLMS-HSE), a survey of 6,000 individuals, and a difference-in-differences estimation strategy to examine the effect of the 2002 Moscow theatre siege on the level of self-reported expectations of life in the future of the Russian population. The longitudinal nature of the data allows us to explore both the short- and long-term effects of terrorism on this population as well as contribute to the limited number of quasi-experimental studies in this area...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294871/beyond-the-force-substance-dichotomy-examining-the-experience-of-combined-and-incapacitated-type-rapes-and-their-relation-to-ptsd-symptoms
#7
Amy A McConnell, Terri L Messman-Moore, Kim L Gratz, David DiLillo
Prior research has examined how posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are influenced by the experience of different types of rape, defined according to the method of coercion used. This work, which classifies rape experiences as either forcible or substance-involved, has yielded mixed findings regarding differences in PTSD symptoms as a function of rape type. Based on recent evidence indicating significant heterogeneity within substance-involved rapes, the present study utilized a novel four-group conceptualization of rape type to examine differences in PTSD symptom severity and associated factors across rape type...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294660/gender-differences-in-complex-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-and-their-relationship-to-mental-health-and-substance-abuse-outcomes-in-incarcerated-adults
#8
Paulette Giarratano, Julian D Ford, Thomas H Nochajski
Complex trauma (CT; for example, childhood abuse) has been associated with significant behavioral health problems (i.e., mental health and substance use disorders) and symptoms that are consistent with complex posttraumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD). CT is prevalent in adult forensic populations, and particularly important for women as they tend to report more adverse consequences of exposure to traumatic stressors and are entering the criminal justice system at a heightened rate compared with men. However, no studies have empirically tested the relationship among CT, C-PTSD, and behavioral health problems with gender among incarcerated adults...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287668/development-of-a-novel-integrated-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-co-occurring-posttraumatic-stress-and-substance-use-disorders-a-pilot-randomized-clinical-trial
#9
Anka A Vujanovic, Lia J Smith, Charles E Green, Scott D Lane, Joy M Schmitz
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) are complex psychiatric conditions that commonly co-occur. No evidence-based, 'gold standard' treatments for PTSD/SUD comorbidity are currently available. The present pilot randomized clinical trial was designed to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a novel, integrated cognitive-behavioral treatment approach for PTSD/SUD, entitled Treatment of Integrated Posttraumatic Stress and Substance Use (TIPSS), as compared to standard cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for SUD...
December 26, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287111/the-impact-of-pre-existing-anxiety-on-affective-and-cognitive-processing-of-a-virtual-reality-analogue-trauma
#10
Tina Schweizer, Julian Schmitz, Laura Plempe, Dali Sun, Christian Becker-Asano, Rainer Leonhart, Brunna Tuschen-Caffier
Dysfunctional processing of traumatic events may be in particular related to high trait anxiety as a pre-traumatic risk factor for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, as this has rarely been investigated in prospective, experimental studies, we aimed to analyse the association between high trait anxiety and affective as well as cognitive processing of stress using a new prospective Virtual Reality analogue trauma paradigm to overcome limitations of retrospective or current analogue designs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258561/a-pilot-investigation-on-dna-methylation-modifications-associated-with-complex-posttraumatic-symptoms-in-elderly-traumatized-in-childhood
#11
Zoya Marinova, Andreas Maercker, Edna Grünblatt, Tomasz K Wojdacz, Susanne Walitza
OBJECTIVE: Complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) is a newly proposed diagnosis in the International Classification of Diseases-version 11, which is currently intensively investigated. Childhood trauma is regarded as main source of CPTSD symptoms, even in later life. Induction of DNA methylation changes by childhood trauma may contribute to its long-lasting adverse health consequences. The current study analyzed the correlation of genome-wide DNA methylation profiles with complex posttraumatic sequelae in buccal epithelial cells from 31 elderly former indentured child laborers (Verdingkinder) using the Infinium Illumina 450k Human DNA methylation chip...
December 19, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248614/significant-association-between-catechol-o-methyltransferase-comt-val158-108met-polymorphism-and-cognitive-function-in-veterans-with-ptsd
#12
Ana Havelka Mestrovic, Lucija Tudor, Matea Nikolac Perkovic, Gordana Nedic Erjavec, Zrnka Kovacic Petrovic, Dubravka Svob Strac, Marcela Konjevod, Nela Pivac
Core features of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are cognitive disturbances. Enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) degrades dopamine primarily in prefrontal cortex. Its functional polymorphism, COMT Val158/108Met, affects COMT activity and dopamine availability and is associated with disturbances in cognition. The hypothesis was that PTSD subjects will have worse working memory than healthy controls and that the carriers of the COMT Met allele will show better cognitive performance compared to Val/Val carriers in PTSD and controls subjects...
December 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238740/differential-effects-of-negative-emotion-on-memory-for-items-and-associations-and-their-relationship-to-intrusive-imagery
#13
REVIEW
J A Bisby, N Burgess
A crucial aspect of episodic memory formation is the way in which our experiences are stored within a coherent spatio-temporal context. We review research that highlights how the experience of a negative event can alter memory encoding in a complex manner, strengthening negative items but weakening associations with other items and the surrounding context. Recent evidence suggests that these opposing effects can occur through amygdala up-modulation to facilitate item encoding, while the hippocampal provision of contextual binding is down-modulated...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228293/providing-mental-health-care-for-the-complex-older-veteran-implications-for-social-work-practice
#14
Gayle Clark, Susan Rouse, Heather Spangler, Jennifer Moye
Mental health conditions are underdiagnosed and undertreated in older veterans, as with all older adults. Social workers bring an important perspective to the interdisciplinary team for the care of older veterans with mental health conditions. In this study authors assessed 50 older veterans referred for mental health treatment (mean age = 74.52 years, SD = 6.48) with standardized measures of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and cognitive impairment. At initial assessment, 24 percent had moderate depression, 30 percent had PTSD, and 62 percent (n = 31) had (mostly mild) cognitive impairment based on cut scores...
December 8, 2017: Health & Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226792/posttraumatic-world-assumptions-among-treatment-seeking-refugees
#15
F Jackie June Ter Heide, Marieke Sleijpen, Niels van der Aa
The clinical relevance of negative changes in cognitions about oneself, others, and the world is reflected in the diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the DSM-5 and complex posttraumatic stress disorder in the ICD-11. Although such changes in cognition have been posited to be especially relevant for traumatised refugees, few studies have examined this in refugee populations. The present study used a cross-sectional design to compare negative cognitions among 213 adult treatment-seeking refugees with those in previously published samples from the general population, veterans with combat-related PTSD, and whiplash victims...
October 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204343/episodic-memory-after-trauma-exposure-medial-temporal-lobe-function-is-positively-related-to-re-experiencing-and-inversely-related-to-negative-affect-symptoms
#16
Jennifer S Stevens, Renuka Reddy, Ye Ji Kim, Sanne J H van Rooij, Timothy D Ely, Stephan Hamann, Kerry J Ressler, Tanja Jovanovic
Hippocampal structure is particularly sensitive to trauma and other stressors. However, previous findings linking hippocampal function with trauma-related psychopathology have been mixed. Heterogeneity in psychological responses to trauma has not been considered with respect to hippocampal function and may contribute to mixed findings. To address these issues, we examined associations between data-driven symptom dimensions and episodic memory formation, a key function of the hippocampus, in a trauma-exposed sample...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203717/hsp90-and-fkbp51-complex-regulators-of-psychiatric-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Marangelie Criado-Marrero, Theo Rein, Elisabeth B Binder, James T Porter, John Koren, Laura J Blair
Mood disorders affect nearly a quarter of the world's population. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these conditions is of great importance. FK-506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) encodes the FKBP51 protein, a heat shock protein 90 kDa (Hsp90) co-chaperone, and is a risk factor for several affective disorders. FKBP51, in coordination with Hsp90, regulates glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity via a short negative feedback loop. This signalling pathway rapidly restores homeostasis in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis following stress...
January 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202096/trafficking-of-vietnamese-women-and-girls-for-marriage-in-china
#18
Heidi Stöckl, Ligia Kiss, Jobst Koehler, Dung Thuy Dong, Cathy Zimmerman
Background: Bride-trafficking has been a growing phenomenon in Southeast Asia, particularly in China, where one-child policies have resulted in demographic imbalances favoring males. Yet, empirical evidence about women and girls sold into marriage in China remains sparse. Methods: This study describes the experiences of 51 Vietnamese women and girls as young as 14 in post-trafficking services who were sold into marriage in China. A consecutive sample of individuals from five services in Vietnam were invited to be interviewed within the first 2 weeks of admission...
2017: Global health research and policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201286/ideal-parent-figure-method-in-the-treatment-of-complex-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-related-to-childhood-trauma-a-pilot-study
#19
Federico Parra, Carol George, Khalid Kalalou, Dominique Januel
Background: There is a consensus within the trauma field for the necessity of a three-phase treatment programme for complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD). This pilot study focuses on the stabilisation phase, the goal of which is the development of psychological resources and the reduction of disabling symptoms. Objective: To test the efficacy of the Ideal Parent Figure (IPF) method as a stabilization treatment for CPTSD patients with a history of childhood trauma. Method: The sample was comprised of 17 adults with a history of childhood trauma concomitant with CPTSD symptoms consulting at a clinic in France...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197199/elevated-serum-c-reactive-protein-level-is-not-associated-with-serum-nitric-oxide-in-patients-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#20
Almir Fajkić, Miralem Musić, Alma Džubur Kulenović, Asija Začiragić, Nesina Avdagić, Nermina Babić, Orhan Lepara, Esad Pepić, Amela Dervišević, Jasminko Huskić
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to evaluate serum nitric oxide (NO) and C reactive protein (CRP) concentration in veterans with and without PTSD. Furthermore, we aimed to assess whether there is a correlation between serum NO and CRP concentrations in tested groups. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study included 90 male individuals, with and without experience of direct war combat, divided into three equal groups (n=30): group 1- included war veterans with PTSD, group 2 - included war veterans without PTSD, and control group - 30 apparently healthy volunteers, without experience of direct war combat...
December 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
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