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Healthcare associated pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030310/dysphagia-in-nursing-homes-results-from-the-nutritionday-project
#1
Melanie Streicher, Rainer Wirth, Karin Schindler, Cornel Christian Sieber, Michael Hiesmayr, Dorothee Volkert
OBJECTIVES: Dysphagia is a major healthcare problem as it increases the risk of malnutrition, dehydration, aspiration pneumonia, and death. The aims of this analysis of data from nursing homes (NHs) worldwide were to examine prevalence rates of dysphagia, to identify characteristics of residents with dysphagia, and to describe which type of nutrition residents with dysphagia receive. DESIGN: One-day cross-sectional study, repeated in yearly intervals since 2007...
October 10, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021461/isolation-of-esbl-producing-bacteria-from-sputum-in-community-acquired-pneumonia-or-healthcare-associated-pneumonia-does-not-indicate-the-need-for-antibiotics-with-activity-against-this-class
#2
Hideyuki Horie, Isao Ito, Satoshi Konishi, Yuki Yamamoto, Yuko Yamamoto, Tatsuya Uchida, Hideo Ohtani, Yoshiharu Yoshida
Background In the past decade, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria have increasingly frequently been isolated from various kinds of clinical specimens. However, the appropriate treatment of pneumonia in which ESBL-producing bacteria are isolated from sputum culture is poorly understood. Purpose To investigate whether or not ESBL-producing bacteria isolated from sputum in pneumonia cases should be treated as the causative bacteria. Patients and methods In this retrospective study, we screened for patients, admitted between January 2009 and December 2015 in whom pneumonia was suspected and for whom sputum cultures yielded Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp...
October 11, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017750/trends-and-relationship-between-antimicrobial-resistance-and-antibiotic-use-in-xinjiang-uyghur-autonomous-region-china-based-on-a-3-year-surveillance-data-2014-2016
#3
Haishaerjiang Wushouer, Zhao-Xia Zhang, Jian-Hua Wang, Ping Ji, Qing-Fang Zhu, Renagu Aishan, Lu-Wen Shi
PURPOSES: The objective of the study was to identify the trends and relations between antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and antibiotic use in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in Western China from 2014 to 2016. METHODS: A retrospective, descriptive analysis of AMR prevalence, and trends and relations between AMR and antibiotic use during the 3-year period was performed. RESULTS: Third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli was the most prevalent resistant pathogen in terms of both resistance density and resistance proportion...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017247/a-17-year-nationwide-study-of-burkholderia-cepacia-complex-bloodstream-infections-among-patients-in-the-united-states-veterans-health-administration
#4
Nadim G El Chakhtoura, Elie Saade, Brigid M Wilson, Federico Perez, Krisztina M Papp-Wallace, Robert A Bonomo
Background: Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are a group of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria rarely reported in patients without cystic fibrosis (CF) or immunocompromising conditions. We investigated Bcc bloodstream infections (BSIs) in a cohort of non-CF patients from the US Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Methods: Using VHA databases, we identified patients with Bcc BSI at facilities nationwide from 1999 through 2015. We ascertained clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes and identified factors associated with 30-day mortality in logistic regression analysis...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964578/pneumococcal-vaccination-among-adults-with-work-related-asthma
#5
Katelynn E Dodd, Jacek M Mazurek
INTRODUCTION: Pneumococcal vaccination is recommended for all adults with asthma and a Healthy People 2020 goal aims to achieve 60% coverage among high-risk adults, including those with asthma. Adults with work-related asthma have more severe asthma symptoms than those with non-work-related asthma and are particularly vulnerable to pneumococcal pneumonia. METHODS: To assess pneumococcal vaccination coverage by work-related asthma status among ever-employed adults aged 18-64 years with current asthma, data from the 2012-2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Asthma Call-back Survey for ever-employed adults (18-64 years) with current asthma from 29 states were examined in 2016...
September 22, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947683/headspace-volatile-organic-compounds-from-bacteria-implicated-in-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-analysed-by-td-gc-ms
#6
Oluwasola Lawal, Howbeer Muhamadali, Waqar Ahmed, Iain R White, Tamara M E Nijsen, Royston Goodacre, Stephen J Fowler
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a healthcare-acquired infection arising from the invasion of the lower respiratory tract by opportunistic pathogens in critically ill ventilated patients. The current method of diagnosis requires the culture of an airway sample such as bronchoalveolar lavage, which is invasive to obtain and may take up to seven days to identify a causal pathogen, or indeed rule out infection. While awaiting results, patients are administered empirical antibiotics; risks of this approach include lack of effect on the causal pathogen, contribution to the development of antibiotic resistance and downstream effects such as increased length of intensive care stay, cost, morbidity and mortality...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947168/impact-of-procalcitonin-guidance-with-an-educational-program-on-management-of-adults-hospitalized-with-pneumonia
#7
Thomas L Walsh, Briana E DiSilvio, Crystal Hammer, Moeezullah Beg, Swati Vishwanathan, Daniel Speredelozzi, Matthew A Moffa, Kurt Hu, Rasha Abdulmassih, Jina T Makadia, Rikinder Sandhu, Mouhib Naddour, Noreen H Chan-Tompkins, Tamara L Trienski, Courtney Watson, Terrence J Obringer, Jim Kuzyck, Derek N Bremmer
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia and healthcare-associated pneumonia are often treated with prolonged antibiotic therapy. Procalcitonin (PCT) has effectively and safely reduced antibiotic use for pneumonia in controlled studies. However, limited data exists regarding PCT guidance in real-world settings for management of pneumonia. METHODS: A retrospective, pre-intervention/post-intervention study was conducted to compare management for patients admitted with pneumonia before and after implementation of PCT guidance at two teaching hospitals in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania...
September 22, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930487/emerging-roles-of-inflammasomes-in-acute-pneumonia
#8
Sangeetha Ravi Kumar, Sagar Paudel, Laxman Ghimire, Scott Bergeron, Shanshan Cai, Rachel L Zemans, Gregory P Downey, Samithamby Jeyaseelan
Pneumonia is responsible for a substantial burden on healthcare worldwide and the single largest cause for death of infants globally. Pneumonia is caused by a variety of pathogenic microorganisms including bacteria, viruses and fungi. The lung has developed complex innate immune mechanisms to combat these infections while minimizing tissue damage. One essential mechanism that drives the initial innate immune response is sensing a broad spectrum of stimuli in the cytosol by inflammasomes. Inflammasomes are composed of NLR and non-NLR proteins, and activate caspase-1 that results in proinflammatory cytokine activation...
September 20, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914274/influenza-season-hospitalization-trends-in-israel-a-multi-year-comparative-analysis-2005-2006-through-2012-2013
#9
Aharona Glatman-Freedman, Zalman Kaufman, Yaniv Stein, Hanna Sefty, Hilla Zadka, Barak Gordon, Jill Meron, Ethel-Sherry Gordon, Rita Dichtiar, Ziona Haklai, Arnon Afek, Tamy Shohat
BACKGROUND: Influenza-related morbidity impacts healthcare systems, including hospitals. OBJECTIVE: To obtain a quantitative assessment of hospitalization burden in pediatric and internal medicine departments during influenza seasons compared with the summer months in Israel. METHODS: Data on pediatric and internal medicine hospitalized patients in general hospitals in Israel during the influenza seasons between 2005 and 2013 were analyzed for rate of hospitalizations, rate of hospitalization days, hospital length of stay (LOS), and bed occupancy and compared with the summer months...
September 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900356/humidifiers-for-oxygen-therapy-what-risk-for-reusable-and-disposable-devices
#10
REVIEW
V La Fauci, G B Costa, A Facciolà, A Conti, R Riso, R Squeri
INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial pneumonia accounts for the vast majority of healthcare-associated infections (HAI). Although numerous medical devices have been discussed as potential vehicles for microorganisms, very little is known about the role played by oxygen humidifiers as potential sources of nosocomial pathogens. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the safety of the reuse of humidifiers by analysing the rate of microbial contamination in reusable and disposable oxygen humidifiers used during therapy, and then discuss their potential role in the transmission of respiratory pathogens...
June 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894766/potentially-preventable-hospitalizations-and-the-burden-of-healthcare-associated-infections
#11
Andrea L Lorden, Luohua Jiang, Tiffany A Radcliff, Kathleen A Kelly, Robert L Ohsfeldt
BACKGROUND: An estimated 4% of hospital admissions acquired healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and accounted for $9.8 (USD) billion in direct cost during 2011. In 2010, nearly 140 000 of the 3.5 million potentially preventable hospitalizations (PPHs) may have acquired an HAI. There is a knowledge gap regarding the co-occurrence of these events. AIMS: To estimate the period occurrences and likelihood of acquiring an HAI for the PPH population. METHODS: Retrospective, cross-sectional study using logistic regression analysis of 2011 Texas Inpatient Discharge Public Use Data File including 2...
January 2017: Health Services Research and Managerial Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894481/respiratory-research-networks-in-europe-and-beyond-aims-achievements-and-aspirations-for-the-21st-century
#12
Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Fernando Zampieri, Pedro Povoa, Otavio Ranzani, Lieuwe D Bos, Stefano Aliberti, Antoni Torres
Healthcare-associated infection, such as intensive care unit (ICU)-related respiratory infections, remain the most frequently encountered morbidity of ICU admission, prolonging hospital stay and increasing mortality rates. The epidemiology of ICU-related respiratory infections, particularly nonventilated ICU-associated pneumonia and ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis, appears to be quite different among different countries. European countries have different prevalence, patterns and mechanism of resistance, as well as different treatments chosen by different attending physicians...
September 2017: Breathe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891372/controversies-and-advances-in-the-management-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#13
Katherine L Roberts, Scott T Micek, Paul Juang, Marin H Kollef
Although national surveillance data suggests that the incidence of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is down-trending, it remains one of the most commonly encountered hospital acquired infections in the United States and worldwide. Its association with increased healthcare costs and worsened patient outcomes warrants continued effort to improve the care of patients with VAP. Areas covered: The increasing prevalence of multi-drug resistant bacteria further drives the need to explore advances in diagnostic and treatment options...
September 15, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887643/clinical-predictors-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-nosocomial-and-healthcare-associated-pneumonia-a-multicenter-matched-case-control-study
#14
J Torre-Cisneros, C Natera, F Mesa, M Trikic, J Rodríguez-Baño
The situations in which coverage for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the empirical treatment of nosocomial pneumonia (NP) or severe healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is needed are poorly defined, particularly outside intensive care units (ICUs). Our aim was to characterize if the risk of MRSA NP/HCAP can be defined by clinical variables. We designed an observational, retrospective, multicenter, case-control study to analyze the association between defined clinical variables and risk of MRSA NP/HCAP in non-ICU patients using conditional multivariable logistic regression...
September 8, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874937/antimicrobial-therapy-for-pneumonia-in-the-emergency-department-the-impact-of-clinical-pharmacists-on-appropriateness
#15
Brett A Faine, Nicholas Mohr, Jenna Dietrich, Laura Meadow, Kari K Harland, Elizabeth Chrischilles
INTRODUCTION: Pneumonia impacts over four million people annually and is the leading cause of infectious disease-related hospitalization and mortality in the United States. Appropriate empiric antimicrobial therapy decreases hospital length of stay and improves mortality. The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that the presence of an emergency medicine (EM) clinical pharmacist improves the timing and appropriateness of empiric antimicrobial therapy for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP)...
August 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865979/comparison-of-30-day-readmission-rates-and-risk-factors-between-carotid-artery-stenting-and-endarterectomy
#16
Hanaa Dakour Aridi, Satinderjit Locham, Besma Nejim, Mahmoud B Malas
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the rates, reasons, and risk factors of 30-day readmission, both planned and unplanned, after carotid revascularization as well as to evaluate major outcomes associated with those readmissions. METHODS: Using the Premier Healthcare database, we retrospectively identified patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS) between 2009 and 2015. The primary outcome was 30-day all-cause readmission...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864361/healthcare-associated-infections-in-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-and-its-correlation-with-environmental-surveillance
#17
Sanjay Kumar, Binoy Shankar, Sugandha Arya, Manorma Deb, Harish Chellani
Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) are frequent complications in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) with varying risk factors and bacteriological profile. There is paucity of literature comparing the bacteriological profile of organisms causing HAI with the environmental surveillance isolates. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate demographic profile, risk factors and outcome of HAI in NICU and correlate with environmental surveillance. Three hundred newborns with signs and symptoms of sepsis were enrolled in the study group and their profile, risk factors and outcome were compared with the control group...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859497/first-report-of-coexistence-of-ampc-beta-lactamase-genes-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strains-isolated-from-burn-patients
#18
Roya Ghanavati, Davood Darban-Sarokhalil, Fateme Navab-Moghadam, Hossein Kazemian, Gholamreza Irajian, Shabnam Razavi
Klebsiella spp. are among the most frequently isolated bacteria from burn wounds. These organisms are among the most important opportunistic pathogens, causing hospital-acquired and healthcare-associated infections worldwide. Limited information is available about prevalence of AmpC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae from burn patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the characterization of AmpC beta-lactamase among K. pneumoniae isolated from burn patients. Samples were collected from wound specimens of patients with burn injury from a burn hospital in Tehran during 18 months (March 2015 to August 2016)...
September 1, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859439/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-versus-vancomycin-in-the-treatment-of-healthcare-ventilator-associated-mrsa-pneumonia-a-case-control-study-authors-response
#19
Noa Eliakim-Raz, Dafna Yahav, Jihad Bishara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855313/complexity-of-complement-resistance-factors-expressed-by-acinetobacter-baumannii-needed-for-survival-in-human-serum
#20
Amaro F Sanchez-Larrayoz, Noha M Elhosseiny, Marc G Chevrette, Yang Fu, Peter Giunta, Raúl G Spallanzani, Keerthikka Ravi, Gerald B Pier, Stephen Lory, Tomás Maira-Litrán
Acinetobacter baumannii is a bacterial pathogen with increasing impact in healthcare settings, due in part to this organism's resistance to many antimicrobial agents, with pneumonia and bacteremia as the most common manifestations of disease. A significant proportion of clinically relevant A. baumannii strains are resistant to killing by normal human serum (NHS), an observation supported in this study by showing that 12 out of 15 genetically diverse strains of A. baumannii are resistant to NHS killing. To expand our understanding of the genetic basis of A...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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