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Healthcare associated pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222105/the-emergency-medical-service-microbiome
#1
Andrew J Hudson, Graeme D Glaister, Hans-Joachim Wieden
Emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are an integral component of the healthcare framework and function to transport patients from various locations to and between care facilities. In addition to physical injury, EMS personnel are expected to be at high risk to acquire and transmit healthcare associated infections (HAIs) in the workplace. However, currently little is known about EMS biosafety risk factors and the epidemiological contribution of EMS to pathogen transmission within and outside of the healthcare sector...
December 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207958/bloodstream-infections-at-a-tertiary-level-paediatric-hospital-in-south-africa
#2
Harsha Lochan, Vashini Pillay, Colleen Bamford, James Nuttall, Brian Eley
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infection (BSI) in children causes significant morbidity and mortality. There are few studies describing the epidemiology of BSI in South African children. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive cohort study was conducted at a paediatric referral hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. The National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS) microbiology database was accessed to identify positive blood culture specimens during the period 2011-2012. Demographic and clinical details, antimicrobial management and patient outcome information were extracted from medical and laboratory records...
December 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204285/molecular-characterization-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolated-from-iraqi-hospital-environment
#3
I M S Al-Kadmy, A N M Ali, I M A Salman, S S Khazaal
Healthcare-associated items are a common source of acquired infections, and hospital-acquired infections cause significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. Acinetobacter baumannii is the most prevalent infection-causing organism in the hospital environment. Hospital articles and objects are the main sources of infection with the ability to transmit some of the pathogenic microorganisms such as A. baumannii, which is considered a serious problem in therapeutic treatments. In the current study, we isolated A...
January 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201922/immunization-with-bivalent-flagellin-protects-mice-against-fatal-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pneumonia
#4
Bahador Behrouz, Farhad B Hashemi, Mohammad Javad Fatemi, Sara Naghavi, Gholamreza Irajian, Raheleh Halabian, Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi
Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections present a major challenge to healthcare systems worldwide because they are commonly associated with high morbidity and mortality. Here, we demonstrate the protective efficacy of type a and b flagellins (bivalent flagellin) against acute fatal pneumonia in mice. Mice immunized intranasally with a bivalent flagellin vaccine were challenged by different flagellated strains of P. aeruginosa in an acute pneumonia model. Besides the protective effect of the vaccine, we further measured the host innate and cellular immunity responses...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200209/-nursing-sensitive-outcomes-and-staffing-a-review-on-healthcare-associated-infection
#5
Matteo Seligardi, Erika Bassi, Maria Mongardi
. Nursing sensitive outcomes and staffing: a review on healthcare associated infection. INTRODUCTION: Healthcare associated infections (HAI) continue to be an unresolved problem in hospital settings. AIM: To assess the relationship between nurse staffing and healthcare associated infections in different settings. METHODS: From April to May 2015 a review of literature was conducted consulting PubMed, CINAHL and Cochrane Library. RESULTS: An increased amount of Registered Nurse Hours Per Patient Day (RNHPPD) and nurse-to-patient ratio was associated to a decreased occurrence of HAI...
October 2017: Assistenza Infermieristica e Ricerca: AIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188069/simultaneous-isolation-of-chryseobacterium-gleum-from-bloodstream-and-respiratory-tract-first-case-report-from-india
#6
Vidhi Jain, Nayani Amrin Fatema Afzal Hussain, Tasneem Siddiqui, Chinmoy Sahu, Malay Ghar, Kashi Nath Prasad
Introduction. Species of the genus Chryseobacterium are emerging healthcare-associated pathogens, often colonizing the hospital environment. There are no clear guidelines available for antimicrobial susceptibility of this organism. In this report we present the first case, to our knowledge, of simultaneous central-line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to Chryseobacterium gleum from India. Case presentation. A 62 years old man with a history of a road traffic accident 1 month previously was referred to our center for further management...
October 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186953/direct-detection-of-oxa-48-carbapenemase-gene-in-lysate-samples-through-changes-in-mechanical-properties-of-dna-monolayers-upon-hybridization
#7
Carmen M Domínguez, Daniel Ramos, Jesús Mingorance, Jose Luis Garcia Fierro, Javier Tamayo, Montserrat Calleja
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae have become recently an important cause of morbidity and mortality due to healthcare-associated infections. Most commonly used diagnostic methods present time-to-result incompatible with fast and accurate directed therapy. We report here the direct identification of the blaOXA48 gene, which codes for the car-bapenemase OXA-48, in lysate samples from Klebsiella pneumoniae. The method is PCR-free and label-free. It is based on the measurement of changes in the stiffness of DNA self-assembled monolayers anchored to microcantilevers that occur as a consequence of the hybridization...
November 30, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184589/comparing-the-effect-of-echinacea-and-chlorhexidine-mouthwash-on-the-microbial-flora-of-intubated-patients-admitted-to-the-intensive-care-unit
#8
Mehdi Safarabadi, Ehsanollah Ghaznavi-Rad, Abdolghader Pakniyat, Korosh Rezaie, Ali Jadidi
Background: Providing intubated patients admitted to the intensive care units with oral healthcare is one of the main tasks of nurses in order to prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP). This study aimed at comparing the effects of two mouthwash solutions (echinacea and chlorhexidine) on the oral microbial flora of patients hospitalized in the intensive care units. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 70 patients aged between18 and 65 years undergoing tracheal intubation through the mouth in three hospitals in Arak, were selected using simple random sampling and were randomly divided into two groups: the intervention group and the control group...
November 2017: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177489/disease-based-antimicrobial-stewardship-a-review-of-active-and-passive-approaches-to-patient-management
#9
Farnaz Foolad, Jerod L Nagel, Gregory Eschenauer, Twisha S Patel, Cynthia T Nguyen
Although new antimicrobial stewardship programmes (ASPs) often begin by targeting the reduction of antimicrobial use, an increasing focus of ASPs is to improve the management of specific infectious diseases. Disease-based antimicrobial stewardship emphasizes improving patient outcomes by optimizing antimicrobial use and increasing compliance with performance measures. Directing efforts towards the comprehensive management of specific infections allows ASPs to promote the shift in healthcare towards improving quality, safety and patient outcome metrics for specific diseases...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171566/knowledge-and-practices-of-critical-care-health-professionals-related-to-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-tertiary-care-hospitals-of-islamabad-and-rawalpindi
#10
Hassan Bin Usman Shah, Iffat Atif, Farah Rashid, Hafsa Zulfiqar, Kashmala Mian, Maria Sarfraz, Mariam Batool, Umbreen Gul Khan
OBJECTIVE: To assess knowledge and practices of critical care health professionals related to ventilator associated pneumonia. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted at eight tertiary care public and private hospitals of Islamabad/Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from September 2015 to March 2016, and comprised healthcare professionals. Stratified random sampling was used. Data was collected using close-ended validated questionnaire. SPSS 22 was used for data analysis...
November 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167061/implementation-and-outcomes-of-hospital-wide-computerized-antimicrobial-approval-system-and-on-the-spot-education-in-a-traumatic-intensive-care-unit-in-taiwan
#11
Tsung-Yu Huang, Chien-Hui Hung, Li-Ju Lai, Hui-Ju Chuang, Chien-Chen Wang, Pei-Tzu Lin, Wei-Hsiu Hsu
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics is a major health-care problem in intensive care units (ICUs). This study evaluates the impact of a direct hospital-wide computerized antimicrobial approval system (HCAAS) and on-the-spot education for practitioners in a neurosurgical ICU in Taiwan. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records monthly of patients who were admitted to the neurosurgical ICU during a period of 7 years and 7 months...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158918/challenges-with-surveillance-of-healthcare-associated-infections-in-intensive-care-units-in-south-africa
#12
Saajida Mahomed, Ozayr Mahomed, A Willem Sturm, Stephen Knight, Prashini Moodley
Background: The incidence of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in the public health sector in South Africa is not known due to the lack of a surveillance system. We report on the challenges experienced in the implementation of a surveillance system for HAIs in intensive care units (ICUs). Methods: A passive, paper-based surveillance system was piloted in eight ICUs to measure the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia, catheter-associated urinary tract infection, and central line-associated bloodstream infection...
2017: Critical Care Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157323/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-organisms-in-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Charlesnika T Evans, Margaret A Fitzpatrick, Makoto M Jones, Stephen P Burns, Linda Poggensee, Swetha Ramanathan, Sherri L LaVela, Nasia Safdar, Katie J Suda
OBJECTIVE Infections caused by multidrug-resistant gram-negative organisms (MDRGNOs) have been increasing every year. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of MDRGNOs and factors associated with MDRGNOs in patients with spinal cord injury or disorder (SCI/D). DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. METHODS Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) electronic health record data from 142 VA facilities were evaluated for 19,642 patients with SCI/D. Multivariable cluster-adjusted models were fit to identify factors associated with MDRGNO...
November 21, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155089/genotyping-and-macrolide-resistance-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-identified-in-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-cap-in-medellin-colombia
#14
Angela Rocio Copete, Yudy Alexandra Aguilar, Zulma Vanessa Rueda, Lázaro Agustín Vélez
OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to describe the genotypes and the main characteristics of the CAP cases caused by M. pneumoniae in hospitalized children in Medellin and in neighboring municipalities in 2011-2012. METHODOLOGY: The M. pneumoniae genotype was determined by PCR and sequencing of the p1 and 23S rRNA genes from induced sputum samples and nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) from children with CAP who were hospitalized in 13 healthcare centers. In addition, a spatio-temporal analysis was performed to identify the potential risk areas and clustering of the cases over time...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154953/correlation-between-cefepime-utilization-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-resistance-rate-to-beta-lactams-and-carbapenems-in-patients-with-healthcare-associated-infections
#15
Zorana M Djordjevic, Marko M Folic, Slobodan M Jankovic
OBJECTIVES: There is direct link between overutilization or abuse of antibiotics and P.aeruginosa resistance rate, but other factors could influence the resistance rate, too. The study aim was to observe changes of P.aeruginosa resistance rate in patients with hospital acquired infections (HAIs) after a period of cefepime unavailability in an intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: The study was designed as retrospective observational analysis of trends in utilization of antibiotics and density of resistance to antibiotics...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128389/the-impact-of-initial-antibiotic-treatment-failure-real-world-insights-in-patients-with-complicated-urinary-tract-infection
#16
Sudeep Karve, Kellie Ryan, Pascale Peeters, Elisa Baelen, Sonia Rojas-Farreras, Danielle Potter, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño
OBJECTIVES: RECOMMEND (NCT02364284; D4280R00005) assessed treatment patterns and outcomes associated with initial antibiotic therapy (IAT; antibiotics received <48 h post-initiation of antibiotic therapy) in healthcare-associated infections across five countries. METHODS: Data from medical records of hospitalized patients aged ≥18 years with healthcare-associated complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) are presented. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses identified potential risk factors associated with IAT failure...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118748/remarkable-diversity-of-escherichia-coli-carrying-mcr-1-from-hospital-sewage-with-the-identification-of-two-new-mcr-1-variants
#17
Feifei Zhao, Yu Feng, Xiaoju Lü, Alan McNally, Zhiyong Zong
The plasmid-borne colistin-resistant gene mcr-1 has rapidly become a worldwide public health concern. This study aims to determine the host bacterial strains, plasmids, and genetic contexts of mcr-1 in hospital sewage. A 1-ml hospital sewage sample was cultured. Colistin-resistant bacterial colonies were selected on agar plates and were subjected to whole genome sequencing and subsequent analysis. The transfer of mcr-1 between bacterial strains was tested using conjugation. New variants of mcr-1 were cloned to test the impact of variations on the function of mcr-1...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117671/changing-trends-in-clinical-characteristics-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-bacteremia
#18
Miri Hyun, Chang In Noh, Seong Yeol Ryu, Hyun Ah Kim
Background/Aims: Klebsiella pneumoniae is second most common organism of gram-negative bacteremia in Korea and one of the most common cause of urinary tract infection, and intra-abdominal infection. Methods: We compared clinical and microbiological characteristics about K. pneumoniae bacteremia in a tertiary hospital between 10 years. Group A is who had K. pneumoniae bacteremia at least one time from January 2004 to December 2005. Group B is from January 2012 to December 2013...
November 10, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111416/evidence-that-a-regional-surgical-collaborative-can-transform-care-surgical-site-infection-prevention-practices-for-colectomy-in-michigan
#19
Joceline V Vu, Stacey D Collins, Elizabeth Seese, Samantha Hendren, Michael J Englesbe, Darrell A Campbell, Greta L Krapohl
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSI) after colectomy are associated with increased morbidity and health care use. Since 2012, the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative (MSQC) has promoted a "bundle" of care processes associated with lower SSI risk, using an audit-and-feedback system for adherence, face-to-face meetings, and support for quality improvement projects at participating hospitals. The purpose of this study was to determine whether practices changed over time. STUDY DESIGN: We previously found 6 processes of care independently associated with SSI in colectomy...
October 28, 2017: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091975/treatment-trends-and-outcomes-in-healthcare-associated-pneumonia
#20
Sarah Haessler, Tara Lagu, Peter K Lindenauer, Daniel J Skiest, Aruna Priya, Penelope S Pekow, Marya D Zilberberg, Thomas L Higgins, Michael B Rothberg
BACKGROUND: The American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines for management of healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP), first published in 2005, have been controversial regarding the selection of empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics, whether the criteria for HCAP predicts the likelihood of infection with multidrug resistant organisms, and whether HCAP patients have improved outcomes when treated with empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study at 488 US hospitals from July 2007 to November 2011...
November 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
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