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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549131/a-novel-cortical-target-to-enhance-hand-motor-output-in-humans-with-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Jinyi Long, Paolo Federico, Monica A Perez
A main goal of rehabilitation strategies in humans with spinal cord injury is to strengthen transmission in spared neural networks. Although neuromodulatory strategies have targeted different sites within the central nervous system to restore motor function following spinal cord injury, the role of cortical targets remain poorly understood. Here, we use 180 pairs of transcranial magnetic stimulation for ∼30 min over the hand representation of the motor cortex at an interstimulus interval mimicking the rhythmicity of descending late indirect (I) waves in corticospinal neurons (4...
June 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548988/toward-precision-medicine-tailoring-interventional-strategies-based-on-noninvasive-brain-stimulation-for-motor-recovery-after-stroke
#2
Philipp J Koch, Friedhelm C Hummel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To support the recovery of disability and the reduced functional capacity influencing the independence of daily life after focal brain lesions like stroke, the application of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial electric stimulation has been found useful in the last decades. Still, a positive influence on the recovery seems to be restricted to specific subgroups of patients. Therefore, a closer look on individual parameters influencing the recovery course and the effect of NIBS is needed...
May 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548606/anatomical-recruitment-of-spinal-v2a-interneurons-into-phrenic-motor-circuitry-after-high-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#3
Lyandysha Viktorovna Zholudeva, Jordyn Karliner, Kimberly J Dougherty, Michael Lane
More than half of all spinal cord injuries (SCIs) occur at the cervical level, often resulting in impaired respiration. Despite this devastating outcome, there is substantial evidence for endogenous neuroplasticity after cervical SCI. Spinal interneurons are widely recognized as being an essential anatomical component of this plasticity by contributing to novel neuronal pathways that can result in functional improvement. The identity of spinal interneurons involved with respiratory plasticity post-SCI, however, has remained largely unknown...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546310/heterozygous-gnal-mice-are-a-novel-animal-model-to-study-dystonia-pathophysiology
#4
Assunta Pelosi, Fabien Menardy, Daniela Popa, Jean-Antoine Girault, Denis Hervé
Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions. Its pathophysiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. Dominant mutations of the GNAL gene are a cause of isolated dystonia (DYT25) in patients. Some mutations result in a complete loss of function of the encoded protein, Gαolf, an adenylyl-cyclase-stimulatory G protein highly enriched in striatal projection neurons, in which it mediates the actions of dopamine and adenosine. We used male and female heterozygous Gnal knockout mice (Gnal+/-) to study how GNAL haplodeficiency is implicated in dystonia...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545905/resveratrol-alleviates-oxidative-damage-in-enteric-neurons-and-associated-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-caused-by-chemotherapeutic-agent-oxaliplatin
#5
Elizabeth L Donald, Lily Stojanovska, Vasso Apostolopoulos, Kulmira Nurgali
Oxaliplatin is a first-line chemotherapeutic agent used for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Its use is associated with severe gastrointestinal (GI) side-effects, associated with oxidative damage and neurotoxicity to the enteric neurons. Resveratrol is a potent anti-oxidant that has been shown to protect against oxidative damage and neurotoxicity in other neurons and could therefore prevent oxaliplatin-induced damage to enteric neurons. We determined whether co-administration of resveratrol with oxaliplatin alleviates enteric neuron toxicity and GI dysfunction in mice...
May 17, 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545543/inhibition-of-colony-stimulating-factor-1-receptor-early-in-disease-ameliorates-motor-deficits-in-sca1-mice
#6
Wenhui Qu, Andrea Johnson, Joo Hyun Kim, Abigail Lukowicz, Daniel Svedberg, Marija Cvetanovic
BACKGROUND: Polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion in the protein Ataxin-1 (ATXN1) causes spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), a fatal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor deficits, cerebellar neurodegeneration, and gliosis. Currently, there are no treatments available to delay or ameliorate SCA1. We have examined the effect of depleting microglia during the early stage of disease by using PLX, an inhibitor of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSFR1), on disease severity in a mouse model of SCA1...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545516/improving-the-regenerative-potential-of-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-by-overexpressing-prostacyclin-synthetase-and-its-application-in-spinal-cord-repair
#7
May-Jywan Tsai, Chi-Ting Huang, Yong-San Huang, Ching-Feng Weng, Song-Kun Shyue, Ming-Chao Huang, Dann-Ying Liou, Yan-Ru Lin, Chu-Hsun Cheng, Huai-Sheng Kuo, Yilo Lin, Meng-Jen Lee, Wen-Hung Huang, Wen-Cheng Huang, Henrich Cheng
BACKGROUND: Olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC), specialized glia that ensheathe bundles of olfactory nerves, have been reported as a favorable substrate for axonal regeneration. Grafting OEC to injured spinal cord appears to facilitate axonal regeneration although the functional recovery is limited. In an attempt to improve the growth-promoting properties of OEC, we transduced prostacyclin synthase (PGIS) to OEC via adenoviral (Ad) gene transfer and examined the effect of OEC with enhanced prostacyclin synthesis in co-culture and in vivo...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545340/optimized-methods-for-rapidly-dissecting-spinal-cords-and-harvesting-spinal-motor-neurons-with-high-survival-and-purity-from-rats-at-different-embryonic-stages
#8
Shudong Chen, Ruimin Tian, Hui Li, Meihui Chen, Hu Zhang, Dingkun Lin
STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study, protocol optimization. OBJECTIVES: To investigate and compare the isolation of spinal motor neurons from embryonic rats at different embryonic stages, and develop optimized methods for rapidly dissecting spinal cords and harvesting spinal motor neurons with high survival and purity. SETTING: Guangdong Provincial Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China. METHODS: Embryonic rats at different embryonic stages (12-18 days) were used to isolate spinal motor neurons...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545157/the-aminoestrogen-prolame-increases-recognition-memory-and-hippocampal-neuronal-spine-density-in-aged-mice
#9
Alfonso Diaz, Samuel Treviño, Rubén Vázquez-Roque, Berenice Venegas, Blanca Espinosa, Gonzalo Flores, Juan Manuel Fernández-G, Luis F Montaño, Jorge Guevara
The aging brain shows biochemical and morphological changes in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons from the limbic system associated with memory loss. Prolame (N-(3-hydroxy-1,3,5 (10) -estratrien-17β-yl) -3-hydroxypropylamine) is a non-feminizing aminoestrogen with antithrombotic activity that prevents neuronal deterioration, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of prolame on motor and cognitive processes, as well as its influence on the dendritic morphology of neurons at the CA1, CA3 and granule cells of the dentate gyrus (DG) regions of hippocampus (HP), and medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of aged mice...
May 25, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544974/cetuximab-modified-collagen-scaffold-directs-neurogenesis-of-injury-activated-endogenous-neural-stem-cells-for-acute-spinal-cord-injury-repair
#10
Xing Li, Yannan Zhao, Shixiang Cheng, Sufang Han, Muya Shu, Bing Chen, Xuyi Chen, Fengwu Tang, Nuo Wang, Yue Tu, Bin Wang, Zhifeng Xiao, Sai Zhang, Jianwu Dai
Studies have shown that endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) activated by spinal cord injury (SCI) primarily generate astrocytes to form glial scar. The NSCs do not differentiate into neurons because of the adverse microenvironment. In this study, we defined the activation timeline of endogenous NSCs in rats with severe SCI. These injury-activated NSCs then migrated into the lesion site. Cetuximab, an EGFR signaling antagonist, significantly increased neurogenesis in the lesion site. Meanwhile, implanting cetuximab modified linear ordered collagen scaffolds (LOCS) into SCI lesion sites in dogs resulted in neuronal regeneration, including neuronal differentiation, maturation, myelination, and synapse formation...
May 18, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543166/chronic-emgs-in-treadmill-running-sod1-mice-reveal-early-changes-in-muscle-activation
#11
K A Quinlan, E Kajtaz, J D Ciolino, R D Imhoff-Manuel, M C Tresch, C J Heckman, V M Tysseling
To improve our understanding of early disease mechanisms and find reliable biomarkers of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a progressive neurodegenerative disease, we measured electromyogram (EMG) activity in hind limb muscles of SOD1G93A mice. In contrast to clinical diagnostic measures using EMGs, which are performed on quiescent patients, we monitored activity during treadmill running in order to detect presymptomatic changes in motor patterning. Chronic EMG electrodes were implanted into vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris posterior (BFP), lateral gastrocnemius (LG), and tibialis anterior (TA) in mice from postnatal day (P) 55-100, and results were assessed using linear mixed models...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541889/distinct-responses-of-purkinje-neurons-and-roles-of-simple-spikes-during-associative-motor-learning-in-larval-zebrafish
#12
Thomas C Harmon, Uri Magaram, David L McLean, Indira M Raman
To study cerebellar activity during learning, we made whole-cell recordings from larval zebrafish Purkinje cells while monitoring fictive swimming during associative conditioning. Fish learned to swim in response to visual stimulation preceding tactile stimulation of the tail. Learning was abolished by cerebellar ablation. All Purkinje cells showed task-related activity. Based on how many complex spikes emerged during learned swimming, they were classified as multiple, single, or zero complex spike (MCS, SCS, ZCS) cells...
May 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541476/7-8-dihydroxyflavone-ameliorates-cognitive-and-motor-deficits-in-a-huntington-s-disease-mouse-model-through-specific-activation-of-the-plc%C3%AE-1-pathway
#13
Gerardo García-Díaz Barriga, Albert Giralt, Marta Anglada-Huguet, Nuria Gaja-Capdevila, Javier G Orlandi, Jordi Soriano, Josep-Maria Canals, Jordi Alberch
Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease with motor, cognitive and psychiatric impairment. Dysfunctions in HD models have been related to reduced levels of striatal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and imbalance between its receptors TrkB and p75(NTR). Thus, molecules with activity on the BDNF/TrkB/p75 system can have therapeutic potential. 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) was described as a TrkB agonist in several models of neuro-degenerative diseases, however, its TrkB activation profile needs further investigation due to its pleiotropic properties and divergence from BDNF effect...
May 24, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541214/investigating-synchronous-oscillation-and-deep-brain-stimulation-treatment-in-a-model-of-cortico-basal-ganglia-network
#14
Meili Lu, Xile Wei, Kenneth A Loparo
Altered firing properties and increased pathological oscillations in the basal ganglia have been proven to be hallmarks of Parkinson's disease. Increasing evidence suggests that abnormal synchronous oscillations and suppression in the cortex may also play a critical role in the pathogenic process and treatment of Parkinson's disease. In our study, a new closed-loop network including the cortex and basal ganglia using the Izhikevich models is proposed to investigate the synchrony and pathological oscillations in motor circuits and their modulation by deep brain stimulation (DBS)...
May 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540663/bmaa-and-neurodegenerative-illness
#15
Paul Alan Cox, Richard M Kostrzewa, Gilles J Guillemin
The cyanobacterial toxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) now appears to be a cause of Guamanian amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism dementia complex (ALS/PDC). Its production by cyanobacteria throughout the world combined with multiple mechanisms of BMAA neurotoxicity, particularly to vulnerable subpopulations of motor neurons, has significantly increased interest in investigating exposure to this non-protein amino acid as a possible risk factor for other forms of neurodegenerative illness. We here provide a brief overview of BMAA studies and provide an introduction to this collection of scientific manuscripts in this special issue on BMAA...
May 24, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540642/plasma-and-white-blood-cells-show-different-mirna-expression-profiles-in-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Christine Schwienbacher, Luisa Foco, Anne Picard, Eloina Corradi, Alice Serafin, Jörg Panzer, Stefano Zanigni, Hagen Blankenburg, Maurizio F Facheris, Giulia Giannini, Marika Falla, Pietro Cortelli, Peter P Pramstaller, Andrew A Hicks
Parkinson's disease (PD) diagnosis is based on the assessment of motor symptoms, which manifest when more than 50% of dopaminergic neurons are degenerated. To date, no validated biomarkers are available for the diagnosis of PD. The aims of the present study are to evaluate whether plasma and white blood cells (WBCs) are interchangeable biomarker sources and to identify circulating plasma-based microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for an early detection of PD. We profiled plasma miRNA levels in 99 L-dopa-treated PD patients from two independent data collections, in ten drug-naïve PD patients, and in unaffected controls matched by sex and age...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540422/loss-and-remodeling-of-striatal-dendritic-spines-in-parkinson-s-disease-from-homeostasis-to-maladaptive-plasticity
#17
REVIEW
Rosa M Villalba, Yoland Smith
In Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and animal models of PD, the progressive degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) projection leads to two major changes in the morphology of striatal projection neurons (SPNs), i.e., a profound loss of dendritic spines and the remodeling of axospinous glutamatergic synapses. Striatal spine loss is an early event tightly associated with the extent of striatal DA denervation, but not the severity of parkinsonian motor symptoms, suggesting that striatal spine pruning might be a form of homeostatic plasticity that compensates for the loss of striatal DA innervation and the resulting dysregulation of corticostriatal glutamatergic transmission...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539884/the-analysis-of-two-bdnf-polymorphisms-g196a-c270t-in-chinese-sporadic-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#18
Lianping Xu, Danyang Tian, Jiao Li, Lu Chen, Lu Tang, Dongsheng Fan
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an ethnically heterogeneous motor neuron disease that results from the selective death of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is widely distributed across the central and peripheral nervous systems and plays neurotrophic and other physiological roles in various brain regions. Alterations of neurotrophin availability have been proposed as a pathogenic mechanism underlying ALS neurodegeneration. Several genetic studies have shown a significant association between schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease and certain BDNF polymorphisms, specifically G196A (rs6265) and C270T (rs56164415)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539691/goals-set-by-patients-using-the-icf-model-before-receiving-botulinum-injections-and-their-relation-to-spasticity-distribution
#19
Kevin Choi, Jaclyn Peters, Andrew Tri, Elizabeth Chapman, Ayako Sasaki, Farooq Ismail, Chris Boulias, Shannon Reid, Chetan P Phadke
Purpose: Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) is used to assess functional gains in response to treatment. Specific characteristics of the functional goals set by individuals receiving botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA) injections for spasticity management are unknown. The primary objectives of this study were to describe the characteristics of the goals set by patients before receiving BoNTA injections using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and to determine whether the pattern of spasticity distribution affected the goals set...
2017: Physiotherapy Canada. Physiothérapie Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539529/membrane-trafficking-illuminates-a-path-to-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Takafumi Hasegawa, Naoto Sugeno, Akio Kikuchi, Toru Baba, Masashi Aoki
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by progressive movement disability and a variety of non-motor symptoms. The neuropathology of PD consists of the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain and the appearance of neuronal inclusions called Lewy bodies, which contain insoluble α-synuclein, a relatively small protein originally identified in association with synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic nerve terminals. Drugs that replenish dopamine can partly alleviate the motor symptoms, but they do not cure the disease itself...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
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