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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632021/neuromyelitis-optica-application-of-computer-diagnostics-to-historical-case-reports
#1
Pablo Garcia Reitboeck, Peter Garrard, Timothy Peters
The retrospective diagnosis of illnesses by medical historians can often be difficult and prone to bias, although knowledge of the medical disorders of historical figures is key to the understanding of their behavior and reactions. The recent application of computer diagnostics to historical figures allows an objective differential diagnosis to be accomplished. Taking an example from clinical neurology, we analyzed the earliest reported cases of Devic's disease (neuromyelitis optica) that commonly affects the optic nerve and spinal cord and was previously often confused with multiple sclerosis...
February 10, 2017: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630808/management-of-acute-uncomplicated-diverticulitis-may-exclude-antibiotic-therapy
#2
REVIEW
Jonathan Mayl, Mikhail Marchenko, Emily Frierson
Diverticulitis is a common ailment that is prevalent in the developed world. As such, the management of diverticulitis places a substantial economic burden on healthcare. Research is ongoing to further elucidate both the pathogenesis of the disease, as well as ways to reduce associated expenditures. One of these emerging areas of research calls into question the use of antibiotics during treatment of acute uncomplicated diverticulitis. Current guidelines are largely based on expert opinion, with little evidence supporting the standard practice of antibiotic therapy...
May 15, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629816/tinospora-species-an-overview-of-their-modulating-effects-on-the-immune-system
#3
REVIEW
Areeful Haque, Ibrahim Jantan, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Studies on the effects of natural immunomodulators to heal various diseases related to the immune system have been a growing interest in recent years. Amongst the medicinal plants, Tinospora species (family; Menispermaceae) have been one of the widely investigated plants for their modulating effects on the immune system due to their wide use in ethnomedicine to treat various ailments related to immune-related diseases. However, their ethnopharmacological uses are mainly with limited or without scientific basis...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629185/leptadenia-reticulata-retz-wight-arn-jivanti-botanical-agronomical-phytochemical-pharmacological-and-biotechnological-aspects
#4
REVIEW
Sudipta Kumar Mohanty, Mallappa Kumara Swamy, Uma Rani Sinniah, Maniyam Anuradha
Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight & Arn. (Apocynaceae), is a traditional medicinal plant species widely used to treat various ailments such as tuberculosis, hematopoiesis, emaciation, cough, dyspnea, fever, burning sensation, night blindness, cancer, and dysentery. In Ayurveda, it is known for its revitalizing, rejuvenating, and lactogenic properties. This plant is one of the major ingredients in many commercial herbal formulations, including Speman, Envirocare, Calshakti, Antisept, and Chyawanprash. The therapeutic potential of this herb is because of the presence of diverse bioactive compounds such as α-amyrin, β-amyrin, ferulic acid, luteolin, diosmetin, rutin, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, hentricontanol, a triterpene alcohol simiarenol, apigenin, reticulin, deniculatin, and leptaculatin...
June 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629100/biomaterials-and-cells-for-cardiac-tissue-engineering-current-choices
#5
REVIEW
Rusha Chaudhuri, Madhumitha Ramachandran, Pearl Moharil, Megha Harumalani, Amit K Jaiswal
The major purpose of cardiac tissue engineering is to engineer cells on scaffolds and use it as a substitute to infarcted cardiac cells. With an ever-increasing risk of cardiac diseases there is an increasing need to have a stable and sustainable approach to cure such ailments. This review provides a comprehensive update on the cell sources and biomaterials essential for cardiac tissue engineering, ensuring their biocompatibility under a variety of conditions. Cells can be obtained from allogenic or autologous sources...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624587/the-lateral-habenula-and-alcohol-role-of-glutamate-and-m-type-potassium-channels
#6
REVIEW
Avi Shah, Wanhong Zuo, Seungwoo Kang, Jing Li, Rao Fu, Haifeng Zhang, Alex Bekker, Jiang-Hong Ye
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) or alcoholism is a chronic relapsing disorder. Our knowledge of alcoholism hinges on our understanding of its effects on the brain. This review will center on the effects of alcohol in the lateral habenula (LHb), an epithalamic structure that connects the forebrain with the midbrain and encodes aversive signaling. Like many addictive drugs, alcohol has both rewarding and aversive properties. While alcohol's euphoric property is believed to be important for the initiation of drinking, increasing evidence suggests that alcohol's negative affect plays a critical role in excessive drinking and alcohol dependence...
June 14, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613396/evaluation-of-acetylcholinesterase-and-carbonic-anhydrase-inhibition-profiles-of-1-2-3-4-6-pentasubstituted-4-hydroxy-cyclohexanes
#7
Umit M Kocyigit, Parham Taslimi, Hayreddin Gezegen, İlhami Gulçin, Mustafa Ceylan
Carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC 4.2.1.1) is used for remedial purposes for several years, as there is significant focus on expanding more new activators (CAAs) and high affinity inhibitors. Alzheimer's disease and other similar ailments such as dementia and vascular dementia with Lewy bodies reduce cholinergic activity in the important areas involved in cognition and memory. Prevalent drugs for the symptomatic therapy of dementia are significant in increasing the associated cholinergic deficiency by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613271/an-evaluation-of-the-proposed-worker-protection-standard-with-respect-to-pesticide-exposure-and-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Alica Stubnova Sparling, David W Martin, Lillian B Posey
Citing a lack of information, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency prudently did not account for the benefits of averting many chronic diseases in analyzing the Worker Protection Standards (WPS) revisions. We demonstrate that sufficient information can exist, using the example of the benefits to agricultural workers of reduced Parkinson's disease (PD) due to reduced pesticide exposure. We define the benefits as the monetary value gained by improving quality of lives of people who would otherwise develop PD, plus the value of medical care cost averted and income not lost due to being healthy...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611686/hypoxia-related-hormonal-appetite-modulation-in-humans-during-rest-and-exercise-mini-review
#9
REVIEW
Tadej Debevec
Obesity is associated with numerous chronic ailments and represents one of the major health and economic issues in the modernized societies. Accordingly, there is an obvious need for novel treatment approaches. Recently, based on the reports of reduced appetite and subsequent weight loss following high-altitude sojourns, exposure to hypoxia has been proposed as a viable weight-reduction strategy. While altitude-related appetite modulation is complex and not entirely clear, hypoxia-induced alterations in hormonal appetite modulation might be among the key underlying mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609838/hepatoprotective-mechanism-of-lygodium-microphyllum-cav-r-br-through-ultrastructural-signaling-prevention-against-carbon-tetrachloride-ccl4-mediated-oxidative-stress
#10
Charles Gnanaraj, Muhammad Dawood Shah, Tan Tek Song, Mohammad Iqbal
Plants have been consumed in medicinal practices for centuries. Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) R.Br. (Lygodiaceae), also known as Old World Climbing Fern, is a medicinal plant used by local communities in Sabah for skin and dysentery ailments. This study aims to test aqueous extract of L. microphyllum leaves for hepatoprotective and immunosuppressive activity in rats. Animal studies were carried out to evaluate hepatoprotection of aqueous extract of L. microphyllum at different doses (200, 400 and 600mg/kg b...
June 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606081/isolation-of-anti-mycobacterial-compounds-from-curtisia-dentata-burm-f-c-a-sm-curtisiaceae
#11
Victor O Fadipe, Nkoana I Mongalo, Andy R Opoku, Preachers M Dikhoba, Tshepiso J Makhafola
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is counted amongst the most infectious and lethal illnesses worldwide and remains one of the major threats to human health. The aim of the current study was to isolate and characterize anti-mycobacterial compounds present in Curtisia dentata (Burm.f.) C.A.Sm , a medicinal plant reportedly used in the treatment of tuberculosis, stomach ailments and sexually transmitted infections. METHODS: The bioassay guided principle was followed to isolate the anti-mycobacterial compounds...
June 12, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600164/mercury-based-drug-in-ancient-india-the-red-sulfide-of-mercury-rasasindur-in-nanoscale
#12
Priyabrata Mukhi, Swapna Sarita Mohapatra, M Bhattacharjee, K K Ray, T S Muraleedharan, A Arun, R Sathyavathi, R R Juluri, P V Satyam, Alok K Panda, Ashis Biswas, S Nayak, Sreedhar Bojja, S Pratihar, Sujit Roy
Mercury is one of the elements which had attracted the attention of the chemists and physicians of ancient India and China. Among the various metal based drugs which utilize mercury, we became interested in the red sulfide of mercury which is known in ancient Indian literature as rasasindur (alias rasasindura, rasasindoor, rasasinduram, sindur, or sindoor) and is used extensively in various ailments and diseases. Following various physico-chemical characterizations it is concluded that rasasindur is chemically pure α-HgS with Hg:S ratio as 1:1...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596011/emmenagogue-properties-of-milicia-excelsa-welw-c-c-berg-moraceae-based-at-least-in-part-on-its-ability-to-correlate-the-activity-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-axis-to-that-of-the-ovaries
#13
Marie Alfrede Mvondo, Aude Jaelle Touomo Sakock, Sylvin Benjamin Ateba, Charline Florence Awounfack, Telesphore Nanbo Gueyo, Dieudonné Njamen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Milicia excelsa (Welw.) C.C. Berg (Moraceae) is a medicinal plant recommended over tropical Africa as a cure for several ailments including amenorrhea. This is the hallmark of an ovarian lesion or a dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis which may lead to infertility, osteoporosis or endometrial cancer. However, regardless these traditional claims, no scientific report dealing with emmenagogue properties has been reported yet. AIM OF THE STUDY: To bring scientific evidence to the curative action of the plant, we proposed evaluating the effects of a root aqueous extract of Milicia excelsa on female Wistar rat sexual maturation...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595610/the-efficacy-and-safety-of-danggui-sayuk-ga-osuyu-saenggang-tang-on-korean-patients-with-cold-hypersensitivity-in-the-hands-study-protocol-for-a-pilot-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-parallel-group-clinical-trial
#14
Youme Ko, Ho-Yeon Go, Yoon-Young Cho, Ji-Hye Shin, Tae-Hoon Kim, Dong-Jun Choi, Jin-Moo Lee, Jun-Bok Jang, Yun-Kyung Song, Seong-Gyu Ko, Seung-Ho Sun, Chan-Yong Jeon
BACKGROUND: In recent years, cold hypersensitivity in the hands (CHH) has become a common ailment of women in Korea. It can lead to gynecological problems such as irregular menstruation, miscarriage, and infertility. Traditionally, Korean herbal medicine has been the primary treatment method used to balance thermoregulation in the human body; however, its effectiveness has not been confirmed through systematic study. Thus, in this trial, we will investigate the feasibility of a full randomized clinical trial, Danggui-Sayuk-Ga-Osuyu-Saenggang-tang (DSGOST) in Korean women with CHH...
June 8, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593516/antidepressant-and-anxiolytic-effects-of-garcinia-indica-fruit-rind-via-monoaminergic-pathway
#15
Isha Dhamija, Milind Parle, Sandeep Kumar
Depression and anxiety are the most crippling neuropsychiatric disorders of this modern era. These mostly occur as anxiety followed by depression or in mixed state. Therefore, there is an urgent need of a safe and effective treatment, which proves its worth in this ailment. What else than a conventional food would be a better choice for a convenient therapy. Therefore, Garcinia indica, commonly known as Kokam, fruit rind has been used in the present study to investigate its antidepressant and anti-anxiety potential using forced swim test, tail suspension test, and reserpine-induced hypothermia; and elevated plus maze, hole-board test, and light dark model, respectively...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589503/promise-of-adeno-associated-virus-as-a-gene-therapy-vector-for-cardiovascular-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Abesh Bera, Dwaipayan Sen
Cardiovascular diseases pose a unique threat to global mortality because it presents as one of the most diverse conglomerations of pathophysiological conditions that can create significant casualty even without straying into its collateral damage. This puts them right beside obesity and cancer in terms of severity. Their pervasive nature and high prevalence prompted biologists to seek newer prophylactic avenues of addressing this global hazard, among which adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy rose to significant prominence...
June 7, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588639/elephantorrhiza-elephantina-traditional-uses-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology-of-an-important-medicinal-plant-species-in-southern-africa
#17
REVIEW
Alfred Maroyi
Elephantorrhiza elephantina is used in southern Africa as traditional remedy for a wide range of human diseases and ailments including dermatological diseases, gastrointestinal system disorders, sexual dysfunction, sexually transmitted infections, and wounds. The rhizome decoction of E. elephantina is widely used by small-scale farmers in Botswana and South Africa as ethnoveterinary medicine for cattle, goats, horses, pigs, poultry, and sheep. Several classes of phytochemical compounds including anthocyanidins, anthraquinones, esters, fatty acids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, glycosides, polysterols, saponins, sugars, tannins, and triterpenoids have been isolated from E...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586613/hyperlactetemia-and-its-trends-in-critically-ill-children-admitted-in-pediatric-intensive-care-unit-of-a-developing-country
#18
Qalab Abbas, Muhammad Tariq Jamil, Leena Jafri, Anwar Ul Haque, Vivek Khetpal
OBJECTIVE: There is increasing evidence that in setting of critical ailments clinical signs lag biomarkers like Lactate and hyperlactetemia can be the only marker for this disorder. This study was conducted to describe the incidence of hyperlactatemia in critically ill children and its association with outcome. METHODS: Retrospective review of medical records of all children who had their lactic acid (LA) levels measured during their admission in PICU from January 2014 to December 2015 was done...
October 2016: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583800/analysis-of-natural-product-regulation-of-cannabinoid-receptors-in-the-treatment-of-human-disease
#19
REVIEW
S Badal, K N Smith, R Rajnarayanan
The organized tightly regulated signaling relays engaged by the cannabinoid receptors (CBs) and their ligands, G proteins and other effectors, together constitute the endocannabinoid system (ECS). This system governs many biological functions including cell proliferation, regulation of ion transport and neuronal messaging. This review will firstly examine the physiology of the ECS, briefly discussing some anomalies in the relay of the ECS signaling as these are consequently linked to maladies of global concern including neurological disorders, cardiovascular disease and cancer...
June 2, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582839/beneficial-effect-of-faradic-stimulation-treatment-on-the-rehabilitation-of-hysterical-paraplegia
#20
Ozgur Zeliha Karaahmet, Eda Gurcay, Hande Sancioglu, Ece Unlu, Aytul Cakci
Hysterical paralysis, a type of conversion disorder, presents with the loss of motor or sensory function. Although this disorder is nonorganic, it resembles the symptoms of a structural disease of the nervous system. It is generally associated with a traumatic or social event. The patients often require excessive testing and comprehensive assessment in exposing this psychogenic ailment. We reported the most dramatic type of conversion disorder, hysterical paralysis, in which full recovery was obtained with early recognition and rehabilitation approach including faradic stimulation...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
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