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Critical care, public health research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876082/evaluating-data-abstraction-assistant-a-novel-software-application-for-data-abstraction-during-systematic-reviews-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Ian J Saldanha, Christopher H Schmid, Joseph Lau, Kay Dickersin, Jesse A Berlin, Jens Jap, Bryant T Smith, Simona Carini, Wiley Chan, Berry De Bruijn, Byron C Wallace, Susan M Hutfless, Ida Sim, M Hassan Murad, Sandra A Walsh, Elizabeth J Whamond, Tianjing Li
BACKGROUND: Data abstraction, a critical systematic review step, is time-consuming and prone to errors. Current standards for approaches to data abstraction rest on a weak evidence base. We developed the Data Abstraction Assistant (DAA), a novel software application designed to facilitate the abstraction process by allowing users to (1) view study article PDFs juxtaposed to electronic data abstraction forms linked to a data abstraction system, (2) highlight (or "pin") the location of the text in the PDF, and (3) copy relevant text from the PDF into the form...
November 22, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875820/local-and-global-hiv-aging-demographics-and-research
#2
Courtenay Sprague, Shelley M Brown
This introduction serves to foreground current patterns associated with HIV and aging, globally. We highlight key trends by World Health Organization sub-region, and identify gaps in existing knowledge. HIV and aging is insufficiently documented, as prevalence data for those over age 49 have not generally been captured by many countries, or by UNAIDS. Despite limited data and data systems, several dominant trends among adults aged 50 and older are discernible, including: growing HIV risk and prevalence is increasingly evident among maturing adults, worldwide; older individuals at risk of or living with HIV, and their health providers, fail to recognize risk and symptoms, leading to disease progression and delayed treatment...
2017: Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862249/a-critical-caring-theory-of-protection-for-migrants-and-seasonal-farmworkers
#3
Jennifer E Shearer
Pesticide exposures represent inequities among a vulnerable population of migrant and seasonal farmworkers. A social justice theory synthesized from an environmental health research framework, a middle range theory of critical caring, and literature on pesticide exposure is presented as a situation-specific public health practice theory. Concepts from the physiological, epistemological, vulnerability, and health protection domains are related to concepts of critical caring revealing protective strategies for vulnerable populations exposed to pesticides...
November 14, 2016: Public Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857997/a-critical-examination-of-the-use-of-trained-health-coaches-to-decrease-the-metabolic-syndrome-for-participants-of-a-community-based-diabetes-prevention-and-management-program
#4
Brandon Lucke-Wold, Samantha Shawley, John Spencer Ingels, Jonathan Stewart, Ranjita Misra
The epidemic of obesity and diabetes in the United States poses major challenge to the prevention and management of chronic diseases. Furthermore, when this is viewed in other components of the metabolic syndrome (i.e., the burden of high cholesterol and hypertension), the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome continues to rise in the USA continued challenge is how to deal with this epidemic from a medical and public health standpoint. Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) is a unique approach and offers a novel perspective for answering this challenge...
2016: Journal of Healthcare Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846123/patient-nursing-and-medical-staff-experiences-and-perceptions-of-the-care-of-people-with-palliative-esophagogastric-cancer-a-systematic-review-of-the-qualitative-evidence
#5
Alison Cowley, Catrin Evans, Fiona Bath-Hextall, Joanne Cooper
BACKGROUND: Esophagogastric cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and its incidence is increasing. The disease progresses quickly and five-year survival rates are poor. Treatment with palliative intent is provided for the majority of patients but there remains a lack of empirical evidence on the most effective service models to support esophagogastric cancer patients. OBJECTIVES: The overall objective of this systematic review was to synthesize the best available evidence on the experiences and perceptions of patients and health professionals with regard to the care of people diagnosed with palliative esophagogastric cancer...
October 2016: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843818/the-dire-need-for-primary-care-specialization-in-india-concerns-and-challenges
#6
Nafis Faizi, Najam Khalique, Anees Ahmad, Mohammad Salman Shah
Primary health care is an evidence-based priority, but it is still inadequately supported in many countries. Ironically, on one hand, India is a popular destination for medical tourism due to the affordability of high quality of health care and, on the other hand, ill health and health care are the main reasons for becoming poor through medical poverty traps. Surprisingly, this is despite the fact that India was committed to 'Health for All by 2000' in the past, and is committed to 'Universal Health Coverage' by 2022! Clearly, these commitments are destined to fail unless something is done to improve the present state of affairs...
April 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801802/water-related-impacts-of-climate-change-on-agriculture-and-subsequently-on-public-health-a-review-for-generalists-with-particular-reference-to-pakistan
#7
REVIEW
Toqeer Ahmed, Miklas Scholz, Furat Al-Faraj, Wajeeha Niaz
Water-related impacts due to change in climatic conditions ranging from water scarcity to intense floods and storms are increasing in developing countries like Pakistan. Water quality and waterborne diseases like hepatitis, cholera, typhoid, malaria and dengue fever are increasing due to chaotic urbanization, industrialization, poor hygienic conditions, and inappropriate water management. The morbidity rate is high due to lack of health care facilities, especially in developing countries. Organizations linked to the Government of Pakistan (e...
October 27, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783428/new-curricular-design-in-biostatistics-to-prepare-residents-for-an-evidence-based-practice-and-life-long-learning-education-a-pilot-approach
#8
A Arias, O A Peters, I L Broyles
AIM: To develop, implement and evaluate an innovative curriculum in biostatistics in response to the needs of fostering critical thinking in graduate health care education for evidence-based practice and life-long learning education. METHODOLOGY: The curriculum was designed for first-year residents in a postgraduate endodontic program using a six-step approach to curriculum development to provide sufficient understanding to critically evaluate biomedical publications, to design the best research strategy to address a specific problem and to analyse data by appropriate statistical test selection...
October 26, 2016: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775402/youth-psychotherapy-outcomes-in-usual-care-and-predictors-of-outcome-group-membership
#9
Ashley M Smith, Amanda Jensen-Doss
Improving mental health services for youth in usual care (UC) is one of the most critical issues in mental health services research. Identification of change groups in UC (e.g., recovery, improvement, no response, deterioration) can help researchers gain a richer understanding of UC and facilitate efforts to tailor UC to individuals who may not be responding well to treatment. This study used the reliable change index (RCI; Jacobson & Truax, 1991) to examine change groups within youth UC on two parent report outcome measures-symptom severity and functioning-using a large, naturalistic sample of youth (N = 672) treated in UC served at four clinics operating under a large county-wide public mental health authority...
October 24, 2016: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773608/breastfeeding-initiation-and-support-a-literature-review-of-what-women-value-and-the-impact-of-early-discharge
#10
Lucy James, Linda Sweet, Roslyn Donnellan-Fernandez
PROBLEM: Early discharge following birth has become an emerging phenomenon in many countries. It is likely early discharge has an impact on the establishment of breastfeeding. OBJECTIVE: To critically appraise the evidence on what women value in relation to breastfeeding initiation and support, and investigate the impact early discharge can have on these values. METHOD: A literature search was conducted for publications since 2005 using the following databases: Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Medline, Scopus and PsycINFO; 21 primary articles were selected and included in the review...
October 20, 2016: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771418/how-unlicensed-drug-vendors-in-rural-uganda-perceive-their-role-in-the-management-of-childhood-malaria
#11
Eric Liow, Rosemin Kassam, Richard Sekiwunga
BACKGROUND: A large number of caregivers in Uganda rely on the private drug delivery sector to manage childhood illnesses such as malaria. In rural settings where the formal private sector is scarce, unlicensed retail drug outlets are an important initial source of care for households. Despite their abundance, little is known about them. This study explores unlicensed retail drug outlet vendors' perceptions of their practice and social environment in one rural district of Uganda. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A qualitative design using semi-structured interviews was conducted with vendors from unlicensed retail drug outlets across all 10 sub-counties of Butaleja District...
October 19, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768548/the-shift-in-emphasis-from-risk-based-to-age-based-hepatitis-c-virus-hcv-testing-in-the-us-tends-to-remove-injection-drug-use-from-discourse-on-hcv
#12
Ashly E Jordan, David C Perlman
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is hyperendemic among people who inject drugs; nonsterile drug injection is the principle risk for HCV acquisition. Due to gaps in the HCV care continuum, there have been recommendations in the United States emphasizing age-rather than risk-based testing strategies. The central research focus of this project is to explore the meanings and implications of the shift in emphasis from risk-based to age-based HCV testing with regard to people who use drugs...
October 21, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767013/models-and-applications-for-measuring-the-impact-of-health-research-update-of-a-systematic-review-for-the-health-technology-assessment-programme
#13
James Raftery, Steve Hanney, Trish Greenhalgh, Matthew Glover, Amanda Blatch-Jones
BACKGROUND: This report reviews approaches and tools for measuring the impact of research programmes, building on, and extending, a 2007 review. OBJECTIVES: (1) To identify the range of theoretical models and empirical approaches for measuring the impact of health research programmes; (2) to develop a taxonomy of models and approaches; (3) to summarise the evidence on the application and use of these models; and (4) to evaluate the different options for the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) programme...
October 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760687/towards-a-fair-consideration-of-prep-as-part-of-combination-hiv-prevention-in-latin-america
#14
Giovanni Ravasi, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Ricardo Baruch, Juan Vicente Guanira, Ricardo Luque, Carlos F Cáceres, Massimo Ghidinelli
INTRODUCTION: Despite progress in scaling up antiretroviral treatment, HIV prevention strategies have not been successful in significantly curbing HIV incidence in Latin America. HIV prevention interventions need to be expanded to target the most affected key populations with a combination approach, including new high impact technologies. Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as additional prevention choice for individuals at higher risk of infection and could become a cost-effective prevention tool...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743230/new-directions-for-diabetes-prevention-and-management-in-behavioral-medicine
#15
Barbara Stetson, Karl E Minges, Caroline R Richardson
Accelerating diabetes rates have resulted in a global public health epidemic. Lifestyle change is a cornerstone of care, yet regimen demands may result in adherence difficulties. Distress, depression, and other psychosocial concerns are higher in those with diabetes. While interventions, such as the Diabetes Prevention Program appear to be effective, further research is needed to support the translation of interventions to prevent diabetes. Studies assessing optimal approaches to promoting effective decision making, coping and adherence are needed...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736625/models-of-maternity-care-evidence-for-midwifery-continuity-of-care
#16
Caroline Se Homer
There has been substantial reform in the past decade in the provision of maternal and child health services, and specifically regarding models of maternity care. Increasingly, midwives are working together in small groups to provide midwife-led continuity of care. This article reviews the current evidence for models of maternity care that provide midwifery continuity of care, in terms of their impact on clinical outcomes, the views of midwives and childbearing women, and health service costs. A systematic review of midwife-led continuity of care models identified benefits for women and babies, with no adverse effects...
October 17, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731918/nurse-competence-scale-a-systematic-and-psychometric-review
#17
Mervi Flinkman, Helena Leino-Kilpi, Olivia Numminen, Yunsuk Jeon, Liisa Kuokkanen, Riitta Meretoja
AIM: To report a systematic and psychometric review. BACKGROUND: The Nurse Competence Scale is currently the most widely used generic instrument to measure registered nurses' competence in different phases of their careers. Based on a decade of research, this review provides a summary of the existing evidence. DESIGN: A systematic literature review of research evidence and psychometric properties. DATA SOURCES: Nine databases from 2004 - October 2015...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725680/diagnosis-of-cancer-as-an-emergency-a-critical-review-of-current-evidence
#18
REVIEW
Yin Zhou, Gary A Abel, Willie Hamilton, Kathy Pritchard-Jones, Cary P Gross, Fiona M Walter, Cristina Renzi, Sam Johnson, Sean McPhail, Lucy Elliss-Brookes, Georgios Lyratzopoulos
Many patients with cancer are diagnosed through an emergency presentation, which is associated with inferior clinical and patient-reported outcomes compared with those of patients who are diagnosed electively or through screening. Reducing the proportion of patients with cancer who are diagnosed as emergencies is, therefore, desirable; however, the optimal means of achieving this aim are uncertain owing to the involvement of different tumour, patient and health-care factors, often in combination. Most relevant evidence relates to patients with colorectal or lung cancer in a few economically developed countries, and defines emergency presentations contextually (that is, whether patients presented to emergency health-care services and/or received emergency treatment shortly before their diagnosis) as opposed to clinically (whether patients presented with life-threatening manifestations of their cancer)...
October 11, 2016: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717391/the-oral-health-of-refugees-and-asylum-seekers-a-scoping-review
#19
Mark Tambe Keboa, Natalie Hiles, Mary Ellen Macdonald
INTRODUCTION: Improving the oral health of refugees and asylum seekers is a global priority, yet little is known about the overall burden of oral diseases and their causes for this population. OBJECTIVE: To synthesize available evidence on the oral health of, and access to oral health care by this population. METHODS: Using a scoping review methodology, we retrieved 3321 records from eight databases and grey literature; 44 publications met the following inclusion criteria: empirical research focused on refugees and/or asylum seekers' oral health, published between 1990 and 2014 in English, French, Italian, Portuguese, or Spanish...
October 7, 2016: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707821/human-resource-information-systems-in-health-care-a-systematic-evidence-review
#20
Aizhan Tursunbayeva, Raluca Bunduchi, Massimo Franco, Claudia Pagliari
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aimed to: (1) determine the prevalence and scope of existing research on human resource information systems (HRIS) in health organizations; (2) analyze, classify, and synthesize evidence on the processes and impacts of HRIS development, implementation, and adoption; and (3) generate recommendations for HRIS research, practice, and policy, with reference to the needs of different stakeholders. METHODS: A structured search strategy was used to interrogate 10 electronic databases indexing research from the health, social, management, technology, and interdisciplinary sciences, alongside gray literature sources and reference lists of qualifying studies...
October 5, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
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