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André Busch, Grit Kunert, Natalie Wielsch, Yannick Pauchet
Cellulose is a major component of the primary and secondary cell walls in plants. Cellulose is considered to be the most abundant biopolymer on Earth and represents a large potential source of metabolic energy. Yet, cellulose degradation is rare and mostly restricted to cellulolytic microorganisms. Recently, various metazoans, including leaf beetles, have been found to encode their own cellulases, giving them the ability to degrade cellulose independently of cellulolytic symbionts. Here, we analyzed the cellulosic capacity of the leaf beetle Gastrophysa viridula, which typically feeds on Rumex plants...
May 17, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
Oliver Klein, Thorsten Hanke, Grit Nerbrich, Junfeng Yan, Benedikt Schubert, Patrick Giavalisco, Frank Noack, Herbert Thiele, Salah A Mohamed
PURPOSE: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a cardiac arrhythmia characterized by a rapid and irregular heart rhythm. AF types, paroxysmal (PX), persistent (PE) and long-lasting persistent (LSP), requires differences in clinical management. Unfortunately, a significant proportion of AF patients are clinical misclassified. Therefore, our study aim that MALDI-Imaging (IMS) is valuable as a diagnostic aid in AF subtypes assessment. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients were clinically classified according guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology...
May 13, 2018: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
Louise Lang Lehrskov, Mark Preben Lyngbaek, Line Soederlund, Grit Elster Legaard, Jan Adam Ehses, Sarah Elizabeth Heywood, Nicolai Jacob Wewer Albrechtsen, Jens Juul Holst, Kristian Karstoft, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Helga Ellingsgaard
Gastric emptying is a critical regulator of postprandial glucose and delayed gastric emptying is an important mechanism of improved glycemic control achieved by short-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs in clinical practice. Here we report on a novel regulatory mechanism of gastric emptying in humans. We show that increasing interleukin (IL)-6 concentrations delays gastric emptying leading to reduced postprandial glycemia. IL-6 furthermore reduces insulin secretion in a GLP-1-dependent manner while effects on gastric emptying are GLP-1 independent...
April 28, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Gregor Seliger, Katharina Chaoui, Christine Lautenschläger, Klaus-Vitold Jenderka, Christian Kunze, Grit Gesine Ruth Hiller, Michael Tchirikov
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess, if the biomechanical properties of the lower uterine segment (LUS) in women with a previous cesarean section (CS) can be determined by ultrasound (US) elastography. The first aim was to establish an ex-vivo LUS tensile-stress-strain-rupture(break point) analysis with the possibility of simultaneously using US elastography. The second aim was to investigate the relationship between measurement results of LUS stiffness using US elastography in-/ex-vivo with results of tensile-stress-strain-rupture analysis, and to compare different US elastography LUS-stiffness-measurement methods ex-vivo...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Adam Smith, Ian Gill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 5, 2018: Veterinary Record
Marina Amaral, Isabela Sandim Souza Leite Weitzel, Tais Silvestri, Luis Felipe Guilardi, Gabriel Kalil Rocha Pereira, Luiz Felipe Valandro
This study aimed to investigate slow crack growth (SCG) behavior of a zirconia ceramic after grinding and simulated aging with low-temperature degradation (LTD). Complementary analysis of hardness, surface topography, crystalline phase transformation, and roughness were also measured. Disc-shaped specimens (15 mm Ø × 1.2 mm thick, n = 42) of a full-contour Y-TZP ceramic (Zirlux FC, Amherst) were manufactured according to ISO:6872-2008, and then divided into: Ctrl - as-sintered condition; Ctrl LTD - as-sintered after aging in autoclave (134°C, 2 bar, 20 h); G - ground with coarse diamond bur (grit size 181 μm); G LTD - ground and aged...
2018: Brazilian Oral Research
Mingshu Li, Meng-Cheng Wang, Yiyun Shou, Chuxian Zhong, Fen Ren, Xintong Zhang, Wendeng Yang
This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties and factorial invariance of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were performed to verify the BSI-18's factor structure in a large sample of Chinese insurance professionals ( N = 2363, 62.7% women; age range = 19-70). Multigroup CFA were performed to test the measurement invariance of the model with the best fit across genders. In addition, structural equation modeling was conducted to test the correlations between the BSI-18 and two covariates - social support perception and grit trait...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Jacqueline D Peacock, Matthew G Pridgeon, Elizabeth A Tovar, Curt J Essenburg, Megan J Bowman, Zachary B Madaj, Julie Koeman, Elissa A Boguslawski, Jamie Grit, Rebecca D Dodd, Vadim Khachaturov, Diana M Cardona, Mark Chen, David G Kirsch, Flavio Maina, Rosanna Dono, Mary E Winn, Carrie R Graveel, Matthew R Steensma
Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors (MPNSTs) are highly resistant sarcomas that occur in up to 13% of individuals with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1). Genomic analysis of longitudinally collected tumor samples in a case of MPNST disease progression revealed early hemizygous microdeletions in NF1 and TP53, with progressive amplifications of MET, HGF, and EGFR. To examine the role of MET in MPNST progression, we developed mice with enhanced MET expression and Nf1 ablation (Nf1fl/KO;lox-stop-loxMETtg/+;Plp-creERTtg/+; referred to as NF1 MET)...
May 2, 2018: Cancer Research
Regitse Højgaard Christensen, Anne-Sophie Wedell-Neergaard, Louise Lang Lehrskov, Grit Elster Legård, Emma Berndt Dorph, Stine Nymand, Maria Korf Ball, Morten Zacho, Robin Christensen, Helga Ellingsgaard, Jaya Birgitte Rosenmeier, Rikke Krogh-Madsen, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Kristian Karstoft
BACKGROUND: Exercise reduces the amount of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. The underlying mechanisms responsible for these exercise-induced adaptations are unclear, but they may involve lipolytic actions of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Contracting skeletal muscles secrete IL-6, leading to increased circulating IL-6 levels in response to exercise. The aim of this study is to investigate whether IL-6 is involved in mediating the effects of exercise on visceral and epicardial adipose tissue volume and glycaemic control...
May 2, 2018: Trials
Libin Zhang, Tao Zhang, Bicheng Guo, Lan Yan, Feng Jiang
Single grit scratching is a basic form of material removal for many processes, such as grinding single point diamond turning and coating bonding performance tests. It has been widely used in the study of micro-scale and nano-scale material removal mechanisms. In this study, single grit linearly loading scratching tests were carried out on a scratching tester. A Rockwell indenter made of natural diamond was selected as the tool used, and the material of the workpiece was oxygen-free copper. Scratch topography was measured using a super-depth microscope to analyze the material deformation of the scratching process...
April 26, 2018: Materials
Guoying Zheng, Binbin Guan, Penghui Hu, Xingying Qi, Pingting Wang, Yu Kong, Zihao Liu, Ping Gao, Rui Li, Xu Zhang, Xudong Wu, Lei Sui
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of hierarchical micro/nanoscale topography of direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) titanium surfaces in osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), as well as the possible underlying epigenetic mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three groups of titanium specimens were prepared, including DMLS group, sandblasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) group and smooth titanium (Ti) group. BMSCs were cultured on discs followed by surface characterization...
April 27, 2018: Cell Proliferation
Jaime Martinez-Harms, Anne-Christin Warskulat, Bettina Dudek, Grit Kunert, Sybille Lorenz, Bill S Hansson, Bernd Schneider
Despite the increasing evidence for biosynthetic connections between flower pigments and volatiles, examples of such relationships in polymorphic plant species remains limited. Here, we investigated color-scent associations in flowers from Papaver nudicaule (Papaveraceae). We determined the spectral reflectance and the scent composition of flowers of four color cultivars. We found that pigments and volatiles occur in specific combinations in flowers of P. nudicaule. The presence of indole in the bouquets is strongly associated with the occurrence of yellow pigments called nudicaulins, for which indole is one of the final biosynthetic precursors...
April 26, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
L Mao, M R Kaizer, M Zhao, B Guo, Y F Song, Y Zhang
Ultra-translucent zirconias are drawing immense attention due to their fascinating esthetic appearance. However, the high translucency came at the expense of diminishing strength along with the reduced ability of transformation toughening due to the increased cubic zirconia content. We aim to address these issues by infiltrating glass on the surface of an ultra-translucent zirconia (5Y-PSZ). Glasses of different shades can be used and the resulting graded glass/zirconia layer is expected to improve the material's flexural strength without compromising its esthetics...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Stefanie Brehmer, Mario Alexander Grimm, Alex Förster, Marcel Seiz-Rosenhagen, Grit Welzel, Florian Stieler, Frederik Wenz, Christoph Groden, Sabine Mai, Daniel Hänggi, Frank Anton Giordano
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor in adult patients. Tumor recurrence commonly occurs around the resection cavity, especially after subtotal resection (STR). Consequently, the extent of resection correlates with overall survival (OS), suggesting that depletion of postoperative tumor remnants will improve outcome. OBJECTIVE: To assess safety and efficacy of adding stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to the standard treatment of GBM in patients with postoperative residual tumor...
April 24, 2018: Neurosurgery
E Calciolari, S Hamlet, S Ivanovski, N Donos
BACKGROUND: It is now generally accepted that the response to a particular signal, such as the surgical trauma following implant placement, is not the result of a single linear signalling pathway, but rather reflects pathway integration, which can occur at multiple levels. Although it is well documented that both SLA and SLActive surfaces are able to promote bone formation and osseointegration, it is still unclear which are the key signalling pathways involved and how surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity might affect pathway integration...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Periodontal Research
Lingyan Ren, Mingfei Li, Yahui Pan, Xiangfeng Meng
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of polishing methods on the bonding effectiveness and durability of different resin cements to dentin. The dentin surfaces were either treated with a fine-grit diamond bur (polishing A) or further polished by polishing disks (polishing B), and then they were bonded with any one of the three resin cements, namely, etch-and-rinse, self-etch, and self-adhesive resin cements. After 24-hour or 2-year water storage, a microtensile bond strength ( μ TBS) test was performed...
2018: BioMed Research International
Michael Rigby, Grit Kühne, Rama Greenfield, Azeem Majeed, Mitch E Blair
EHRs are widely seen as a key resource in modern health care. For children not only is primary care vital, but also case-based public health systems can help ensure that all children receive immunisation and other preventive programmes. A European study showed that in 2016 in the 30 EU and EEA countries, 19 countries had widespread use of EHRs in children's primary care, while 20 countries had case-based child public health systems. However, the results show a bias of disadvantage for poorer or smaller countries...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Anderson Petrauskas, Karina Andrea Novaes Olivieri, Yasmine Mendes Pupo, Guilherme Berger, Ederson Áureo Gonçalves Betiol
Aim: This study aims to evaluate the microshear bond strength of zirconia-based ceramics with different resin cement systems and surface treatments. Materials and Methods: Forty blocks of zirconia-based ceramic were prepared and embedded in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubes with acrylic resin. After polishing, the samples were washed in an ultrasonic bath and dried in an oven for 10 min. Half of the samples were subjected to sandblasting with aluminum oxide. Blocks were divided into four groups ( n = 10) in which two resin cements were used as follows: (1) RelyX™ U100 with surface-polished zirconia; (2) RelyX™ U100 with surface-blasted zirconia; (3) Multilink with surface-polished zirconia; and 4) Multilink with surface-blasted zirconia...
March 2018: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
Mouhamed Sarr, Fatou Leye Benoist, Khaly Bane, Adjaratou Wakha Aidara, Anta Seck, Babacar Toure
Purpose: This study evaluated the immediate bonding effectiveness of five self-etch adhesive systems bonded to dentin. Materials and Methods: The microtensile bond strength of five self-etch adhesives systems, including one two-step and four one-step self-etch adhesives to dentin, was measured. Human third molars had their superficial dentin surface exposed, after which a standardized smear layer was produced using a medium-grit diamond bur. The selected adhesives were applied according to their respective manufacturer's instructions for μTBS measurement after storage in water at 37°C for 24 h...
March 2018: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
Uwe Rose, Grit Müller, Gabriele Freude, Norbert Kersten
AIM: Do the amount of workload, strain and the association between both differ between employed physician and other employees subject to social security contributions? This is investigated in this present study by comparing two representative samples. METHODS: Psycho-social working conditions were by assessed computer-assisted personal interviews and supplemented by questions about burnout and depressive symptoms. The associations were investigated by linear regression analysis including moderating effects due to differences between occupations...
April 17, 2018: Das Gesundheitswesen
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