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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698147/rip2-deficiency-attenuates-cardiac-hypertrophy-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-pressure-overload-induced-mice
#1
Cui-Hua Zhao, Xiang Ma, Hong-Yu Guo, Peng Li, Hong-Yang Liu
Although the pathological cardiac hypertrophy presents a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease is still poor. Here, we reported that receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 2 (RIP2), promoting pro-inflammatory gene expression, enhanced the pathological cardiac hypertrophy in animals. The effects of RIP2 on the cardiac hypertrophy triggered by pathological stimuli have not been fully investigated. In our study, mice were subjected to aortic banding (AB) surgery to explore the pathological, echocardiographic and molecular mechanisms...
July 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690610/toll-like-receptor-4-inhibition-improves-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-health-in-isoproterenol-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-rats
#2
Parmeshwar B Katare, Pankaj K Bagul, Amit K Dinda, Sanjay K Banerjee
BACKGROUND: Inflammation remains a crucial factor for progression of cardiac diseases and cardiac hypertrophy remains an important cause of cardiac failure over all age groups. As a key regulator of inflammation, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays an important role in pathogenesis of cardiac diseases. Being an important regulator of innate immunity, the precise pathway of TLR4-mediated cardiac complications is yet to be established. Therefore, the primary objective of the present study was to find the role of TLR4 in cardiac hypertrophy and the molecular mechanism thereof...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682940/monocyte-dependent-suppression-of-t-cell-function-in-postoperative-patients-and-abdominal-sepsis
#3
Markus Albertsmeier, Niclas J Prix, Hauke Winter, Alexandr Bazhin, Jens Werner, Martin K Angele
INTRODUCTION: Surgical trauma causes inflammation and postoperative immunosuppression. Previous studies have shown a T-cell dependent suppression of MHC II expression and other functions of antigen presenting cells. Aim of this study was to determine which immune cell initiates postoperative immunosuppression and consecutive sepsis. METHODS: We separated T-cells and monocytes in human abdominal surgery (n = 11) patients preoperatively as well as 24 hrs postoperatively and in patients who developed postoperative sepsis (n = 6)...
July 4, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681199/beneficial-effects-of-liraglutide-glp1-analog-in-the-hippocampal-inflammation
#4
Andre R C Barreto-Vianna, Marcia B Aguila, Carlos A Mandarim-de-Lacerda
The brain is very sensitive to metabolic dysfunctions induced by diets high in saturated fatty acids, leading to neuroinflammation. The liraglutide has been found to have neuroprotective effects. However, its neuroprotective action in a model of palmitate-induced neuroinflammation had not yet been evaluated. Mice were intracerebroventricular (ICV) infused with palmitate and received subcutaneous liraglutide. The hippocampal dentate gyrus and CA1 regions were analyzed (morphology and inflammation-related proteins in microglia and astrocyte by confocal microscopy)...
July 5, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658549/recent-advances-in-understanding-basophil-mediated-th2-immune-responses
#5
REVIEW
Yoshinori Yamanishi, Kensuke Miyake, Misako Iki, Hidemitsu Tsutsui, Hajime Karasuyama
Basophils, the least common granulocytes, represent only ~0.5% of peripheral blood leukocytes. Because of the small number and some similarity with mast cells, the functional significance of basophils remained questionable for a long time. Recent studies using newly-developed analytical tools have revealed crucial and non-redundant roles for basophils in various immune responses, particularly Th2 immunity including allergy and protective immunity against parasitic infections. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms how basophils mediate Th2 immune responses and the nature of basophil-derived factors involved in them...
July 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649674/synovial-fibroblast-neutrophil-interactions-promote-pathogenic-adaptive-immunity-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#6
Carmelo Carmona-Rivera, Philip M Carlucci, Erica Moore, Nithya Lingampalli, Hannes Uchtenhagen, Eddie James, Yudong Liu, Kevin L Bicker, Heidi Wahamaa, Victoria Hoffmann, Anca Irinel Catrina, PaulR Thompson, Jane H Buckner, William H Robinson, David A Fox, Mariana J Kaplan
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by synovial joint inflammation and by development of pathogenic humoral and cellular autoimmunity to citrullinated proteins. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are a source of citrullinated autoantigens and activate RA synovial fibroblasts (FLS), cells crucial in joint damage. We investigated the molecular mechanisms by which NETs promote proinflammatory phenotypes in FLS, and whether these interactions generate pathogenic anti-citrulline adaptive immune responses...
April 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642294/mhc-class-ii-invariant-chain-peptide-or-gamma-delta-t-cell-depletion-ameliorates-experimental-preeclampsia
#7
Piyali Chatterjee, Valorie L Chiasson, Geetha Seerangan, Eugene De Guzman, Moheb Milad, Kelsey R Bounds, Olga Gasheva, Richard P Tobin, Mohamad Hatahet, Shelley Kopriva, Kathleen A Jones, M Karen Newell-Rogers, Brett Mitchell
Excessive innate immune system activation and inflammation during pregnancy can lead to organ injury and dysfunction and preeclampsia; however, the molecular mechanisms involved are unknown.  We tested the hypothesis that Toll-like receptor activation induces MHC class II invariant chain peptide (CLIP) expression on immune cells, makes them pro-inflammatory, and are necessary to cause preeclampsia-like features in mice.  Treatment with VG1177, a competitive antagonist peptide for CLIP in the groove of MHC class II, was able to both prevent and treat preeclampsia-like features in mice...
June 22, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623530/participation-of-tumor-associated-myeloid-cells-in-progression-of-amelanotic-melanoma-rmm-tumor-line-in-f344-rats-with-particular-reference-to-mhc-class-ii-and-cd163-expressing-cells
#8
A Bondoc, H M Golbar, M Pervin, C Katou-Ichikawa, M Tanaka, T Izawa, M Kuwamura, J Yamate
Tumor progression is often influenced by infiltration of myeloid cells; depending on the M1- or M2-like activation status, these cells may have either inhibitory or promoting effects on tumor growth. We investigated the properties of tumor-associated myeloid cells in a previously established homotransplantable amelanotic melanoma (RMM tumor line) in F344 rats. RMM tumor nodules were allowed to reach the sizes of 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 cm, respectively. Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry was performed for macrophage markers CD68 and CD163, and for the antigen-presenting cell marker, MHC class II...
June 16, 2017: Cancer Microenvironment: Official Journal of the International Cancer Microenvironment Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599297/long-term-cigarette-smoke-exposure-inhibits-histone-deacetylase-2-expression-and-enhances-the-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-in-skeletal-muscle-of-mice
#9
Dongmei Huang, Zhiying Ma, Yili He, Ying Xiao, Honglin Luo, Qiuli Liang, Xiaoning Zhong, Jing Bai, Zhiyi He
Long-term cigarette smoke induces lung inflammatory injury and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), associated with skeletal muscle inflammation. This study aimed at investigating how cigarette smoke promotes skeletal muscle inflammation and its molecular pathogenesis. Mice were exposed to air or cigarette smoke for 12 or 24 weeks, and C2C12 cells were stimulated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE). The mass and function, myotube formation, inflammatory cytokine production, histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 expression were detected in the gastrocnemius muscles of mice and C2C12 cells...
May 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587645/transcriptome-profiling-of-staphylococci-infected-cow-mammary-gland-parenchyma
#10
Ewa M Kosciuczuk, Paweł Lisowski, Justyna Jarczak, Alicja Majewska, Magdalena Rzewuska, Lech Zwierzchowski, Emilia Bagnicka
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide gene expression profiling allows for identification of genes involved in the defense response of the host against pathogens. As presented here, transcriptomic analysis and bioinformatics tools were applied in order to identify genes expressed in the mammary gland parenchyma of cows naturally infected with coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative Staphylococci. RESULTS: In cows infected with coagulase-positive Staphylococci, being in 1st or 2nd lactation, 1700 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified...
June 6, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566367/heme-oxygenase-1-modulates-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-replication-and-lung-pathogenesis-during-infection
#11
Janyra A Espinoza, Miguel A León, Pablo F Céspedes, Roberto S Gómez, Gisela Canedo-Marroquín, Sebastían A Riquelme, Francisco J Salazar-Echegarai, Phillipe Blancou, Thomas Simon, Ignacio Anegon, Margarita K Lay, Pablo A González, Claudia A Riedel, Susan M Bueno, Alexis M Kalergis
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the leading cause of severe lower respiratory tract infections in children. The development of novel prophylactic and therapeutic antiviral drugs against hRSV is imperative to control the burden of disease in the susceptible population. In this study, we examined the effects of inducing the activity of the host enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) on hRSV replication and pathogenesis on lung inflammation induced by this virus. Our results show that after hRSV infection, HO-1 induction with metalloporphyrin cobalt protoporphyrin IX significantly reduces the loss of body weight due to hRSV-induced disease...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559049/attenuation-of-thioacetamide-induced-hepatocellular-injury-by-short-term-repeated-injections-associated-with-down-regulation-of-metabolic-enzymes-and-relationship-with-mhc-class-ii-presenting-cells
#12
Mizuki Kuramochi, Takeshi Izawa, Munmun Pervin, Alexandra Bondoc, Mitsuru Kuwamura, Jonathan LaMarre, Jyoji Yamate
The liver is the primary organ participating in the metabolism of xenobiotics and is therefore an important target in the safety assessment of drugs, chemicals and environmental toxins. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) has recently become widely recognized in human medicine as an adverse event. The progression of DILI often involves "damage-associated molecular patterns" (DAMPs) of gene and protein expression such as high-mobility group boxes (HMGBs), S100 proteins and heat shock proteins (Hsp). DAMPs are released from injured or necrotic cells and are bound to Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and modulate inflammatory reactions...
May 27, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533295/comparative-pathogenesis-of-autoimmune-diabetes-in-humans-nod-mice-and-canines-has-a-valuable-animal-model-of-type-1-diabetes-been-overlooked
#13
Allison L O'Kell, Clive Wasserfall, Brian Catchpole, Lucy J Davison, Rebecka S Hess, Jake A Kushner, Mark A Atkinson
Despite decades of research in humans and mouse models of disease, substantial gaps remain in our understanding of pathogenic mechanisms underlying the development of type 1 diabetes. Furthermore, translation of therapies from preclinical efforts capable of delaying or halting β-cell destruction has been limited. Hence, a pressing need exists to identify alternative animal models that reflect human disease. Canine insulin deficiency diabetes is, in some cases, considered to follow autoimmune pathogenesis, similar to NOD mice and humans, characterized by hyperglycemia requiring lifelong exogenous insulin therapy...
June 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508465/proteomics-show-antigen-presentation-processes-in-human-immune-cells-after-as03-h5n1-vaccination
#14
Allison C Galassie, Johannes B Goll, Parimal Samir, Travis L Jensen, Kristen L Hoek, Leigh M Howard, Tara M Allos, Xinnan Niu, Laura E Gordy, C Buddy Creech, Heather Hill, Sebastian Joyce, Kathryn M Edwards, Andrew J Link
Adjuvants enhance immunity elicited by vaccines through mechanisms that are poorly understood. Using a systems biology approach, we investigated temporal protein expression changes in five primary human immune cell populations: neutrophils, monocytes, natural killer cells, T cells, and B cells after administration of either an Adjuvant System 03 adjuvanted or unadjuvanted split-virus H5N1 influenza vaccine. Monocytes demonstrated the strongest differential signal between vaccine groups. On day 3 post-vaccination, several antigen presentation-related pathways, including MHC class I-mediated antigen processing and presentation, were enriched in monocytes and neutrophils and expression of HLA class I proteins was increased in the Adjuvant System 03 group...
June 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502902/retinoic-acid-mediated-anti-inflammatory-responses-in-equine-immune-cells-stimulated-by-lps-and-allogeneic-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#15
Leila Abdelhamid, Hayam Hussein, Mostafa Ghanem, Nour Eissa
Retinoic acid (RA), an active metabolite of vitamin A, has shown potential therapeutic immunomodulatory properties. Allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-based therapy is an effective approach to induce tissue healing and regeneration in many equine orthopedic conditions. However, MSCs-based therapies induced inflammatory responses in vivo. This study aimed to: 1. Determine the effect of RA cell culture treatment on inflammatory responses of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)- and allogeneic MSCs-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
May 5, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497030/fda-approved-immunosuppressants-targeting-staphylococcal-superantigens-mechanisms-and-insights
#16
REVIEW
Teresa Krakauer
Immunostimulating staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) and related superantigenic toxins cause diseases in human beings and laboratory animals by hyperactivating cells of the immune system. These protein toxins bind to the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) molecules and specific Vβ regions of T-cell receptors (TCRs), resulting in the stimulation of both monocytes/macrophages and T lymphocytes. The bridging of TCR with MHC II molecules by superantigens triggers intracellular signaling cascades, resulting in excessive release of proinflammatory mediators and massive polyclonal T-cell proliferation...
2017: ImmunoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495615/a-novel-function-of-tlr4-in-mediating-the-immunomodulatory-effect-of-benzanthrone-an-environmental-pollutant
#17
Prachi Tewari, Payal Mandal, Ruchi Roy, Somya Asthana, Premendra D Dwivedi, Mukul Das, Anurag Tripathi
Our prior studies have reported that Benzanthrone (BA) manifests inflammatory responses in the spleen of Balb/c mice. The present investigation was carried out to study the impact of BA on macrophages, which are the primary scavenger cells in the body that act as a connecting link between innate and adaptive immunity. Parenteral administration of BA (daily for one week) to mice resulted in enhanced levels of nitric oxide (NO) and overexpression of inflammatory markers (COX-2, MMP-9 and PGE-2) in macrophages; however the level of MHC class-I and MHC class-II receptors were down regulated...
July 5, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476499/selective-stimulation-of-the-jak-stat-signaling-pathway-by-silica-nanoparticles-in-human-endothelial-cells
#18
S Siegrist, H Kettiger, E Fasler-Kan, J Huwyler
Silica nanoparticles (SiNP) are frequently used in pharmaceutical formulations. Intravenously administered, these particles are in close contact with the vascular endothelium. However, preliminary safety assessments of these novel excipients have indicated that SiNP are potentially cytotoxic and can trigger inflammation. In order to elucidate mechanisms of SiNP mediated inflammation, cerebral microvascular endothelial cells and primary umbilical endothelial cells were incubated with SiNP at doses between 10ng/ml and 250μg/ml...
May 3, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453725/serelaxin-treatment-promotes-adaptive-hypertrophy-but-does-not-prevent-heart-failure-in-experimental-peripartum-cardiomyopathy
#19
Justus Nonhoff, Melanie Ricke-Hoch, Mirco Mueller, Britta Stapel, Tobias Pfeffer, Martina Kasten, Michaela Scherr, Constantin von Kaisenberg, Johann Bauersachs, Arash Haghikia, Denise Hilfiker-Kleiner
Aims: Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a systolic left ventricular dysfunction developing in the peripartum phase in previously healthy women. Relaxin-2 is a pregnancy hormone with potential beneficial effects in heart failure patients. We evaluated Relaxin-2 as a potential diagnostic marker and/or a therapeutic agent in PPCM. Methods and results: In healthy peripartum women, serum Relaxin-2 levels (measured by ELISA in the second half of pregnancy) were elevated showing a decreasing trend in the first postpartum week and returned to non-pregnant levels thereafter...
May 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446731/the-antigenic-identity-of-human-class-i-mhc-phosphopeptides-is-critically-dependent-upon-phosphorylation-status
#20
Fiyaz Mohammed, Daniel H Stones, Angela L Zarling, Carrie R Willcox, Jeffrey Shabanowitz, Kara L Cummings, Donald F Hunt, Mark Cobbold, Victor H Engelhard, Benjamin E Willcox
Dysregulated post-translational modification provides a source of altered self-antigens that can stimulate immune responses in autoimmunity, inflammation, and cancer. In recent years, phosphorylated peptides have emerged as a group of tumour-associated antigens presented by MHC molecules and recognised by T cells, and represent promising candidates for cancer immunotherapy. However, the impact of phosphorylation on the antigenic identity of phosphopeptide epitopes is unclear. Here we examined this by determining structures of MHC-bound phosphopeptides bearing canonical position 4-phosphorylations in the presence and absence of their phosphate moiety, and examining phosphopeptide recognition by the T cell receptor (TCR)...
April 8, 2017: Oncotarget
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