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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508465/proteomics-show-antigen-presentation-processes-in-human-immune-cells-after-as03-h5n1-vaccination
#1
Allison C Galassie, Johannes B Goll, Parimal Samir, Travis L Jensen, Kristen L Hoek, Leigh M Howard, Tara M Allos, Xinnan Niu, Laura E Gordy, C Buddy Creech, Heather Hill, Sebastian Joyce, Kathryn M Edwards, Andrew J Link
Adjuvants enhance immunity elicited by vaccines through mechanisms that are poorly understood. Using a systems biology approach, we investigated temporal protein expression changes in five primary human immune cell populations: neutrophils, monocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, T-cells, and B-cells after administration of either an Adjuvant System 03 (AS03)-adjuvanted or unadjuvanted split-virus H5N1 influenza vaccine. Monocytes demonstrated the strongest differential signal between vaccine groups. On day 3 post-vaccination, several antigen presentation-related pathways, including MHC class I-mediated antigen processing and presentation, were enriched in monocytes and neutrophils and expression of HLA Class I proteins was increased in the AS03 group...
May 15, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502902/retinoic-acid-mediated-anti-inflammatory-responses-in-equine-immune-cells-stimulated-by-lps-and-allogeneic-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#2
Leila Abdelhamid, Hayam Hussein, Mostafa Ghanem, Nour Eissa
Retinoic acid (RA), an active metabolite of vitamin A, has shown potential therapeutic immunomodulatory properties. Allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-based therapy is an effective approach to induce tissue healing and regeneration in many equine orthopedic conditions. However, MSCs-based therapies induced inflammatory responses in vivo. This study aimed to: 1. Determine the effect of RA cell culture treatment on inflammatory responses of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)- and allogeneic MSCs-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
May 5, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497030/fda-approved-immunosuppressants-targeting-staphylococcal-superantigens-mechanisms-and-insights
#3
REVIEW
Teresa Krakauer
Immunostimulating staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) and related superantigenic toxins cause diseases in human beings and laboratory animals by hyperactivating cells of the immune system. These protein toxins bind to the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) molecules and specific Vβ regions of T-cell receptors (TCRs), resulting in the stimulation of both monocytes/macrophages and T lymphocytes. The bridging of TCR with MHC II molecules by superantigens triggers intracellular signaling cascades, resulting in excessive release of proinflammatory mediators and massive polyclonal T-cell proliferation...
2017: ImmunoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495615/a-novel-function-of-tlr4-in-mediating-the-immunomodulatory-effect-of-benzanthrone-an-environmental-pollutant
#4
Prachi Tewari, Payal Mandal, Ruchi Roy, Somya Asthana, Premendra D Dwivedi, Mukul Das, Anurag Tripathi
Our prior studies have reported that Benzanthrone (BA) manifests inflammatory responses in the spleen of Balb/c mice. The present investigation was carried out to study the impact of BA on macrophages, which are the primary scavenger cells in the body that act as a connecting link between innate and adaptive immunity. Parenteral administration of BA (daily for one week) to mice resulted in enhanced levels of nitric oxide (NO) and overexpression of inflammatory markers (COX-2, MMP-9 and PGE-2) in macrophages; however the level of MHC class-I and MHC class-II receptors were down regulated...
May 8, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476499/selective-stimulation-of-the-jak-stat-signaling-pathway-by-silica-nanoparticles-in-human-endothelial-cells
#5
S Siegrist, H Kettiger, E Fasler-Kan, J Huwyler
Silica nanoparticles (SiNP) are frequently used in pharmaceutical formulations. Intravenously administered, these particles are in close contact with the vascular endothelium. However, preliminary safety assessments of these novel excipients have indicated that SiNP are potentially cytotoxic and can trigger inflammation. In order to elucidate mechanisms of SiNP mediated inflammation, cerebral microvascular endothelial cells and primary umbilical endothelial cells were incubated with SiNP at doses between 10ng/ml and 250μg/ml...
May 3, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453725/serelaxin-treatment-promotes-adaptive-hypertrophy-but-does-not-prevent-heart-failure-in-experimental-peripartum-cardiomyopathy
#6
Justus Nonhoff, Melanie Ricke-Hoch, Mirco Mueller, Britta Stapel, Tobias Pfeffer, Martina Kasten, Michaela Scherr, Constantin von Kaisenberg, Johann Bauersachs, Arash Haghikia, Denise Hilfiker-Kleiner
Aims: Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a systolic left ventricular dysfunction developing in the peripartum phase in previously healthy women. Relaxin-2 is a pregnancy hormone with potential beneficial effects in heart failure patients. We evaluated Relaxin-2 as a potential diagnostic marker and/or a therapeutic agent in PPCM. Methods and results: In healthy peripartum women, serum Relaxin-2 levels (measured by ELISA in the second half of pregnancy) were elevated showing a decreasing trend in the first postpartum week and returned to non-pregnant levels thereafter...
May 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446731/the-antigenic-identity-of-human-class-i-mhc-phosphopeptides-is-critically-dependent-upon-phosphorylation-status
#7
Fiyaz Mohammed, Daniel H Stones, Angela L Zarling, Carrie R Willcox, Jeffrey Shabanowitz, Kara L Cummings, Donald F Hunt, Mark Cobbold, Victor H Engelhard, Benjamin E Willcox
Dysregulated post-translational modification provides a source of altered self-antigens that can stimulate immune responses in autoimmunity, inflammation, and cancer. In recent years, phosphorylated peptides have emerged as a group of tumour-associated antigens presented by MHC molecules and recognised by T cells, and represent promising candidates for cancer immunotherapy. However, the impact of phosphorylation on the antigenic identity of phosphopeptide epitopes is unclear. Here we examined this by determining structures of MHC-bound phosphopeptides bearing canonical position 4-phosphorylations in the presence and absence of their phosphate moiety, and examining phosphopeptide recognition by the T cell receptor (TCR)...
April 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445787/adipose-derived-stem-cells-were-impaired-in-restricting-cd4-t-cell-proliferation-and-polarization-in-type-2-diabetic-apoe-mouse
#8
Ming-Hao Liu, Ya Li, Lu Han, Yao-Yuan Zhang, Di Wang, Zhi-Hao Wang, Hui-Min Zhou, Ming Song, Yi-Hui Li, Meng-Xiong Tang, Wei Zhang, Ming Zhong
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis (AS) is the most common and serious complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is accelerated via chronic systemic inflammation rather than hyperglycemia. Adipose tissue is the major source of systemic inflammation in abnormal metabolic state. Pro-inflammatory CD4(+)T cells play pivotal role in promoting adipose inflammation. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for fat regeneration have potent ability of immunosuppression and restricting CD4(+)T cells as well...
April 23, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396236/skin-inflammation-induced-by-lupus-serum-was-inhibited-in-il-1r-deficient-mice
#9
Xiaoyan Li, Xuanxuan Guo, Huicheng Liu, Gongming Gao, Guangqiong Xu, Xibin Fei, Xiang Fang, Wei Qiao, Guo-Min Deng
Skin inflammation induced by lupus serum is a useful tool to investigate the pathogenesis of lupus skin injury. IL-1 is a proinflammatory cytokine, and its role in lupus skin lesion is still unclear. We determined the role of IL-1 in lupus skin injury by using gene deficient mice. We found that skin inflammation induced by lupus serum was significantly reduced in IL-1R deficient mice and caspase-1 deficient mice. IL-1R deficiency did not affect the expression of FcγRI (CD64), FcγRII (CD32) and MHC class II (CD74) induced by lupus serum...
April 7, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389591/cd11c-expressing-cells-affect-regulatory-t-cell-behavior-in-the-meninges-during-central-nervous-system-infection
#10
Carleigh A O'Brien, Christopher Overall, Christoph Konradt, Aisling C O'Hara Hall, Nikolas W Hayes, Sagie Wagage, Beena John, David A Christian, Christopher A Hunter, Tajie H Harris
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an important role in the CNS during multiple infections, as well as autoimmune inflammation, but the behavior of this cell type in the CNS has not been explored. In mice, infection with Toxoplasma gondii leads to a Th1-polarized parasite-specific effector T cell response in the brain. Similarly, Tregs in the CNS during T. gondii infection are Th1 polarized, as exemplified by their T-bet, CXCR3, and IFN-γ expression. Unlike effector CD4(+) T cells, an MHC class II tetramer reagent specific for T...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358370/the-role-of-autophagy-in-asparaginase-induced-immune-suppression-of-macrophages
#11
Ping Song, Ziyu Wang, Xuyao Zhang, Jiajun Fan, Yubin Li, Qicheng Chen, Shaofei Wang, Peipei Liu, Jingyun Luan, Li Ye, Dianwen Ju
Erwinia asparaginase, a bacteria-derived enzyme drug, has been used in the treatment of various cancers, especially acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). One of the most significant side effects associated with asparaginase administration is immune suppression, which limits its application in clinic. Macrophages are phagocytic immune cells and have a central role in inflammation and host defense. We reported here that asparaginase disturbed the function of macrophages including phagocytosis, proliferation, ROS and nitric oxide secretion, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) secretion, and major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II) molecule expression, thus induced immune suppression in interferon-γ and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages...
March 30, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355202/microrna-155-modulates-bile-duct-inflammation-via-targeting-suppressor-of-cytokine-signaling-1-in-biliary-atresia
#12
Rui Zhao, Rui Dong, Yifan Yang, Yuqing Wang, Jin Ma, Jiang Wang, Hao Li, Shan Zheng
BACKGROUND: Biliary atresia (BA) is an etiologically perplexing disease, manifested by neonatal cholestasis, repeated cholangitis, and progressive biliary fibrosis. MiR-155 has been implicated to modulate the immune response, which contributes to biliary injury. However, its potential role in the pathogenesis of BA has not been addressed so far. METHODS: The microRNA changes from BA patients and controls were identified via microarray. The immunomodulatory function of miR-155 was investigated via cell transfection and reporter assay system...
March 29, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350795/fine-mapping-of-the-human-leukocyte-antigen-locus-as-a-risk-factor-for-alzheimer-disease-a-case-control-study
#13
Natasha Z R Steele, Jessie S Carr, Luke W Bonham, Ethan G Geier, Vincent Damotte, Zachary A Miller, Rahul S Desikan, Kevin L Boehme, Shubhabrata Mukherjee, Paul K Crane, John S K Kauwe, Joel H Kramer, Bruce L Miller, Giovanni Coppola, Jill A Hollenbach, Yadong Huang, Jennifer S Yokoyama
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive disorder that affects cognitive function. There is increasing support for the role of neuroinflammation and aberrant immune regulation in the pathophysiology of AD. The immunoregulatory human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex has been linked to susceptibility for a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including AD; however, studies to date have failed to consistently identify a risk HLA haplotype for AD. Contributing to this difficulty are the complex genetic organization of the HLA region, differences in sequencing and allelic imputation methods, and diversity across ethnic populations...
March 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349485/monitoring-migration-of-activated-t-cells-to-antigen-rich-non-lymphoid-tissue
#14
Eleanor Jayne Ward, Hongmei Fu, Federica Marelli-Berg
Effective immunity requires appropriate recirculation of naïve T cells through secondary lymphoid organs and migration of antigen-specific T cells to sites of inflammation. Leukocyte migration is a highly regulated process requiring specific interactions between leukocytes and endothelial cells (EC) termed collectively as the leukocyte adhesion cascade. Recruitment and retention of activated T cells to antigen-rich sites of inflammation is a key event in the immune response, which relies in part on local antigen presentation particularly by EC of inflamed vessels...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340094/nlrp2-is-a-suppressor-of-nf-%C3%A6-b-signaling-and-hla-c-expression-in-human-trophoblasts%C3%A2-%C3%A2
#15
Tamara Tilburgs, Torsten B Meissner, Leonardo M R Ferreira, Arend Mulder, Kiran Musunuru, Junqiang Ye, Jack L Strominger
During pregnancy, fetal extravillous trophoblasts (EVT) play a key role in the regulation of maternal T cell and NK cell responses. EVT display a unique combination of human leukocyte antigens (HLA); EVT do not express HLA-A and HLA-B, but do express HLA-C, HLA-E, and HLA-G. The mechanisms establishing this unique HLA expression pattern have not been fully elucidated. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II transcriptional activators NLRC5 and CIITA are expressed neither by EVT nor by the EVT model cell line JEG3, which has an MHC expression pattern identical to that of EVT...
April 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339731/obesity-associated-cardiac-pathogenesis-in-broiler-breeder-hens-development-of-metabolic-cardiomyopathy2-3
#16
C Y Chen, Y F Huang, Y J Ko, Y J Liu, Y H Chen, R L Walzem, S E Chen
Feed intake is typically restricted (R) in broiler hens to avoid obesity and improve egg production and livability. To determine whether improved heart health contributes to improved livability, fully adult 45-week-old R hens were allowed to consume feed to appetite (ad libitum; AL) up to 10 wk (70 d). Mortality, contractile functions, and morphology at 70 d, and measurements of cardiac hypertrophic remodeling at 7 d and 21 d were made and compared between R and AL hens. Outcomes for cardiac electrophysiology and mortality, reported separately, found increased mortality in AL hens in association with cardiac pathological hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction...
February 22, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339016/paeonol-ameliorates-imiquimod-induced-psoriasis-like-skin-lesions-in-balb-c-mice-by-inhibiting-the-maturation-and-activation-of-dendritic-cells
#17
Yujiao Meng, Mingxing Wang, Xiangjiang Xie, Tingting Di, Jingxia Zhao, Yan Lin, Xiaolong Xu, Ningfei Li, Yating Zhai, Yan Wang, Ping Li
Paeonol, an active component derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Cortex Moutan, possesses anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant and anti-allergic properties. Psoriasis is a chronic, recurrent, inflammatory dermatosis accompanied by excessive activation of Toll‑like receptors (TLRs) in dendritic cells (DCs), which are primarily responsible for initiating an immune response. We investigated the effect of paeonol on inflammation in an imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like mouse model and murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) stimulated by R848...
May 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333360/gammadelta-t-cells-in-crohn-s-disease-a-new-player-in-the-disease-pathogenesis
#18
Catalan-Serra Ignacio, Arne Kristian Sandvik, Torunn Bruland, Juan Carlos Andreu-Ballester
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic relapsing systemic disease affecting the gastrointestinal tract. An altered immune response to commensal intestinal bacteria takes place in genetically predisposed individuals, resulting in chronic inflammation in the gut. Several alterations in the innate immunity mechanisms have been described in recent years. Thus, the study of the immunological aspects of CD, specifically the role of lymphocytes, is a key element for understanding the pathogenesis of the disease. Gammadelta T cells (γδ T cells) constitute only a small proportion of the lymphocytes that circulate in the blood and peripheral organs and they are present mainly in the epithelia, where they can constitute up to 40% of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) in the intestinal mucosa...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298913/cathepsin-e-deficiency-ameliorates-graft-versus-host-disease-and-modifies-dendritic-cell-motility
#19
Jörg Mengwasser, Liane Babes, Steffen Cordes, Sarah Mertlitz, Katarina Riesner, Yu Shi, Aleixandria McGearey, Martina Kalupa, Thomas Reinheckel, Olaf Penack
Microbial products influence immunity after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). In this context, the role of cathepsin E (Ctse), an aspartate protease known to cleave bacterial peptides for antigen presentation in dendritic cells (DCs), has not been studied. During experimental acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), we found infiltration by Ctse-positive immune cells leading to higher Ctse RNA- and protein levels in target organs. In Ctse-deficient allo-SCT recipients, we found ameliorated GVHD, improved survival, and lower numbers of tissue-infiltrating DCs...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280496/cd4-ctl-a-cytotoxic-subset-of-cd4-t-cells-their-differentiation-and-function
#20
REVIEW
Arata Takeuchi, Takashi Saito
CD4(+) T cells with cytotoxic activity (CD4 CTL) have been observed in various immune responses. These cells are characterized by their ability to secrete granzyme B and perforin and to kill the target cells in an MHC class II-restricted fashion. Although CD4 CTLs were once thought to be an in vitro artifact associated with long-term culturing, they have since been identified in vivo and shown to play important roles in antiviral and antitumor immunity, as well as in inflammation. Functional characterization of CD4 CTL suggests their potential significance for therapeutic purposes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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