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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346925/microbiota-and-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#1
Sanjay Patole
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an acquired gastrointestinal inflammatory condition with significant mortality and morbidity in preterm very low birth weight infants. The interplay between toll-like receptors, bacterial endotoxins, developmentally regulated excessive proinflammatory responses of the immature innate immune system, hypoxia, ischemia, reperfusion, free radicals, and the presence of substrates and bacterial endotoxins is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of NEC. The association (cause?) of various microbes (bacteria, viruses, and fungi) with NEC has intrigued researchers for many years...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346818/regulation-of-low-temperature-stress-in-plants-by-micrornas
#2
REVIEW
Swati Megha, Urmila Basu, Nat N V Kav
Low temperature is one of the most common environmental stresses that seriously affects the growth and development of plants. However, plants have the plasticity in their defense mechanisms enabling them to tolerate and, sometimes, even survive adverse environmental conditions. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, approximately 19-21 nucleotides in length, and are being increasingly recognized as regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and have the ability to influence a broad range of biological processes...
March 27, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344923/impact-of-drug-treatment-at-neonatal-ages-on-variability-of-drug-metabolism-and-drug-drug-interactions-in-adult-life
#3
Stephanie Piekos, Chad Pope, Austin Ferrara, Xiao-Bo Zhong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the number of patients taking more than one medication concurrently continues to increase, predicting and preventing drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is now more important than ever. Administration of one drug can cause changes in the expression and activity of drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and alter the efficacy or toxicity of other medications that are substrates for these enzymes, resulting in a DDI. In today's medical practice, potential DDIs are evaluated based on the current medications a patient is taking with little regard to drugs the patient has been exposed to in the past...
February 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344765/new-insights-on-thyroid-hormone-mediated-regulation-of-herpesvirus-infections
#4
REVIEW
Robert W Figliozzi, Feng Chen, S Victor Hsia
Thyroid hormone (T3) has been suggested to participate in the regulation of herpesvirus replication during reactivation. Clinical observations and in vivo experiments suggest that T3 are involved in the suppression of herpes virus replication. In vitro, differentiated LNCaP cells, a human neuron-like cells, further resisted HSV-1 replication upon addition of T3. Previous studies indicate that T3 controlled the expression of several key viral genes via its nuclear receptors in differentiated LNCaP cells. Additional observation showed that differentiated LNCaP cells have active PI3K signaling and inhibitor LY294002 can reverse T3-mediated repression of viral replication...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344582/involvement-of-small-rnas-in-phosphorus-and-sulfur-sensing-signaling-and-stress-current-update
#5
REVIEW
Smita Kumar, Saurabh Verma, Prabodh K Trivedi
Plants require several essential mineral nutrients for their growth and development. These nutrients are required to maintain physiological processes and structural integrity in plants. The root architecture has evolved to absorb nutrients from soil and transport them to other parts of the plant. Nutrient deficiency affects several physiological and biological processes in plants and leads to reduction in crop productivity and yield. To compensate this adversity, plants have developed adaptive mechanisms to enhance the acquisition, conservation, and mobilization of these nutrients under deficient or adverse conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344547/app-function-and-lipids-a-bidirectional-link
#6
REVIEW
Marcus O W Grimm, Janine Mett, Heike S Grimm, Tobias Hartmann
Extracellular neuritic plaques, composed of aggregated amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, are one of the major histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive, irreversible neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. One of the most prominent risk factor for sporadic AD, carrying one or two aberrant copies of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 alleles, closely links AD to lipids. Further, several lipid classes and fatty acids have been reported to be changed in the brain of AD-affected individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343578/untranslated-regions-utrs-orchestrate-translation-reprogramming-in-cellular-stress-responses
#7
REVIEW
Basavaraj Sajjanar, Rajib Deb, Susheel Kumar Raina, Sachin Pawar, Manoj P Brahmane, Avinash V Nirmale, Nitin P Kurade, Gundallahalli B Manjunathareddy, Santanu Kumar Bal, Narendra Pratap Singh
Stress is the result of an organism's interaction with environmental challenges. Regulations of gene expression including translation modulations are critical for adaptation and survival under stress. Untranslated regions (UTRs) of the transcripts play significant roles in translation regulation and continue to raise many intriguing questions in our understanding of cellular stress physiology. IRES (Internal ribosome entry site) and uORF (upstream open reading frame) mediated alternative translation initiations are emerging as unique mechanisms...
April 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342986/oncogenic-roles-of-dna-hypomethylation-through-the-activation-of-cancer-germline-genes
#8
Aurélie Van Tongelen, Axelle Loriot, Charles De Smet
Global loss of DNA methylation is frequently observed in the genome of human tumors. Although this epigenetic alteration is clearly associated with cancer progression, the way it exerts its pro-tumoral effect remains incompletely understood. A remarkable consequence of DNA hypomethylation in tumors is the aberrant activation of "cancer-germline" genes (also known as "cancer-testis" genes), which comprise a diverse group of germline-specific genes that use DNA methylation as a primary mechanism for repression in normal somatic tissues...
March 22, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341599/nucleo-cytoplasmic-transport-of-estrogen-receptor-alpha-in-breast-cancer-cells
#9
REVIEW
Angeles C Tecalco-Cruz, Issis A Pérez-Alvarado, Josué O Ramírez-Jarquín, Leticia Rocha-Zavaleta
Approximately 70% cases of breast cancers exhibit high expression and activity levels of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), a transcription regulator that induces the expression of genes associated with cellular proliferation and survival. These nuclear functions of the receptor are associated with the development of breast cancer. However, ERα localization is not static, but rather, dynamic with continuous shuttling between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Interestingly, both the nuclear import and export of ERα are modulated by several stimuli that include estradiol, antiestrogens, and growth factors...
March 21, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338320/inhibitors-of-protein-methyltransferases-and-demethylases
#10
H Ümit Kaniskan, Michael L Martini, Jian Jin
Post-translational modifications of histones by protein methyltransferases (PMTs) and histone demethylases (KDMs) play an important role in the regulation of gene expression and transcription and are implicated in cancer and many other diseases. Many of these enzymes also target various nonhistone proteins impacting numerous crucial biological pathways. Given their key biological functions and implications in human diseases, there has been a growing interest in assessing these enzymes as potential therapeutic targets...
March 24, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336486/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-airway-disease
#11
Y S Prakash, Christina M Pabelick, Gary C Sieck
There is increasing appreciation that mitochondria serve cellular functions beyond oxygen sensing and energy production. Accordingly, it has become important to explore non-canonical roles of mitochondria in normal and pathophysiological processes that influence airway structure and function in the context of diseases such as asthma and COPD. Mitochondria can sense upstream processes such as inflammation, infection, tobacco smoke and environmental insults important in these diseases, and in turn can respond to such stimuli via altered mitochondrial protein expression, structure, and resultant dysfunction...
March 21, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335259/lipid-nanovectors-to-deliver-rna-oligonucleotides-in-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Virginia Campani, Giuseppina Salzano, Sara Lusa, Giuseppe De Rosa
The growing knowledge on the mechanisms of gene silencing and gene regulation by non-coding RNAs (ncRNA), mainly small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA), is providing a significant boost to the development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cancer. However, the design of RNA-based therapeutics is hampered by biopharmaceutical issues, thus requiring the use of suitable delivery strategies. In this regards, lipid nanovectors have been successfully investigated to deliver RNA in different forms of cancer...
July 9, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335015/the-synaptic-function-of-parkin
#13
Jenny Sassone, GiuliaMaia Serratto, Flavia Valtorta, Vincenzo Silani, Maria Passafaro, Andrea Ciammola
Loss of function mutations in the gene PARK2, which encodes the protein parkin, cause autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism, a neurodegenerative disease characterized by degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons localized in the substantia nigra pars compacta. No therapy is effective in slowing disease progression mostly because the pathogenesis of the disease is yet to be understood. From accruing evidence suggesting that the protein parkin directly regulates synapses it can be hypothesized that PARK2 gene mutations lead to early synaptic damage that results in dopaminergic neuron loss over time...
February 23, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334640/mirnas-in-synapse-development-and-synaptic-plasticity
#14
REVIEW
Zhonghua Hu, Zheng Li
Synapses are functional units of the nervous system, through which information is transferred between neurons. The development and activity-dependent modification of synapses require temporally and spatially controlled modulation of gene expression. microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as essential regulators of gene expression. They are small non-coding RNAs that regulate mRNA stability and translation by interacting with the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of mRNAs. miRNAs are located to neuronal processes to regulate protein synthesis locally and their expression is regulated by synaptic activity...
March 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334220/effect-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-in-developed-countries
#15
Zaki K Hassan-Smith, Martin Hewison, Neil J Gittoes
Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency is common worldwide with adverse effects on skeletal health. In recent years, there has been great interest in non-classical actions of vitamin D. Basic research has uncovered actions in a range of non-skeletal tissues, and observational studies have identified inverse relationships with risk of a number of disease states including sarcopenia, obesity, the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, cancer and autoimmune diseases. Sources of data: PubMed, Medline and Cochrane Systematic Reviews...
March 9, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334174/dna-damage-response-in-hematopoietic-stem-cells-an-evolutionary-trade-off-between-blood-regeneration-and-leukemia-suppression
#16
Shahar Biechonski, Muhammad Yassin, Michael Milyavsky
Self-renewing and multipotent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) maintain lifelong hematopoiesis. Their enormous regenerative potential coupled with lifetime persistence in the body, in contrast with the Progenitors, demand tight control of HSCs genome stability. Indeed, failure to accurately repair DNA damage in HSCs is associated with bone marrow failure and accelerated leukemogenesis. Recent observations exposed remarkable differences in several DNA-damage response (DDR) aspects between HSCs and Progenitors, especially in their DNA-repair capacities and susceptibility to apoptosis...
March 15, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334134/a-compilation-of-web-based-research-tools-for-mirna-analysis
#17
Vaibhav Shukla, Vinay Koshy Varghese, Shama Prasada Kabekkodu, Sandeep Mallya, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy
Since the discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of noncoding RNAs that regulate the gene expression posttranscriptionally in sequence-specific manner, there has been a release of number of tools useful for both basic and advanced applications. This is because of the significance of miRNAs in many pathophysiological conditions including cancer. Numerous bioinformatics tools that have been developed for miRNA analysis have their utility for detection, expression, function, target prediction and many other related features...
February 25, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333977/transition-into-inflammatory-cancer-associated-adipocytes-in-breast-cancer-microenvironment-requires-microrna-regulatory-mechanism
#18
Jiwoo Lee, Bok Sil Hong, Han Suk Ryu, Han-Byoel Lee, Minju Lee, In Ae Park, Jisun Kim, Wonshik Han, Dong-Young Noh, Hyeong-Gon Moon
The role of adipocytes in cancer microenvironment has gained focus during the recent years. However, the characteristics of the cancer-associated adipocytes (CAA) in human breast cancer tissues and the underlying regulatory mechanism are not clearly understood. We reviewed pathology specimens of breast cancer patients to understand the morphologic characteristics of CAA, and profiled the mRNA and miRNA expression of CAA by using indirect co-culture system in vitro. The CAAs in human breast cancers showed heterogeneous topographic relationship with breast cancer cells within the breast microenvironment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333713/micrornas-and-lipid-metabolism
#19
Binod Aryal, Abhishek K Singh, Noemi Rotllan, Nathan Price, Carlos Fernández-Hernando
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Work over the past decade has identified the important role of microRNAs (miRNAS) in regulating lipoprotein metabolism and associated disorders including metabolic syndrome, obesity, and atherosclerosis. This review summarizes the most recent findings in the field, highlighting the contribution of miRNAs in controlling LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) metabolism. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of miRNAs have emerged as important regulators of lipid metabolism, including miR-122 and miR-33...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333574/cytosolic-nucleic-acid-sensors-and-innate-immune-regulation
#20
Daisuke Ori, Motoya Murase, Taro Kawai
During viral and bacterial infections, pathogen-derived cytosolic nucleic acids are recognized by the intracellular RNA sensors retinoic acid-inducible gene I and melanoma-differentiated gene 5 and intracellular DNA sensors, including cyclic-di-GMP-AMP synthase, absent in melanoma 2, interferon (IFN)-gamma inducible protein 16, polymerase III, and so on. Binding of intracellular nucleic acids to these sensors activates downstream signaling cascades, resulting in the production of type I IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines to induce appropriate systematic immune responses...
March 23, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
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