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Gene regulation review

Lawrence Rajendran, Rosa C Paolicelli
Microglia are emerging as key players in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus far, microglia have rather been known as modulator of neurodegeneration with functions limited to neuroinflammation and release of neurotoxic molecules. However, several recent studies have demonstrated a direct role of microglia in "neuro" degeneration observed in AD by promoting phagocytosis of neuronal, in particular, synaptic structures. While some of the studies address the involvement of the β-amyloid peptides in the process, studies also indicate that this could occur independent of amyloid, further elevating the importance of microglia in AD...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jacob O Brunkard, Tessa M Burch-Smith
Plastids are critical organelles in plant cells that perform diverse functions and are central to many metabolic pathways. Beyond their major roles in primary metabolism, of which their role in photosynthesis is perhaps best known, plastids contribute to the biosynthesis of phytohormones and other secondary metabolites, store critical biomolecules, and sense a range of environmental stresses. Accordingly, plastid-derived signals coordinate a host of physiological and developmental processes, often by emitting signalling molecules that regulate the expression of nuclear genes...
March 21, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
José A Del Campo, Rocío Gallego-Durán, Paloma Gallego, Lourdes Grande
Genetics and epigenetics play a key role in the development of several diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Family studies demonstrate that first degree relatives of patients with NAFLD are at a much higher risk of the disease than the general population. The development of the Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) technology has allowed the identification of numerous genetic polymorphisms involved in the evolution of diseases (e.g., PNPLA3 , MBOAT7 ). On the other hand, epigenetic changes interact with inherited risk factors to determine an individual's susceptibility to NAFLD...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jing Zhang, Qing Zhang
Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) is an important tumor suppressor that is lost in the majority of clear cell carcinoma of renal cancer (ccRCC). Its regulatory pathway involves the activity of E3 ligase, which targets hypoxia inducible factor α (including HIF1α and HIF2α) for proteasome degradation. In recent years, emerging literature suggests that VHL also possesses other HIF-independent functions. This review will focus on VHL-mediated signaling pathways involving the latest identified substrates/binding partners, including N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 3 (NDRG3), AKT, and G9a, etc...
March 19, 2018: Biomedicines
Klaudia Szymonowicz, Sebastian Oeck, Nathalie M Malewicz, Verena Jendrossek
Genetic alterations driving aberrant activation of the survival kinase Protein Kinase B (Akt) are observed with high frequency during malignant transformation and cancer progression. Oncogenic gene mutations coding for the upstream regulators or Akt, e.g., growth factor receptors, RAS and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), or for one of the three Akt isoforms as well as loss of the tumor suppressor Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog on Chromosome Ten (PTEN) lead to constitutive activation of Akt. By activating Akt, these genetic alterations not only promote growth, proliferation and malignant behavior of cancer cells by phosphorylation of various downstream signaling molecules and signaling nodes but can also contribute to chemo- and radioresistance in many types of tumors...
March 18, 2018: Cancers
Munvar Miya Shaik, Ian A Tamargo, Murtala B Abubakar, Mohammad A Kamal, Nigel H Greig, Siew Hua Gan
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, endogenous, non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by base pairing with mRNA targets. Altered miRNA expression profiles have been observed in several diseases, including neurodegeneration. Multiple studies have reported altered expressions of miRNAs in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) as compared to those of healthy elderly adults. Some of the miRNAs found to be dysregulated in AD have been reported to correlate with neuropathological changes, including plaque and tangle accumulation, as well as altered expressions of species that are known to be involved in AD pathology...
March 21, 2018: Genes
Andrea Cipriano, Monica Ballarino
The completion of the human genome sequence together with advances in sequencing technologies have shifted the paradigm of the genome, as composed of discrete and hereditable coding entities, and have shown the abundance of functional noncoding DNA. This part of the genome, previously dismissed as "junk" DNA, increases proportionally with organismal complexity and contributes to gene regulation beyond the boundaries of known protein-coding genes. Different classes of functionally relevant nonprotein-coding RNAs are transcribed from noncoding DNA sequences...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Dragana Nikitovic, Aikaterini Berdiaki, Ioanna Spyridaki, Theodoros Krasanakis, Aristidis Tsatsakis, George N Tzanakakis
Proteoglycans (PGs), important constituents of the extracellular matrix, have been associated with cancer pathogenesis. Their unique structure consisting of a protein core and glycosaminoglycan chains endowed with fine modifications constitutes these molecules as capable cellular effectors important for homeostasis and contributing to disease progression. Indeed, differential expression of PGs and their interacting proteins has been characterized as specific for disease evolvement in various cancer types. Importantly, PGs to a large extent regulate the bioavailability of hormones, growth factors, and cytokines as well as the activation of their respective receptors which regulate phenotypic diversibility, gene expression and rates of recurrence in specific tumor types...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Timsy Uppal, Roni Sarkar, Ranjit Dhelaria, Subhash C Verma
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus or Human herpesvirus-8 (KSHV/HHV-8), an oncogenic human herpesvirus and the leading cause of cancer in HIV-infected individuals, is a major public health concern with recurring reports of epidemics on a global level. The early detection of KSHV virus and subsequent activation of the antiviral immune response by the host's immune system are crucial to prevent KSHV infection. The host's immune system is an evolutionary conserved system that provides the most important line of defense against invading microbial pathogens, including viruses...
March 20, 2018: Cancers
Jeffrey K Holden, Christian N Cunningham
The Hippo pathway is a critical transcriptional signaling pathway that regulates cell growth, proliferation and organ development. The transcriptional enhanced associate domain (TEAD) protein family consists of four paralogous transcription factors that function to modulate gene expression in response to the Hippo signaling pathway. Transcriptional activation of these proteins occurs upon binding to the co-activator YAP/TAZ whose entry into the nucleus is regulated by Lats1/2 kinase. In recent years, it has become apparent that the dysregulation and/or overexpression of Hippo pathway effectors is implicated in a wide range of cancers, including prostate, gastric and liver cancer...
March 20, 2018: Cancers
Yi-Chao Hsu, Yu-Ting Wu, Chia-Ling Tsai, Yau-Huei Wei
In mammalian cells, there are seven members of the sirtuin protein family (SIRT1-7). SIRT1, SIRT6, and SIRT7 catalyze posttranslational modification of proteins in the nucleus, SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT5 are in the mitochondria and SIRT2 is in the cytosol. SIRT1 can deacetylate the transcription factor SOX2 and regulate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) reprogramming through the miR-34a-SIRT1-p53 axis. SIRT2 can regulate the function of pluripotent stem cells through GSK3β. SIRT3 can positively regulate PPAR gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) expression during the differentiation of stem cells...
March 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Lu Gan, Yanan Yang, Qian Li, Yi Feng, Tianshu Liu, Weijian Guo
Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a histone methyltransferase and a catalytic component of PRC2, catalyzes tri-methylation of histone H3 at Lys 27 (H3K27me3) to regulate gene expression through epigenetic machinery. EZH2 also functions both as a transcriptional suppressor and a transcriptional co-activator, depending on H3K27me3 or not and on the different cellular contexts. Unsurprisingly, numerous studies have highlighted the role of EZH2 in cancer development and progression. Through modulating critical gene expression, EZH2 promotes cell survival, proliferation, epithelial to mesenchymal, invasion, and drug resistance of cancer cells...
2018: Biomarker Research
Daoqian Chen, Shiwen Wang, Lina Yin, Xiping Deng
In plants, water deficiency can result from a deficit of water from the soil, an obstacle to the uptake of water or the excess water loss; in these cases, the similar consequence is the limitation of plant growth and crop yield. Silicon (Si) has been widely reported to alleviate the plant water status and water balance under variant stress conditions in both monocot and dicot plants, especially under drought and salt stresses. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. In addition to the regulation of leaf transpiration, recently, Si application was found to be involved in the adjustment of root hydraulic conductance by up-regulating aquaporin gene expression and concentrating K in the xylem sap...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Judith A Smith
Protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an essential cell function. To safeguard this process in the face of environmental threats and internal stressors, cells mount an evolutionarily conserved response known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). Invading pathogens induce cellular stress that impacts protein folding, thus the UPR is well situated to sense danger and contribute to immune responses. Cytokines (inflammatory cytokines and interferons) critically mediate host defense against pathogens, but when aberrantly produced, may also drive pathologic inflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Harinarayanan Janakiraman, Reniqua P House, Vamsi K Gangaraju, J Alan Diehl, Philip H Howe, Viswanathan Palanisamy
RNA-binding proteins (RBP) and noncoding RNAs (ncRNA), such as long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) and microRNAs (miRNA), control co- and posttranscriptional gene regulation (PTR). At the PTR level, RBPs and ncRNAs contribute to pre-mRNA processing, mRNA maturation, transport, localization, turnover, and translation. Deregulation of RBPs and ncRNAs promotes the onset of cancer progression and metastasis. Both RBPs and ncRNAs are altered by signaling cascades to cooperate or compete with each other to bind their nucleic acid targets...
March 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Zacharenia Nikitaki, Marcela Holá, Mattia Donà, Athanasia Pavlopoulou, Ioannis Michalopoulos, Karel J Angelis, Alexandros G Georgakilas, Anca Macovei, Alma Balestrazzi
Eukaryotic genome surveillance is dependent on the multiple, highly coordinated network functions of the DNA damage response (DDR). Highlighted conserved features of DDR in plants and animals represent a challenging opportunity to develop novel interdisciplinary investigations aimed at expanding the sets of DNA damage biomarkers currently available for radiation exposure monitoring (REM) in environmental and biomedical applications. In this review, common and divergent features of the most relevant DDR players in animals and plants are described, including the intriguing example of the plant and animal kingdom-specific master regulators SOG1 (suppressor of gamma response) and p53...
January 2018: Mutation Research
Sandeep Kumar Verma, Ashok Kumar Das, Manoj Kumar Patel, Ashish Shah, Vinay Kumar, Saikat Gantait
With the overwhelmingly rapid advancement in the field of nanotechnology, the engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have been extensively used in various areas of the plant system, including quality improvement, growth and nutritional value enhancement, gene preservation etc. There are several recent reports on the ENMs' influence on growth enhancements, growth inhibition as well as certain toxic impacts on plant. However, translocation, growth responses and stress modulation mechanisms of ENMs in the plant systems call for better and in-depth understanding...
March 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Chenggui Miao, Jun Chang, Guoxue Zhang, Yanxi Fang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding single-stranded RNA molecules encoded by endogenous genes of about 22 nucleotides, which are involved in post-transcriptional gene expression regulation in animals and plants. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that is clinically silent until the majority of β cells are destroyed, and a large number of studies have shown that miRNAs are involved in the pathological mechanism of T1D. In this review, we searched the related research in recent years and summarized the important roles of miRNAs in T1D diagnosis and treatment...
March 19, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Coen van Solingen, Kaitlyn R Scacalossi, Kathryn J Moore
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Noncoding RNAs have emerged as important regulators of cellular and systemic lipid metabolism. In particular, the enigmatic class of long noncoding RNAs have been shown to play multifaceted roles in controlling transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene regulation. In this review, we discuss recent advances, current challenges and future opportunities in understanding the roles of lncRNAs in the regulation of lipid metabolism during health and disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite comprising the majority of the transcriptionally active regions of the human genome, lncRNA functions remain poorly understood, with fewer than 1% of human lncRNAs functionally characterized...
March 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Bing Wang, Steven M Smith, Jiayang Li
Shoot architecture is determined by the organization and activities of apical, axillary, intercalary, secondary, and inflorescence meristems and by the subsequent development of stems, leaves, shoot branches, and inflorescences. In this review, we discuss the unifying principles of hormonal and genetic control of shoot architecture including advances in our understanding of lateral branch outgrowth; control of stem elongation, thickness, and angle; and regulation of inflorescence development. We focus on recent progress made mainly in Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, pea, maize, and tomato, including the identification of new genes and mechanisms controlling shoot architecture...
March 19, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
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