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Gene regulation review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743023/principles-of-transgenerational-small-rna-inheritance-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#1
REVIEW
Oded Rechavi, Itamar Lev
Examples of transgenerational inheritance of environmental responses are rapidly accumulating. In Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes, such heritable information transmits across generations in the form of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase-amplified small RNAs. Regulatory small RNAs enable sequence-specific gene regulation, and unlike chromatin modifications, can move between tissues, and escape from immediate germline reprogramming. In this review, we discuss the path that small RNAs take from the soma to the germline, and elaborate on the mechanisms that maintain or erase parental small RNA responses after a specific number of generations...
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741521/hypoxia-inducible-factors-master-regulators-of-cancer-progression
#2
REVIEW
Luana Schito, Gregg L Semenza
Intratumoral hypoxia (reduced O2 availability) is a common finding in human cancer and leads to increased activity of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), which regulate the expression of genes that contribute to angiogenesis, metabolic reprogramming, extracellular matrix remodeling, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, motility, invasion, metastasis, cancer stem cell maintenance, immune evasion, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Conventional anticancer therapies target well-oxygenated and proliferating cancer cells, whereas there are no approved therapies that target hypoxic cancer cells, despite growing clinical and experimental evidence indicating that intratumoral hypoxia is a critical microenvironmental factor driving cancer progression...
December 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741495/adaptive-stress-responses-during-tumor-metastasis-and-dormancy
#3
REVIEW
Daniela Senft, Ze'ev A Ronai
To survive inhospitable environments, tumor cells are forced to remodel their signaling pathways by altering transcription, translation, and post-translational modifications. This adaptation is regulated in a spatial and temporal manner and gives rise to individual tumor cells with distinct gene expression and metabolic signatures. Such phenotypic heterogeneity is the result of tumor cell plasticity, which-together with the genetic background of the tumor-determines whether cells resist environmental stress, enter dormancy, or metastasize...
August 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741265/mechanisms-of-type-2-diabetes-risk-loci
#4
REVIEW
Kyle J Gaulton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Deciphering the mechanisms of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) risk loci can greatly inform on disease pathology. This review discusses current knowledge of mechanisms through which genetic variants influence T2DM risk and considerations for future studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Over 100 T2DM risk loci to date have been identified. Candidate causal variants at risk loci map predominantly to non-coding sequence. Physiological, epigenomic and gene expression data suggest that variants at many known T2DM risk loci affect pancreatic islet regulation, although variants at other loci also affect protein function and regulatory processes in adipose, pre-adipose, liver, skeletal muscle and brain...
September 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741258/polymorphisms-in-mirna-genes-and-their-involvement-in-autoimmune-diseases-susceptibility
#5
REVIEW
Andrea Latini, Cinzia Ciccacci, Giuseppe Novelli, Paola Borgiani
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that negatively regulate the expression of multiple protein-encoding genes at the post-transcriptional level. MicroRNAs are involved in different pathways, such as cellular proliferation and differentiation, signal transduction and inflammation, and play crucial roles in the development of several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. They have recently been recognized to play a role also in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases...
July 24, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741255/genetics-of-schizophrenia-ready-to-translate
#6
REVIEW
Claire Foley, Aiden Corvin, Shigeki Nakagome
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This is an era where we have significantly advanced the understanding of the genetic architecture of schizophrenia. In this review, we consider how this knowledge may translate into advances that will improve patient care. RECENT FINDINGS: Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than a hundred loci each making a small contribution to illness risk. Meta-analysis of copy number variants (CNVs) in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) dataset has confirmed that some variants have a moderate or large impact on risk, although these are rare in the population...
September 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740830/structure-activity-regulation-and-role-of-the-mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter-in-health-and-disease
#7
REVIEW
Cristina Mammucari, Gaia Gherardi, Rosario Rizzuto
Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake plays a pivotal role both in cell energy balance and in cell fate determination. Studies on the role of mitochondrial Ca(2+) signaling in pathophysiology have been favored by the identification of the genes encoding the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) and its regulatory subunits. Thus, research carried on in the last years on one hand has determined the structure of the MCU complex and its regulation, on the other has uncovered the consequences of dysregulated mitochondrial Ca(2+) signaling in cell and tissue homeostasis...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740488/regulatory-3-untranslated-regions-of-bacterial-mrnas
#8
REVIEW
Gai-Xian Ren, Xiao-Peng Guo, Yi-Cheng Sun
The untranslated regions (UTRs) of mRNA contain important features that are relevant to the post-transcriptional and translational regulation of gene expression. Most studies of bacterial UTRs have focused on the 5'regions; however, 3'UTRs have recently emerged as a new class of post-transcriptional regulatory elements. 3'UTRs were found to regulate the decay and translation initiation in their own mRNAs. In addition, 3'UTRs constitute a rich reservoir of small regulatory RNAs, regulating target gene expression...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739378/succinate-dehydrogenase-sdh-deficiency-carney-triad-and-the-epigenome
#9
REVIEW
Nikolaos Settas, Fabio R Faucz, Constantine A Stratakis
In this report, we review the relationship between succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) deficiency and the epigenome, especially with regards to two clinical conditions. Carney triad (CT) is a very rare disease with synchronous or metachronous occurrence of at least three different tumor entities; gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), paraganglioma (PGL), and pulmonary chondroma. This condition affects mostly females and it is never inherited. Another disease that shares two of the tumor components of CT, namely GIST and PGL is the Carney-Stratakis syndrome (CSS) or dyad...
July 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739030/immune-modulatory-micrornas-as-a-novel-mechanism-to-revert-immune-escape-of-tumors
#10
REVIEW
Barbara Seliger
Tumors have developed different strategies to escape immune recognition. This could be due to altered expression of classical and non-classical human leukocyte antigens (HLA), co-inhibitory or co-stimulatory molecules as well as components of the interferon signaling pathway. Furthermore, changes in the tumor microenvironment negatively interfere with anti-tumor immune responses and the frequency and activity of immune effector cells and professional antigen presenting cells (APC), while the number of immune suppressive cells is increased...
July 13, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738846/long-non-coding-rnas-as-novel-players-in-%C3%AE-cell-function-and-type-1-diabetes
#11
REVIEW
Aashiq H Mirza, Simranjeet Kaur, Flemming Pociot
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a sub-class within non-coding RNA repertoire that have emerged as crucial regulators of the gene expression in various pathophysiological conditions. lncRNAs display remarkable versatility and wield their functions through interactions with RNA, DNA, or proteins. Accumulating body of evidence based on multitude studies has highlighted the role of lncRNAs in many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, including type 1 diabetes (T1D). This review highlights emerging roles of lncRNAs in immune and islet β cell function as well as some of the challenges and opportunities in understanding the pathogenesis of T1D and its complications...
July 24, 2017: Human Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737703/autophagy-and-human-neurodegenerative-diseases-a-fly-s-perspective
#12
REVIEW
Myungjin Kim, Allison Ho, Jun Hee Lee
Neurodegenerative diseases in humans are frequently associated with prominent accumulation of toxic protein inclusions and defective organelles. Autophagy is a process of bulk lysosomal degradation that eliminates these harmful substances and maintains the subcellular environmental quality. In support of autophagy's importance in neuronal homeostasis, several genetic mutations that interfere with autophagic processes were found to be associated with familial neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, genetic mutations in autophagy-regulating genes provoked neurodegenerative phenotypes in animal models...
July 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737694/the-role-of-p16-ink4a-pathway-in-human-epidermal-stem-cell-self-renewal-aging-and-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Daniela D'Arcangelo, Lavinia Tinaburri, Elena Dellambra
The epidermis is a self-renewing tissue. The balance between proliferation and differentiation processes is tightly regulated to ensure the maintenance of the stem cell (SC) population in the epidermis during life. Aging and cancer may be considered related endpoints of accumulating damages within epidermal self-renewing compartment. p16(INK4a) is a potent inhibitor of the G1/S-phase transition of the cell cycle. p16(INK4a) governs the processes of SC self-renewal in several tissues and its deregulation may result in aging or tumor development...
July 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736939/fetal-hemoglobin-in-sickle-cell-anemia-the-arab-indian-haplotype-and-new-therapeutic-agents
#14
REVIEW
Alawi H Habara, Elmutaz M Shaikho, Martin H Steinberg
Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) has well-known tempering effects on the symptoms of sickle cell disease and its levels vary among patients with different haplotypes of the sickle hemoglobin gene. Compared with sickle cell anemia haplotypes found in patients of African descent, HbF levels in Saudi and Indian patients with the Arab-Indian (AI) haplotype exceed that in any other haplotype by nearly two-fold. Genetic association studies have identified some loci associated with high HbF in the AI haplotype but these observations require functional confirmation...
July 24, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736855/-lnc-ing-wnt-in-female-reproductive-cancers-therapeutic-potential-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-wnt-signaling
#15
REVIEW
Mei S Ong, Wanpei Cai, Yi Yuan, Hin C Leong, Tuan Z Tan, Asad Mohammad, Ming L You, Frank Arfuso, Boon C Goh, Sudha Warrier, Gautam Sethi, Nicholas S Tolwinski, Peter E Lobie, Celestial T Yap, Shing C Hooi, Ruby Y Huang, Alan P Kumar
Recent discoveries in the non-coding genome have challenged the original central dogma of molecular biology; non-coding RNAs and related processes have been found to be important in regulating gene expression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are amongst some that have gained attention recently in human diseases, including cancer, with the involvement of many more ncRNAs waiting to be discovered. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are a group of ribonucleic acids transcribed from regions of the human genome, which do not become translated into proteins, despite having essential roles in cellular physiology...
July 24, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736205/developmental-and-extrahepatic-physiological-functions-of-srebp-pathway-genes-in-mice
#16
REVIEW
Luke J Engelking, Mary Jo Cantoria, Yanchao Xu, Guosheng Liang
Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), master transcriptional regulators of cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis, have been found to contribute to a diverse array of cellular processes. In this review, we focus on genetically engineered mice in which the activities of six components of the SREBP gene pathway, namely SREBP-1, SREBP-2, Scap, Insig-1, Insig-2, or Site-1 protease have been altered through gene knockout or transgenic approaches. In addition to the expected impacts on lipid metabolism, manipulation of these genes in mice is found to affect a wide array of developmental and physiologic processes ranging from interferon signaling in macrophages to synaptic transmission in the brain...
July 20, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735901/mechanisms-of-pannexin1-channel-gating-and-regulation
#17
REVIEW
Paige Whyte-Fagundes, Georg Zoidl
Pannexins are a family of integral membrane proteins with distinct post-translational modifications, sub-cellular localization and tissue distribution. Panx1 is the most studied and best-characterized isoform of this gene family. The ubiquitous expression, as well as its function as a major ATP release and nucleotide permeation channel, makes Panx1 a primary candidate for participating in the pathophysiology of CNS disorders. While many investigations revolve around Panx1 functions in health and disease, more recently, details started emerging about mechanisms that control Panx1 channel activity...
July 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735853/a-comparative-study-of-genome-organization-and-epigenetic-mechanisms-in-model-ciliates-with-an-emphasis-on-tetrahymena-paramecium-and-oxytricha
#18
REVIEW
Yurui Wang, Yuanyuan Wang, Yalan Sheng, Jie Huang, Xiao Chen, Khaled A S Al-Rasheid, Shan Gao
As a group of unicellular eukaryotes, ciliates offer a unique system to explore epigenetic regulation, mostly due to their nuclear dualism. Ciliates launched a successful radiation after their early evolutionary branching, therefore harboring an unexpectedly rich pool of diverse biological functions and mechanisms. In this review, we compare distinct features of different ciliates in mating type determination, genome organization, DNA methylation, and removal of internal eliminated sequences (IES), with emphasis on Tetrahymena, Paramecium and Oxytricha...
July 1, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735559/effects-of-intron-1-sequences-on-human-plp1-expression-implications-for-plp1-related-disorders
#19
Patricia A Wight
Alterations in the myelin proteolipid protein gene ( PLP1) may result in rare X-linked disorders in humans such as Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease and spastic paraplegia type 2. PLP1 expression must be tightly regulated since null mutations, as well as elevated PLP1 copy number, both lead to disease. Previous studies with Plp1-lacZ transgenic mice have demonstrated that mouse Plp1 ( mPlp1) intron 1 DNA (which accounts for slightly more than half of the gene) is required for the mPlp1 promoter to drive significant levels of reporter gene expression in brain...
July 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735349/connecting-the-dots-between-fatty-acids-mitochondrial-function-and-dna-methylation-in-atherosclerosis
#20
REVIEW
Silvio Zaina, Gertrud Lund
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The quest for factors and mechanisms responsible for aberrant DNA methylation in human disease-including atherosclerosis-is a promising area of research. This review focuses on the role of fatty acids (FAs) as modulators of DNA methylation-in particular the role of mitochondrial beta-oxidation in FA-induced changes in DNA methylation during the progression of atherosclerosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent publications have advanced the knowledge in all areas touched by this review: the causal role of lipids in shaping the DNA methylome, the associations between chronic degenerative disease and mitochondrial function, the lipid composition of the atheroma, and the relevance of DNA hypermethylation in atherosclerosis...
September 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
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