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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643205/role-of-host-genes-in-influenza-virus-replication
#1
Megan L Shaw, Silke Stertz
At every step of their replication cycle influenza viruses depend heavily on their host cells. The multifaceted interactions that occur between the virus and its host cell determine the outcome of the infection, including efficiency of progeny virus production, tropism, and pathogenicity. In order to understand viral disease and develop therapies for influenza it is therefore pertinent to study the intricate interplay between influenza viruses and their required host factors. Here, we review the current knowledge on host cell factors required by influenza virus at the different stages of the viral replication cycle...
June 23, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643204/host-factors-in-coronavirus-replication
#2
Adriaan H de Wilde, Eric J Snijder, Marjolein Kikkert, Martijn J van Hemert
Coronaviruses are pathogens with a serious impact on human and animal health. They mostly cause enteric or respiratory disease, which can be severe and life threatening, e.g., in the case of the zoonotic coronaviruses causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in humans. Despite the economic and societal impact of such coronavirus infections, and the likelihood of future outbreaks of additional pathogenic coronaviruses, our options to prevent or treat coronavirus infections remain very limited...
June 23, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643166/structural-disorder-in-plant-proteins-where-plasticity-meets-sessility
#3
REVIEW
Alejandra A Covarrubias, Cesar L Cuevas-Velazquez, Paulette S Romero-Pérez, David F Rendón-Luna, Caspar C C Chater
Plants are sessile organisms. This intriguing nature provokes the question of how they survive despite the continual perturbations caused by their constantly changing environment. The large amount of knowledge accumulated to date demonstrates the fascinating dynamic and plastic mechanisms, which underpin the diverse strategies selected in plants in response to the fluctuating environment. This phenotypic plasticity requires an efficient integration of external cues to their growth and developmental programs that can only be achieved through the dynamic and interactive coordination of various signaling networks...
June 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643116/express-yourself-how-pp2a-b55-pab1-helps-torc1-talk-to-torc2
#4
REVIEW
Ruth Martín, Sandra Lopez-Aviles
The control of cell fate, growth and proliferation in response to nitrogen availability is a tightly controlled process, with the two TOR complexes (TORC1 and TORC2) and their effectors playing a central role. PP2A-B55(Pab1) has recently been shown to be a key element in this response in fission yeast, where it regulates cell cycle progression and sexual differentiation. Importantly, a recent study from our group has shown that PP2A-B55(Pab1) acts as a mediator between the activities of the two TOR signaling modules, enabling a crosstalk that is required to engage in the differentiation program...
June 22, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641053/the-discovery-and-development-of-romidepsin-for-the-treatment-of-t-cell-lymphoma
#5
Piotr Smolewski, Tadeusz Robak
Romidepsin is a potent and selective inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDCAi). It is also the only bicyclic inhibitor to undergo clinical assessment and is considered a promising drug for the treatment of T-cell lymphomas. The cellular action of romidepsin results in enhanced histone acetylation, as well as the acetylation of other nuclear or cytoplasmic proteins, influencing cell cycle, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. In phase II studies involving patients with relapsed or refractory of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL), romidepsin produced overall response rates (ORR) of 34-35% and 25-38%, with complete response (CR) rates of 6% and 15-18%, respectively...
June 22, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640249/mybl2-b-myb-a-central-regulator-of-cell-proliferation-cell-survival-and-differentiation-involved-in-tumorigenesis
#6
REVIEW
Julian Musa, Marie-Ming Aynaud, Olivier Mirabeau, Olivier Delattre, Thomas Gp Grünewald
Limitless cell proliferation, evasion from apoptosis, dedifferentiation, metastatic spread and therapy resistance: all these properties of a cancer cell contribute to its malignant phenotype and affect patient outcome. MYBL2 (alias B-Myb) is a transcription factor of the MYB transcription factor family and a physiological regulator of cell cycle progression, cell survival and cell differentiation. When deregulated in cancer cells, MYBL2 mediates the deregulation of these properties. In fact, MYBL2 is overexpressed and associated with poor patient outcome in numerous cancer entities...
June 22, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640080/immature-enteric-ganglion-cells-were-observed-in-a-13-year-old-colon-signet-ring-cell-carcinoma-patient-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#7
Huili Li, Kun Huang, Hui Wang, Lin Wang, Ming Yang, Lixia Wang, Rong Lin, Hongli Liu, Jinbo Gao, Xiaoming Shuai, Xinghua Liu, Kaixiong Tao, Guobin Wang, Zheng Wang
RATIONALE: All the enteric ganglion cells are fully mature by 2 to 5 years of age in human. No one had reported the presentation of immature enteric ganglion cells in elder ones. Colorectal carcinoma is also rare in the adolescent population. The coincidence of these 2 rare events in a 13-year-old boy has never been reported elsewhere, which may suggest some linkage between them. PATIENT CONCERN: A 13-year-old boy presented with progressive abdominal pain and melena for 3 months...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639138/veterinary-vaccine-nanotechnology-pulmonary-and-nasal-delivery-in-livestock-animals
#8
REVIEW
Daniella Calderon-Nieva, Kalhari Bandara Goonewardene, Susantha Gomis, Marianna Foldvari
Veterinary vaccine development has several similarities with human vaccine development to improve the overall health and well-being of species. However, veterinary goals lean more toward feasible large-scale administration methods and low cost to high benefit immunization. Since the respiratory mucosa is easily accessible and most infectious agents begin their infection cycle at the mucosa, immunization through the respiratory route has been a highly attractive vaccine delivery strategy against infectious diseases...
June 21, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638859/a-review-of-the-aetiopathogenesis-and-clinical-and-histopathological-features-of-oral-mucosal-melanoma
#9
REVIEW
Liviu Feller, Razia A G Khammissa, Johan Lemmer
Oral mucosal melanoma is an uncommon, usually heavily melanin-pigmented, but occasionally amelanotic aggressive tumour with a poor prognosis. Despite radical surgery, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy, local recurrence and distant metastasis are frequent. Microscopical examination is essential for diagnosis, and routine histological staining must be supplemented by immunohistochemical studies. The aetiology is unknown, the pathogenesis is poorly understood, and the 5-year survival rate rarely exceeds 30%. In most cases, oral mucosal melanoma arises from epithelial melanocytes in the basal layer of the epithelium and less frequently from immature melanocytes arrested in the lamina propria...
2017: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638821/the-tor-signaling-pathway-in-spatial-and-temporal-control-of-cell-size-and-growth
#10
REVIEW
Suam Gonzalez, Charalampos Rallis
Cell size is amenable by genetic and environmental factors. The highly conserved nutrient-responsive Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway regulates cellular metabolic status and growth in response to numerous inputs. Timing and duration of TOR pathway activity is pivotal for both cell mass built up as well as cell cycle progression and is controlled and fine-tuned by the abundance and quality of nutrients, hormonal signals, growth factors, stress, and oxygen. TOR kinases function within two functionally and structurally discrete multiprotein complexes, TORC1 and TORC2, that are implicated in temporal and spatial control of cell size and growth respectively; however, recent data indicate that such functional distinctions are much more complex...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637386/enzymes-and-enzyme-activity-encoded-by-nonenveloped-viruses
#11
Kimi Azad, Manidipa Banerjee, John E Johnson
Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that rely on host cell machineries for their replication and survival. Although viruses tend to make optimal use of the host cell protein repertoire, they need to encode essential enzymatic or effector functions that may not be available or accessible in the host cellular milieu. The enzymes encoded by nonenveloped viruses-a group of viruses that lack any lipid coating or envelope-play vital roles in all the stages of the viral life cycle. This review summarizes the structural, biochemical, and mechanistic information available for several classes of enzymes and autocatalytic activity encoded by nonenveloped viruses...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636851/first-line-nivolumab-in-stage-iv-or-recurrent-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#12
COMMENT
David P Carbone, Martin Reck, Luis Paz-Ares, Benjamin Creelan, Leora Horn, Martin Steins, Enriqueta Felip, Michel M van den Heuvel, Tudor-Eliade Ciuleanu, Firas Badin, Neal Ready, T Jeroen N Hiltermann, Suresh Nair, Rosalyn Juergens, Solange Peters, Elisa Minenza, John M Wrangle, Delvys Rodriguez-Abreu, Hossein Borghaei, George R Blumenschein, Liza C Villaruz, Libor Havel, Jana Krejci, Jesus Corral Jaime, Han Chang, William J Geese, Prabhu Bhagavatheeswaran, Allen C Chen, Mark A Socinski
BACKGROUND: Nivolumab has been associated with longer overall survival than docetaxel among patients with previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In an open-label phase 3 trial, we compared first-line nivolumab with chemotherapy in patients with programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1)-positive NSCLC. METHODS: We randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, patients with untreated stage IV or recurrent NSCLC and a PD-L1 tumor-expression level of 1% or more to receive nivolumab (administered intravenously at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram of body weight once every 2 weeks) or platinum-based chemotherapy (administered once every 3 weeks for up to six cycles)...
June 22, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634106/biology-evolution-and-medical-importance-of-polyomaviruses-an-update
#13
REVIEW
Ugo Moens, Andi Krumbholz, Bernhard Ehlers, Roland Zell, Reimar Johne, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Chris Lauber
The family Polyomaviridae encompasses non-enveloped viruses with a circular dsDNA genome that is typically approximately 5000bp in length. Originally isolated from mammals, polyomavirus sequences have now been detected in invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles and birds, although it remains to be determined whether all these animals are genuine hosts. The genomes of all polyomaviruses encode at least two regulatory proteins (large and small tumour antigen) and two structural proteins (capsid proteins VP1 and VP2) whose functions have been defined...
June 17, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633362/human-papillomavirus-related-oropharyngeal-cancer
#14
M Taberna, M Mena, M A Pavón, L Alemany, M L Gillison, R Mesía
High-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) is now recognised as the principal cause of the increasing incidence rates of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) in some parts of the world.The primary risk factor for developing HPV-related OPSCC is oral HPV-infection and the majority of oral HPV-infections are acquired by oral sex. Progression into a OPSCC includes persistent infection with evasion of immune response in the microenvironment, the activation of viral early genes (E6, E7) in basal epithelial cells, the deregulation of cell cycle and the accumulation of chromosomal instability...
June 15, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632996/taking-control-hijacking-of-rab-gtpases-by-intracellular-bacterial-pathogens
#15
Stefania Spanò, Jorge E Galán
Intracellular bacterial pathogens survive and replicate within specialized eukaryotic cell organelles. To establish their intracellular niches these pathogens have adopted sophisticated strategies to control intracellular membrane trafficking. Since Rab-family GTPases are critical regulators of endocytic and secretory membrane trafficking events, many intracellular pathogens have evolved specific mechanisms to modulate or hijack Rab GTPases dynamics and trafficking functions. One such strategy is the delivery of bacterial effectors through specialized machines to specifically target Rab GTPases...
June 20, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632155/microbiota-inflammation-and-colorectal-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Cécily Lucas, Nicolas Barnich, Hang Thi Thu Nguyen
Colorectal cancer, the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, is a multifactorial disease involving genetic, environmental and lifestyle risk factors. In addition, increased evidence has established a role for the intestinal microbiota in the development of colorectal cancer. Indeed, changes in the intestinal microbiota composition in colorectal cancer patients compared to control subjects have been reported. Several bacterial species have been shown to exhibit the pro-inflammatory and pro-carcinogenic properties, which could consequently have an impact on colorectal carcinogenesis...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631441/genetic-landscape-and-deregulated-pathways-in-b-cell-lymphoid-malignancies
#17
R Rosenquist, S Beà, M-Q Du, B Nadel, Q Pan-Hammarström
With the introduction of next-generation sequencing, the genetic landscape of the complex group of B-cell lymphoid malignancies has rapidly been unravelled in recent years. This has provided important information about recurrent genetic events and identified key pathways deregulated in each lymphoma subtype. In parallel, there has been intense search and development of novel types of targeted therapy that 'hit' central mechanisms in lymphoma pathobiology, such as BTK, PI3K or BCL2 inhibitors. In this review, we will outline the current view of the genetic landscape of selected entities: follicular lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and marginal zone lymphoma...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631015/ask-yeast-how-to-burn-your-fats-lessons-learned-from-the-metabolic-adaptation-to-salt-stress
#18
REVIEW
Amparo Pascual-Ahuir, Sara Manzanares-Estreder, Alba Timón-Gómez, Markus Proft
Here, we review and update the recent advances in the metabolic control during the adaptive response of budding yeast to hyperosmotic and salt stress, which is one of the best understood signaling events at the molecular level. This environmental stress can be easily applied and hence has been exploited in the past to generate an impressively detailed and comprehensive model of cellular adaptation. It is clear now that this stress modulates a great number of different physiological functions of the cell, which altogether contribute to cellular survival and adaptation...
June 19, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630025/the-clock-is-ticking-ageing-of-the-circadian-system-from-physiology-to-cell-cycle
#19
REVIEW
Eva Terzibasi-Tozzini, Antonio Martinez-Nicolas, Alejandro Lucas-Sánchez
The circadian system is the responsible to organise the internal temporal order in relation to the environment of every process of the organisms producing the circadian rhythms. These rhythms have a fixed phase relationship among them and with the environment in order to optimise the available energy and resources. From a cellular level, circadian rhythms are controlled by genetic positive and negative auto-regulated transcriptional and translational feedback loops, which generate 24hour rhythms in mRNA and protein levels of the clock components...
June 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627318/effects-of-gamma-rays-on-the-regeneration-of-murine-hair-follicles-in-the-natural-hair-cycle
#20
Kimihiko Sugaya
PURPOSE: This review evaluates the effects of γ-rays on the regeneration of murine hair follicles in the natural hair cycle. A series of studies were performed to investigate this issue, in which the whole bodies of C57BL/10JHir mice in the 1(st) telogen phase of the hair cycle were irradiated with γ-rays. RESULTS: The dermis of the irradiated skin showed a decrease in hair follicle density and induction of curved hair follicles along with the presence of white hairs and hypopigmented hair bulbs in the 2(nd) and 3(rd) anagen phases...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
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