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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920157/mechanisms-of-cancer-cell-killing-by-sea-cucumber-derived-compounds
#1
REVIEW
Teresa Liliana Wargasetia, Widodo
The aim of cancer therapy is to specifically eradicate tumor cells while causing minimal damage to normal tissues and minimal side-effects. Because of this, the use of natural substances with low toxicity is a good option. Sea cucumbers are one of many potential marine animals that contain valuable nutrients and medicinal properties. The medicinal value of sea cucumbers is attributed to the presence of bioactive agents with promising biological and pharmacological properties that include cytotoxic activity, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, inhibition of tumor growth, anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic properties, and inhibition of drug resistance...
September 18, 2017: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920007/towards-treatment-of-stargardt-disease-workshop-organized-and-sponsored-by-the-foundation-fighting-blindness
#2
REVIEW
Avery E Sears, Paul S Bernstein, Artur V Cideciyan, Carel Hoyng, Peter Charbel Issa, Krzysztof Palczewski, Philip J Rosenfeld, SriniVas Sadda, Ulrich Schraermeyer, Janet R Sparrow, Ilyas Washington, Hendrik P N Scholl
Accumulation of fluorescent metabolic byproducts of the visual (retinoid) cycle is associated with photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelial cell death in both Stargardt disease and atrophic (nonneovascular) age-related macular degeneration (AMD). As a consequence of this observation, small molecular inhibitors of enzymes in the visual cycle were recently tested in clinical trials as a strategy to protect the retina and retinal pigment epithelium in patients with atrophic AMD. To address the clinical translational needs for therapies aimed at both diseases, a workshop organized by the Foundation Fighting Blindness was hosted by the Department of Pharmacology at Case Western Reserve University on February 17, 2017, at the Tinkham Veale University Center, Cleveland, OH, USA...
September 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919922/anti-tumor-effects-of-the-american-cockroach-periplaneta-americana
#3
REVIEW
Yanan Zhao, Ailin Yang, Pengfei Tu, Zhongdong Hu
Since the incidence of cancer has been on the rise due to increasing exposure to various carcinogenic factors in recent years, cancer has gradually become the first killer to the health of human beings. A growing attention has been paid to anti-cancer effects of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with low toxicity and good efficacy. As a kind of TCM, Periplaneta americana (P. americana) has a good effect on clinical application, and its anti-tumor effects has been increasingly well studied. In this review, the research progress on the anti-tumor effects of P...
2017: Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915711/vitamin-k-and-its-analogs-potential-avenues-for-prostate-cancer-management
#4
REVIEW
Subramanyam Dasari, Syed M Ali, Guoxing Zheng, Aoshuang Chen, Venkata Satish Dontaraju, Maarten C Bosland, Andre Kajdacsy-Balla, Gnanasekar Munirathinam
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a relationship between cancer incidence and dietary habits. Especially intake of certain essential nutrients like vitamins has been shown to be beneficial in experimental studies and some clinical trials. Vitamin K (VK) is an essential nutrient involved in the blood clotting cascade, and there are considerable experimental data demonstrating its potential anticancer activity in several cancer types including prostate cancer. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have focused mainly on anti-oxidative effects as the underlying anticancer mechanism of VK...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915394/overcoming-the-warburg-effect-is-it-the-key-to-survival-in-sepsis
#5
REVIEW
David Bar-Or, Matthew Carrick, Allen Tanner, Mark J Lieser, Leonard T Rael, Edward Brody
Sepsis is a leading cause of mortality in the U.S. and Europe. Sepsis and septic shock are the results of severe metabolic abnormalities following infection. Aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg Effect) is as much a hallmark of sepsis as it is of cancer. Warburg observed that cancer cells generated energy through glycolysis (generation of ATP through degradation of glucose, usually associated with anaerobic conditions) rather than through oxidative phosphorylation (generation of ATP through the mitochondrial inner membrane via the tricarboxylic acid cycle, usually associated with aerobic conditions)...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912991/t-cell-histiocyte-rich-large-b-cell-lymphoma-presenting-as-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-an-uncommon-presentation-of-a-rare-disease
#6
Uroosa Ibrahim, Gwenalyn Garcia, Amina Saqib, Shafinaz Hussein, Qun Dai
T cell histiocyte rich large B cell lymphoma (THRLBCL) is a rare subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma characterized by malignant B cells with reactive T lymphocytes. The pathophysiology is thought to involve cytokine-mediated evasion of T cell immune response by malignant B cells. It usually presents at an advanced stage with extranodal involvement. An extremely unusual manifestation of the disease is hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) which is a hyperinflammatory disorder. We present a case of a 43-year-old male who presented with recurrent fever and recent radiologic imaging showing splenomegaly and right inguinal lymphadenopathy...
2017: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911826/immunoproteasome-selective-and-non-selective-inhibitors-a-promising-approach-for-the-treatment-of-multiple-myeloma
#7
REVIEW
Roberta Ettari, Maria Zappalà, Silvana Grasso, Caterina Musolino, Vanessa Innao, Alessandro Allegra
The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is the major non-lysosomal proteolytic system for the degradation of abnormal or damaged proteins no longer required. The proteasome is involved in degradation of numerous proteins which regulate the cell cycle, indicating a role in controlling cell proliferation and maintaining cell survival. Defects in the UPS can lead to anarchic cell proliferation and to tumor development. For these reasons UPS inhibition has become a significant new strategy for drug development in cancer treatment...
September 11, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911531/biological-actions-and-molecular-effects-of-resveratrol-pterostilbene-and-3-hydroxypterostilbene
#8
REVIEW
Hui-Yun Tsai, Chi-Tang Ho, Yu-Kuo Chen
Stilbenes are a class of polyphenolic compounds, naturally found in a wide variety of dietary sources such as grapes, berries, peanuts, red wine, and some medicinal plants. There are several well-known stilbenes including trans-resveratrol, pterostilbene, and 3'-hydroxypterostilbene. The core chemical structure of stilbene compounds is 1,2-diphenylethylene. Recently, stilbenes have attracted extensive attention and interest due to their wide range of health-beneficial effects such as anti-inflammation, -carcinogenic, -diabetes, and -dyslipidemia activities...
January 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911530/autophagy-inducing-effect-of-pterostilbene-a%C3%A2-prospective-therapeutic-preventive-option-for-skin-diseases
#9
Rong-Jane Chen, Yu-Hsuan Lee, Ya-Ling Yeh, Wun-Syuan Wu, Chi-Tang Ho, Chia-Yi Li, Bour-Jr Wang, Ying-Jan Wang
Pterostilbene is a naturally occurring analog of resveratrol with many health benefits. These health benefits are associated with its antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory effects, and chemopreventive effects attributed to its unique structure. The skin cancer chemopreventive potential of pterostilbene is supported by a variety of mechanistic studies confirming the anti-inflammatory effects in skin cancer models. Molecular biological studies have identified that pterostilbene targets pleotropic signaling pathways, including those involved in mitogenesis, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis...
January 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906322/the-effect-of-ophthalmic-artery-chemosurgery-on-immune-function-in-retinoblastoma-patients-a-single-institution-retrospective-analysis
#10
Cheryl Fischer, Mary Petriccione, Stephanie Vitolano, Edith Guarini, Mary Elizabeth Davis, Ira J Dunkel
BACKGROUND: Ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC) is associated with grade 3 and 4 neutropenia, however the effect on T-cell number and function is unknown. The purpose of this retrospective review was to confirm that patients treated with OAC do not develop immunosuppression warranting Pneumocystis pneumonia prophylaxis. PROCEDURE: IRB approval was obtained for a single center retrospective review of immune function tests in retinoblastoma patients who received OAC...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905672/the-influence-of-ketogenic-therapy-on-the-5-r-s-of-radiobiology
#11
Rainer J Klement
PURPOSE: Radiotherapy (RT) is a mainstay in the treatment of solid tumors and works by inducing free radical stress in tumor cells, leading to loss of reproductive integrity. The optimal treatment strategy has to consider damage to both tumor and normal cells and is determined by five factors known as the 5 R's of radiobiology: Reoxygenation, DNA Repair, Radiosensitivity, Redistribution in the cell cycle and Repopulation. The aim of this review is (i) to present evidence that these 5 R's are strongly influenced by cellular and whole body metabolism that in turn can be modified through ketogenic therapy in form of ketogenic diets and short term fasting, and (ii) to stimulate new research into this field including some research questions deserving further study...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904877/long-term-repeated-rituximab-treatment-for-childhood-steroid-dependent-nephrotic-syndrome
#12
Ji Hyun Kim, Eujin Park, Hye Sun Hyun, Myung Hyun Cho, Yo Han Ahn, Hyun Jin Choi, Hee Gyung Kang, Il-Soo Ha, Hae Il Cheong
BACKGROUND: Rituximab (RTX) can be used as a rescue therapy for steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS). However, the efficacy and safety of long-term, repeated use of RTX are not established. This study was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of long-term, repeated RTX treatment in children. METHODS: Eighteen consecutive child patients with SDNS who were treated with three or more cycles of RTX for one year or longer were recruited, and their medical records were retrospectively reviewed...
September 2017: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904554/plants-derived-neuroprotective-agents-cutting-the-cycle-of-cell-death-through-multiple-mechanisms
#13
REVIEW
Taiwo Olayemi Elufioye, Tomayo Ireti Berida, Solomon Habtemariam
Neuroprotection is the preservation of the structure and function of neurons from insults arising from cellular injuries induced by a variety of agents or neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). The various NDs including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases as well as amyotropic lateral sclerosis affect millions of people around the world with the main risk factor being advancing age. Each of these diseases affects specific neurons and/or regions in the brain and involves characteristic pathological and molecular features...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904024/polyamines-and-their-role-in-virus-infection
#14
REVIEW
Bryan C Mounce, Michelle E Olsen, Marco Vignuzzi, John H Connor
Polyamines are small, abundant, aliphatic molecules present in all mammalian cells. Within the context of the cell, they play a myriad of roles, from modulating nucleic acid conformation to promoting cellular proliferation and signaling. In addition, polyamines have emerged as important molecules in virus-host interactions. Many viruses have been shown to require polyamines for one or more aspects of their replication cycle, including DNA and RNA polymerization, nucleic acid packaging, and protein synthesis...
December 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903076/role-of-human-dna2-hdna2-as-a-potential-target-for-cancer-and-other-diseases-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Pan-Pan Jia, Muhammad Junaid, Yan-Bo Ma, Farooq Ahmad, Yong-Fang Jia, Wei-Guo Li, De-Sheng Pei
DNA nuclease/helicase 2 (DNA2), a multi-functional protein protecting the high fidelity of genomic transmission, plays critical roles in DNA replication and repair processes. In the maturation of Okazaki fragments, DNA2 acts synergistically with other enzymes to cleave the DNA-RNA primer flaps via different pathways. DNA2 is also involved in the stability of mitochondrial DNA and the maintenance of telomeres. Moreover, DNA2 potentially participates in controlling the cell cycle by repairing the DNA replication faults at main checkpoints...
September 6, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903061/lymphatic-drainage-system-of-the-brain-a-novel-target-for-intervention-of-neurological-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Bao-Liang Sun, Li-Hua Wang, Tuo Yang, Lei-Lei Mao, Jing-Yi Sun, Ming-Feng Yang, Hui Yuan, Robert A Colvin, Xiao-Yi Yang
The belief that the vertebrate brain functions normally without classical lymphatic drainage vessels has been held for many decades. On the contrary, new findings show that functional lymphatic drainage does exist in the brain. The brain lymphatic drainage system is composed of basement membrane-based perivascular pathway, a brain-wide glymphatic pathway, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage routes including sinus-associated meningeal lymphatic vessels and olfactory/cervical lymphatic routes. The brain lymphatic systems function physiological as a route of drainage for interstitial fluid (ISF) from brain parenchyma to nearby lymph nodes...
September 10, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901500/cell-cycle-and-pluripotency-convergence-on-octamer%C3%A2-binding-transcription-factor-4-review
#17
Shiqi She, Qucheng Wei, Bo Kang, Ying-Jie Wang
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have unlimited expansion potential and the ability to differentiate into all somatic cell types for regenerative medicine and disease model studies. Octamer‑binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4), encoded by the POU domain, class 5, transcription factor 1 gene, is a transcription factor vital for maintaining ESC pluripotency and somatic reprogramming. Many studies have established that the cell cycle of ESCs is featured with an abbreviated G1 phase and a prolonged S phase. Changes in cell cycle dynamics are intimately associated with the state of ESC pluripotency, and manipulating cell‑cycle regulators could enable a controlled differentiation of ESCs...
September 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900014/regulation-of-the-cell-cycle-and-centrosome-biology-by-deubiquitylases
#18
REVIEW
Sarah Darling, Andrew B Fielding, Dorota Sabat-Pośpiech, Ian A Prior, Judy M Coulson
Post-translational modification of proteins by ubiquitylation is increasingly recognised as a highly complex code that contributes to the regulation of diverse cellular processes. In humans, a family of almost 100 deubiquitylase enzymes (DUBs) are assigned to six subfamilies and many of these DUBs can remove ubiquitin from proteins to reverse signals. Roles for individual DUBs have been delineated within specific cellular processes, including many that are dysregulated in diseases, particularly cancer. As potentially druggable enzymes, disease-associated DUBs are of increasing interest as pharmaceutical targets...
September 12, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899754/on-the-whereabouts-of-hiv-1-cellular-entry-and-its-fusion-ports
#19
REVIEW
G Maria Jakobsdottir, Maro Iliopoulou, Rory Nolan, Luis Alvarez, Alex A Compton, Sergi Padilla-Parra
HIV-1 disseminates to diverse tissues through different cell types and establishes long-lived reservoirs. The exact cellular compartment where fusion occurs differs depending on the cell type and mode of viral transmission. This implies that HIV-1 may modulate a number of common host cell factors in different cell types. In this review, we evaluate recent advances on the host cell factors that play an important role in HIV-1 entry and fusion. New insights from restriction factors inhibiting virus-cell fusion in vitro may contribute to the development of future therapeutic interventions...
September 9, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899666/stem-cells-and-the-circadian-clock
#20
REVIEW
Meltem Weger, Nicolas Diotel, Anne-Claire Dorsemans, Thomas Dickmeis, Benjamin D Weger
The circadian timing system is a complex biological network of interacting circadian clocks that regulates 24h rhythms of behavioral and physiological processes. One intriguing observation is that stem cell homeostasis is subject to circadian clock regulation. Rhythmic oscillations have been observed in a variety of embryonic and adult stem cell dependent processes, such as hematopoietic progenitor cell migration, the hair follicle cycle, bone remodeling, regenerative myogenesis and neurogenesis. This review aims to discuss the nature of the circadian clock in embryonic stem cells and how it changes during differentiation...
September 9, 2017: Developmental Biology
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