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Cell cycle review

E Martínez de Dueñas, J Gavila-Gregori, S Olmos-Antón, A Santaballa-Bertrán, A Lluch-Hernández, E J Espinal-Domínguez, M Rivero-Silva, A Llombart-Cussac
Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) play a key role in cell cycle regulation, which makes them a clear therapeutic target to interfere with cell division and proliferation in cancer patients. Palbociclib, a specific inhibitor of CDK4/6 with outstanding clinical efficacy data and limited toxicity, has been recently approved for the treatment of hormone receptor (HR)-positive human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer, either in combination with an aromatase inhibitor or in combination with fulvestrant in women who have received prior endocrine therapy...
March 21, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
John F Seymour, Thomas J Kipps, Barbara Eichhorst, Peter Hillmen, James D'Rozario, Sarit Assouline, Carolyn Owen, John Gerecitano, Tadeusz Robak, Javier De la Serna, Ulrich Jaeger, Guillaume Cartron, Marco Montillo, Rod Humerickhouse, Elizabeth A Punnoose, Yan Li, Michelle Boyer, Kathryn Humphrey, Mehrdad Mobasher, Arnon P Kater
BACKGROUND: Venetoclax inhibits BCL2, an antiapoptotic protein that is pathologically overexpressed and that is central to the survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. We evaluated the efficacy of venetoclax in combination with rituximab in patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. METHODS: In this randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 389 patients to receive venetoclax for up to 2 years (from day 1 of cycle 1) plus rituximab for the first 6 months (venetoclax-rituximab group) or bendamustine plus rituximab for 6 months (bendamustine-rituximab group)...
March 22, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Anish Sharda, Robert Flaumenhaft
Platelet granules are unique among secretory vesicles in both their content and their life cycle. Platelets contain three major granule types-dense granules, α-granules, and lysosomes-although other granule types have been reported. Dense granules and α-granules are the most well-studied and the most physiologically important. Platelet granules are formed in large, multilobulated cells, termed megakaryocytes, prior to transport into platelets. The biogenesis of dense granules and α-granules involves common but also distinct pathways...
2018: F1000Research
Jelena Krstic, Markus Galhuber, Tim J Schulz, Michael Schupp, Andreas Prokesch
Lifestyle-related disorders, such as the metabolic syndrome, have become a primary risk factor for the development of liver pathologies that can progress from hepatic steatosis, hepatic insulin resistance, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis, to the most severe condition of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). While the prevalence of liver pathologies is steadily increasing in modern societies, there are currently no approved drugs other than chemotherapeutic intervention in late stage HCC. Hence, there is a pressing need to identify and investigate causative molecular pathways that can yield new therapeutic avenues...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Feng Wang, Xuquan Jing, Bo Liu, Xue Meng, Xindong Sun, Yongsheng Gao, Linlin Wang, Zheng Fu
Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) of the vagina is uncommon. The present case study reports the case of a 54-year-old female with a palpable mass between the rectum and vagina. The patient presented with symptoms consistent with vaginal cancer but lacked any of the 'B' symptoms often associated with systemic lymphoma, including fever, weight loss, night sweats and fatigue. The mass was resected under anesthesia. Immunohistochemistry and biopsy confirmed diffuse large B-cell NHL (DLBCL). Following surgery, six cycles of chemotherapy with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone were administered...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
Younho Choi, James W Bowman, Jae U Jung
Autophagy is a powerful tool that host cells use to defend against viral infection. Double-membrane vesicles, termed autophagosomes, deliver trapped viral cargo to the lysosome for degradation. Specifically, autophagy initiates an innate immune response by cooperating with pattern recognition receptor signalling to induce interferon production. It also selectively degrades immune components associated with viral particles. Following degradation, autophagy coordinates adaptive immunity by delivering virus-derived antigens for presentation to T lymphocytes...
March 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Min Su, Heran Wang, Wenxiang Wang, Ying Wang, Linda Ouyang, Chen Pan, Longzheng Xia, Deliang Cao, Qianjin Liao
In order to maintain integrity of the genome, eukaryotic cells develop a complex DNA damage/repair response network, which can induce cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or DNA repair. Chemo- and radiation therapies, which act primarily through the induction of DNA damage, are the most commonly used therapies for cancer. Impairment in the DNA damage response and repair system that protect cells from persistent DNA damage can affect the therapeutic efficacy of cancer. To date, accumulating evidence has suggested that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in the regulation of the DNA damage/repair network...
March 15, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
Alexander Lee Houck, Sahba Seddighi, Jane Ann Driver
BACKGROUND: A growing body of epidemiologic evidence suggests that neurodegenerative diseases occur less frequently in cancer survivors, and vice versa. While unusual, this inverse comorbidity is biologically plausible and could be explained, in part, by the evolutionary tradeoffs made by neurons and cycling cells to optimize performance of their very different functions. The two cell types utilize the same proteins and pathways in different, and sometimes opposite, ways. However, cancer and neurodegeneration also share many pathophysiological features...
February 23, 2018: Current Aging Science
Vishnu Garla, Karthik Kovvuru, Shradha Ahuja, Venkatataman Palabindala, Bharat Malhotra, Sohail Abdul Salim
Aim: To present a case of Graves' disease complicated by methimazole induced agranulocytosis treated with therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) and review of the literature. Case Presentation: A 21-year-old patient with a history of Graves' disease presented to the endocrine clinic. His history was significant for heat intolerance, weight loss, and tremors. Upon examination he had tachycardia, smooth goiter, thyroid bruit, and hyperactive reflexes. He was started on methimazole and metoprolol and thyroidectomy was to be done once his thyroid function tests normalized...
2018: Case Reports in Endocrinology
Sohail Raza, Gualtiero Alvisi, Farzana Shahin, Urooj Husain, Masood Rabbani, Tahir Yaqub, Aftab Ahmad Anjum, Ali Ahmad Sheikh, Muhammad Nawaz, Muhammad Asad Ali
Most enveloped viruses exploit complex cellular pathways for assembly and egress from the host cell, and the large DNA virus Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) makes no exception, hijacking several cellular transport pathways for its glycoprotein trafficking and maturation, as well as for viral morphogenesis and egress according to the envelopment, de-envelopment and re-envelopment model. Importantly Rab GTPases, widely distributed master regulators of intracellular membrane trafficking pathways, have recently being tightly implicated in such process...
March 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Scott T Eblen
The extracellular-regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2 are evolutionarily conserved, ubiquitous serine-threonine kinases that are involved in regulating cellular signaling in both normal and pathological conditions. Their expression is critical for development and their hyperactivation is a major factor in cancer development and progression. Since their discovery as one of the major signaling mediators activated by mitogens and Ras mutation, we have learned much about their regulation, including their activation, binding partners and substrates...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
Sara Villa-Hernández, Rodrigo Bermejo
Proliferating cells need to accurately duplicate and pass their genetic material on to daughter cells. Problems during replication and partition challenge the structural and numerical integrity of chromosomes. Diverse mechanisms, as the DNA replication checkpoint, survey the correct progression of replication and couple it with other cell cycle events to preserve genome integrity. The structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) cohesin complex primarily contributes to chromosome duplication by mediating the tethering of newly replicated sister chromatids, thus assisting their equal segregation in mitosis...
March 16, 2018: Current Genetics
Julia Karmann, Benedikt Müller, Ulrich Z Hammes
Pathways for assimilates. During their life cycle, plants alternate between a haploid stage, the gametophyte, and a diploid stage, the sporophyte. In higher plants, meiosis generates the gametophyte deeply embedded in the maternal tissue of the flower. The megaspore mother cell undergoes meiosis, and then, the surviving megaspore of the four megaspores produced undergoes mitotic divisions and finally gives rise to the female gametophyte, consisting of the egg cell, two synergids, the central cell, which due to the fusion of two nuclei is diploid (double haploid) in Arabidopsis and most angiosperms and the antipods, whose number is not fixed and varies significantly between species (Yadegari and Drews in Plant Cell 16(Suppl):S133-S141, 2004)...
March 16, 2018: Plant Reproduction
Corina T Madreiter-Sokolowski, Armin A Sokolowski, Markus Waldeck-Weiermair, Roland Malli, Wolfgang F Graier
Senescence is related to the loss of cellular homeostasis and functions, which leads to a progressive decline in physiological ability and to aging-associated diseases. Since mitochondria are essential to energy supply, cell differentiation, cell cycle control, intracellular signaling and Ca2+ sequestration, fine-tuning mitochondrial activity appropriately, is a tightrope walk during aging. For instance, the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) ensures a supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), but is also the main source of potentially harmful levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
March 16, 2018: Genes
Meiguang Xiong, Suyun Wang, Yan-Yi Wang, Yong Ran
The cGAS-MITA pathway of cytosolic DNA sensing plays essential roles in immune response against pathogens that contain DNA or with DNA production in their life cycles. The cGAS-MITA pathway also detects leaked or aberrant accumulated self DNA in the cytoplasm under certain pathological conditions, such as virus induced cell death, DNA damage, mitochondria damage, gene mutations, which results in autoimmune diseases. Therefore, the cGAS-MITA pathway must be tightly controlled to ensure proper immune response against pathogens and to avoid autoimmune diseases...
March 15, 2018: Virologica Sinica
M Irani, N Zaninovic, C Canon, C O'Neill, V Gunnala, Q Zhan, G Palermo, D Reichman, Z Rosenwaks
STUDY QUESTION: Is there a benefit to assessing ploidy in delayed embryos reaching the morula stage on Day 6 of development? SUMMARY ANSWER: Day-6 morulae should be considered for biopsy in women <40 years old undergoing preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A) because they are associated with acceptable, albeit reduced, euploidy and implantation rates (IRs). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Embryo development and morphology have been shown to correlate with aneuploidy and pregnancy rates...
March 13, 2018: Human Reproduction
Minle Li, Keyu Gao, Laili Chu, Junnian Zheng, Jing Yang
Aurora kinase A (Aurora-A), a member of the Aurora family of serine/threonine kinases, plays a critical role in multiple steps of mitotic progression, including microtubule stability during the G1 phase of the cell cycle, chromosome alignment and segregation, and cytokinesis and is aberrantly expressed in various types of human cancers. In addition to its classic functions, recent studies have indicated that Aurora-A is critical for controlling self-renewal of embryonic stem cells through negative regulation of p53...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Hanane Eddaoualline, Khadija Mazouz, Bouchra Rafiq, Ghizlane El Mghari Tabib, Nawal El Ansari, Rhizlane Belbaraka, Abdelhamid El Omrani, Mouna Khouchani
BACKGROUND: Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor is a family of highly malignant proliferation of neuroectodermal origin, most often skeletal, adrenal localization is extremely rare. Only few cases have been reported in the literature. Classical management includes radical surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy or both. This case report is the only one where recurrence was surgically removed, and it confirms the importance of adjuvant treatment, and the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Michelle M J Mens, Mohsen Ghanbari
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNA molecules involved in the regulation of gene expression. They are involved in the fine-tuning of fundamental biological processes such as proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis in many cell types. Emerging evidence suggests that miRNAs regulate critical pathways involved in stem cell function. Several miRNAs have been suggested to target transcripts that directly or indirectly coordinate the cell cycle progression of stem cells. Moreover, previous studies have shown that altered expression levels of miRNAs can contribute to pathological conditions, such as cancer, due to the loss of cell cycle regulation...
March 14, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Manizheh Khalilpourfarshbafi, Khadijeh Gholami, Dharmani Devi Murugan, Munavvar Zubaid Abdul Sattar, Nor Azizan Abdullah
PROPOSE: Obesity is a fast growing epidemic worldwide. During obesity, the increase in adipose tissue mass arise from two different mechanisms, namely, hyperplasia and hypertrophy. Hyperplasia which is the increase in adipocyte number is characteristic of severe obese patients. Recently, there has been much interest in targeting adipogenesis as therapeutic strategy against obesity. Flavonoids have been shown to regulate several pathways and affect a number of molecular targets during specific stages of adipocyte development...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
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