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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732326/therapeutic-applications-of-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-in-sarcoma
#1
REVIEW
Fan Tang, Edwin Choy, Chongqi Tu, Francis Hornicek, Zhenfeng Duan
Sarcomas are a rare group of malignant tumors originating from mesenchymal stem cells. Surgery, radiation and chemotherapy are currently the only standard treatments for sarcoma. However, their response rates to chemotherapy are quite low. Toxic side effects and multi-drug chemoresistance make treatment even more challenging. Therefore, better drugs to treat sarcomas are needed. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC inhibitors, HDACi, HDIs) are epigenetic modifying agents that can inhibit sarcoma growth in vitro and in vivo through a variety of pathways, including inducing tumor cell apoptosis, causing cell cycle arrest, impairing tumor invasion and preventing metastasis...
July 6, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729454/multimodal-regulation-of-cardiac-myocyte-proliferation
#2
REVIEW
Xuejun Yuan, Thomas Braun
Efficient cardiac regeneration is closely associated with the ability of cardiac myocytes to proliferate. Fetal or neonatal mouse hearts containing proliferating cardiac myocytes regenerate even extensive injuries, whereas adult hearts containing mostly post-mitotic cardiac myocytes have lost this ability. The same correlation is seen in some homoiotherm species such as teleost fish and urodelian amphibians leading to the hypothesis that cardiac myocyte proliferation is a major driver of heart regeneration...
July 21, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724427/curcumin-the-spicy-modulator-of-breast-carcinogenesis
#3
REVIEW
Urmila Banik, Subramani Parasuraman, Arun Kumar Adhikary, Nor Hayati Othman
Worldwide breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. For many years clinicians and the researchers are examining and exploring various therapeutic modalities for breast cancer. Yet the disease has remained unconquered and the quest for cure is still going on. Present-day strategy of breast cancer therapy and prevention is either combination of a number of drugs or a drug that modulates multiple targets. In this regard natural products are now becoming significant options. Curcumin exemplifies a promising natural anticancer agent for this purpose...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722663/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-utility-of-long-non-coding-rna-gas5-as-a-diagnostic-and-prognostic-cancer-biomarker
#4
Wei Li, Na Li, Ke Shi, Qiong Chen
The growth arrest-specific 5 transcript (GAS5) is a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) involved in the control of cell cycle progression and apoptosis in a wide variety of cells. To determine the clinical value of GAS5 expression in cancer patients, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis exploring its association with the diagnosis, prognosis, and clinicopathological characteristics of cancer. Ten articles on prognosis, 15 on clinicopathology, and 5 on diagnosis were analyzed. Overall results showed that decreased GAS5 expression associated with unfavorable overall survival (OS) (HR = 2...
July 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719715/long-term-recurrence-free-survival-after-an-unplanned-reduction-in-radiotherapy-for-hpv-positive-oropharyngeal-scc-two-cases-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#5
Jason Liu, David Goldenberg, Salah Almokadem, Henry Crist, Heath B Mackley
There is currently no clear distinction between the treatment of HPV-positive and HPV-negative oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). HPV-positive OPSCC has been demonstrated to be more radiosensitive than its HPV-negative counterpart. Despite this, patients with HPV-positive OPSCC continue to receive a full dose of radiation (70 Gy) outside clinical trials. However, this high dose comes with considerable morbidities, including severe mucositis, dysphagia, and xerostomia. We describe the cases of 2 patients with HPV-positive OPSCC who received two cycles of high-dose cisplatin at 100 mg/m(2) on 3 separate days, along with concurrent radiotherapy at 50 Gy in 25 fractions for one and 46 Gy in 23 fractions for the other...
July 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718440/selective-targeting-of-rsk-isoforms-in-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Kimberly A Casalvieri, Christopher J Matheson, Donald S Backos, Philip Reigan
The p90 ribosomal S6 kinase family (RSK1-4) is a group of highly conserved Ser/Thr kinases that act as downstream effectors of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway. The RSKs phosphorylate a range of substrates involved in transcription, translation, cell cycle regulation, and cell survival. Although the RSKs have a high degree of sequence homology, their functional differences in cancer are of great interest. Current RSK inhibitors target more than one RSK isoform, and this may limit their efficacy as anticancer agents...
April 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718426/targeting-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-in-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Selcuk Colak, Peter Ten Dijke
The transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling pathway is deregulated in many diseases, including cancer. In healthy cells and early-stage cancer cells, this pathway has tumor-suppressor functions, including cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. However, its activation in late-stage cancer can promote tumorigenesis, including metastasis and chemoresistance. The dual function and pleiotropic nature of TGF-β signaling make it a challenging target and imply the need for careful therapeutic dosing of TGF-β drugs and patient selection...
January 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717024/inorganic-carbon-availability-in-benthic-diatom-communities-photosynthesis-and-migration
#8
REVIEW
Jorge Marques da Silva, Sónia Cruz, Paulo Cartaxana
Diatom-dominated microphytobenthos (MPB) is the main primary producer of many intertidal and shallow subtidal environments, being therefore of critical importance to estuarine and coastal food webs. Owing to tidal cycles, intertidal MPB diatoms are subjected to environmental conditions far more variable than the ones experienced by pelagic diatoms (e.g. light, temperature, salinity, desiccation and nutrient availability). Nevertheless, benthic diatoms evolved adaptation mechanisms to these harsh conditions, including the capacity to move within steep physical and chemical gradients, allowing them to perform photosynthesis efficiently...
September 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716705/pathobiology-of-biliary-epithelia
#9
REVIEW
Angela C Cheung, Maria J Lorenzo Pisarello, Nicholas F LaRusso
Cholangiocytes are epithelial cells that line the intra- and extrahepatic biliary tree. They serve predominantly to mediate the content of luminal biliary fluid, which is controlled via numerous signaling pathways influenced by endogenous (e.g., bile acids, nucleotides, hormones, neurotransmitters etc.) and exogenous (microbes/microbial products, drugs etc.) molecules. When injured, cholangiocytes undergo apoptosis/lysis, repair and proliferation. They also become senescent, a form of cell cycle arrest, which may prevent propagation of injury and/or malignant transformation...
July 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715974/electron-cryomicroscopy-of-viruses-at-near-atomic-resolutions
#10
Jason T Kaelber, Corey F Hryc, Wah Chiu
Recently, dozens of virus structures have been solved to resolutions between 2.5 and 5.0 Å by means of electron cryomicroscopy. With these structures we are now firmly within the "atomic age" of electron cryomicroscopy, as these studies can reveal atomic details of protein and nucleic acid topology and interactions between specific residues. This improvement in resolution has been the result of direct electron detectors and image processing advances. Although enforcing symmetry facilitates reaching near-atomic resolution with fewer particle images, it unfortunately obscures some biologically interesting components of a virus...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715648/tumor-suppressor-candidate-2-tusc2-fus-1-and-human-cancers
#11
Tadas Rimkus, Sherona Sirkisoon, Alexandra Harrison, Hui-Wen Lo
Tumor suppressor candidate 2 (TUSC2, also known as FUS1) was identified in 2000 as a candidate tumor suppressor gene located in a region on chromosome 3p21.3 that is homozygously deleted in some lung and breast cancers. The deletion is rare in lung and breast cancers, but is frequent in malignant pleural mesothelioma. Evidence to date indicates that TUSC2 behaves as a tumor suppressor in lung cancer; however, its role as a tumor suppressor for other tumor types has not been fully established. Loss of TUSC2 expression at the mRNA and protein levels has been reported in various cancers...
May 2017: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714780/atezolizumab-for-the-treatment-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#12
Fernando C Santini, Charles M Rudin
The immune system can restrain or promote cancer development and growth. Antibodies targeting immune checkpoints have revolutionized cancer treatment. Among the best responses have been in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) which is largely caused by chronic exposure to carcinogens; associated with high neoantigen creation and sensitization to immune recognition. Atezolizumab was the first approved antibody that targets the PD-1 ligand (PD-L1). Areas Covered: This drug profile article covers the basics of the cancer-immunity cycle and reviews some aspects of innate and adaptive immunology...
July 17, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714409/ampk-therapeutic-target-for-diabetes-and-cancer-prevention
#13
Shotaro Umezawa, Takuma Higurashi, Atsushi Nakajima
BACKGROUND: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a protein kinase that maintains homeostasis in cells and organs. As a master regulator of metabolism, AMPK coordinates many metabolic reactions. AMPK is a key factor in diabetes and metabolic syndrome associated with dysregulation of the metabolic status. Recently, AMPK has also attracted attention as a tumor suppressor. The aim of this article is to discuss about the role of AMPK in diabetes as well as cancer and to evaluate its effectiveness in treatment and prevention of these diseases...
July 13, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713664/cdk-inhibitors-for-muscle-stem-cell-differentiation-and-self-renewal
#14
Amrudha Mohan, Atsushi Asakura
Regeneration of muscle is undertaken by muscle stem cell populations named satellite cells which are normally quiescent or at the G0 phase of the cell cycle. However, upon signals from damaged muscle, satellite cells lose their quiescence, and enter the G1 cell cycle phase to expand the population of satellite cell progenies termed myogenic precursor cells (MPCs). Eventually, MPCs stop their cell cycle and undergo terminal differentiation to form skeletal muscle fibers. Some MPCs retract to quiescent satellite cells as a self-renewal process...
2017: J Phys Fit Sports Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711227/oncogenic-activities-of-idh1-2-mutations-from-epigenetics-to-cellular-signaling
#15
REVIEW
Laurence M Gagné, Karine Boulay, Ivan Topisirovic, Marc-Étienne Huot, Frédérick A Mallette
Gliomas and leukemias remain highly refractory to treatment, thus highlighting the need for new and improved therapeutic strategies. Mutations in genes encoding enzymes involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, such as the isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH1/2), are frequently encountered in astrocytomas and secondary glioblastomas, as well as in acute myeloid leukemias; however, the precise molecular mechanisms by which these mutations promote tumorigenesis remain to be fully characterized. Gain-of-function mutations in IDH1/2 have been shown to stimulate production of the oncogenic metabolite R-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG), which inhibits α-ketoglutarate (αKG)-dependent enzymes...
July 12, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707979/emerging-roles-for-sirt5-in-metabolism-and-cancer
#16
Lauren Rose Bringman-Rodenbarger, Angela H Guo, Costas A Lyssiotis, David B Lombard
SIGNIFICANCE: Developing evidence in the literature suggests that SIRT5 may be involved in metabolic reprogramming, an emerging hallmark of cancer by which neoplastic cells reconfigure their metabolism to support the anabolic demands of rapid cell division. Sirtuin 5 (SIRT5) is one of the seven members of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent sirtuin family of lysine deacylases. It removes succinyl, malonyl, and glutaryl groups from protein targets within the mitochondrial matrix and other subcellular compartments...
July 14, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706431/pancreatic-t-histiocyte-rich-large-b-cell-lymphoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#17
Shu-Mei Zheng, De-Jiang Zhou, Yi-Hua Chen, Rui Jiang, Yun-Xia Wang, Yong Zhang, Hong-Li Xue, Hai-Qiong Wang, Dong Mou, Wei-Zheng Zeng
Primary pancreatic lymphoma (PPL) is an extremely rare form of extranodal malignant lymphoma. The most common histological subtype of PPL is diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In rare cases, PPL can also present as follicular lymphoma, small lymphocytic lymphoma, and T cell lymphoma either of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or of Hodgkin's lymphoma. T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma (T/HRBCL) is an uncommon morphologic variant of DLBCL with aggressive clinical course, it is predominantly a nodal disease, but extranodal sites such as bone marrow, liver, and spleen can be involved...
June 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706010/clinical-management-of-potential-toxicities-and-drug-interactions-related-to-cyclin-dependent-kinase-4-6-inhibitors-in-breast-cancer-practical-considerations-and-recommendations
#18
REVIEW
Laura M Spring, Mark L Zangardi, Beverly Moy, Aditya Bardia
Aberrations of the cell cycle are pervasive in cancer, and selective cell cycle inhibition of cancer cells is a target of choice for a number of novel cancer therapeutics. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are key regulatory enzymes that control cell cycle transitions and the commitment to cell division. Palbociclib and ribociclib are both orally active, highly selective reversible inhibitors of CDK4 and CDK6 that are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer in combination with specific endocrine therapies...
July 13, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704198/alzheimer-s-disease-as-it-was-in-the-beginning
#19
REVIEW
Stanislav Kozlov, Alexei Afonin, Igor Evsyukov, Andrei Bondarenko
Since Alzheimer's disease was first described in 1907, many attempts have been made to reveal its main cause. Nowadays, two forms of the disease are known, and while the hereditary form of the disease is clearly caused by mutations in one of several genes, the etiology of the sporadic form remains a mystery. Both forms share similar sets of neuropathological and molecular manifestations, including extracellular deposition of amyloid-beta, intracellular accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau protein, disturbances in both the structure and functions of mitochondria, oxidative stress, metal ion metabolism disorders, impairment of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-related signaling pathways, abnormalities of lipid metabolism, and aberrant cell cycle reentry in some neurons...
July 12, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702078/anticancer-activities-and-mechanisms-of-heat-clearing-and-detoxicating-traditional-chinese-herbal-medicine
#20
REVIEW
Yulin Zhang, Yeer Liang, Chengwei He
In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory, pathogenic heat and toxins, which are akin to the inflammatory factors, are the causes of cancer and could promote its virulent development. Therefore, heat-clearing and detoxicating (HCD) herbs are essential components of TCM formulas for cancer treatment. An increasing interest has been focused on the study of HCD herbs and accumulated evidences have shown that HCD herbs or HCD herbs-based formulas exhibited remarkable anticancer effects when used alone or combined with other therapeutic approaches...
2017: Chinese Medicine
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