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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773584/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-cell-cycle-regulation-in-adrenocortical-carcinoma
#1
Sofia Pereira, Mariana P Monteiro, Isabelle Bourdeau, Andre Lacroix, Duarte Pignatelli
Adrenocortical carcinomas are rather rare endocrine tumors that often have a poor prognosis. The reduced survival rate associated with these tumors is due to their aggressive biological behavior, combined with the scarcity of effective treatment options that are currently available. The recent identification of the genomic alterations present in ACC have provided further molecular mechanisms to develop consistent strategies for the diagnosis, prevention of progression and treatment of advanced ACCs. Taken together, molecular and genomic advances could be leading the way to develop personalized medicine in ACCs similarly to similar developments in lung or breast cancers...
May 17, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773177/participation-of-selenoproteins-localized-in-the-er-in-the-processes-occurring-in-this-organelle-and-in-the-regulation-of-carcinogenesis-associated-processes
#2
REVIEW
Elena Gennadyevna Varlamova
The functions performed by the ER are diverse: synthesis of steroid hormones, synthesis of proteins for the plasma membrane, lysosomes, as well as proteins meant for exocytosis, protein folding, formation of disulfide bonds, N-linked glycosylation, etc. Selenoproteins localized in this organelle are definitely involved in the processes occurring in it, and the most common of them include participation in protein degradation, regulation of ER stress and redox metabolism. ER stress has been registered in many types of cancer cells...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772112/liver-macrophages-friend-or-foe-during-hepatitis-b-infection
#3
Suzanne Faure-Dupuy, David Durantel, Julie Lucifora
The Hepatitis B virus chronically infects the liver of 250 million people worldwide. Over the past decades, major advances have been made in the understanding of Hepatitis B virus life cycle in hepatocytes. Beside these parenchymal cells, the liver also contains resident and infiltrating myeloid cells involved in immune responses to pathogens and much less is known about their interplay with Hepatitis B virus. In this review, we summarized and discussed the current knowledge of the role of liver macrophages (including Kupffer cells and liver monocyte-derived macrophages), in HBV infection...
May 17, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770997/gemcitabine-nab-paclitaxel-for-pediatric-relapsed-refractory-sarcomas
#4
Jonathan L Metts, Adina L Alazraki, Dana Clark, Ernest K Amankwah, Karen J Wasilewski-Masker, Bradley A George, Thomas A Olson, Thomas Cash
BACKGROUND: Pediatric patients with relapsed/refractory sarcomas have poor outcomes and need novel therapies that provide disease control while maintaining an acceptable quality of life. The activity and toxicity of gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel in combination has not been reported in pediatrics. PROCEDURE: We reviewed the records of fifteen relapsed/refractory patients and one treatment-naïve patient who received gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel at our institution...
May 17, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766830/impact-of-sphingolipid-mediators-on-determination-of-cochlear-survival-in-ototoxicity
#5
Keiji Tabuchi, Akira Hara
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Sphingolipid metabolites, including ceramide, sphingosine, and their phosphorylates (ceramide-1-phosphonate [C1P] and sphingosine-1-phosphate [S1P]), regulate diverse cellular processes including apoptosis, the cell cycle, and cellular differentiation. Recent studies have shown that these sphingolipid metabolites are generated in response to ototoxic agents and play important roles in determining the fate of cochlear hair cells in ototoxic injury. METHODS: This review summarizes the current knowledge on the roles of sphingolipid mediators in cochlear ototoxicity...
May 15, 2018: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765354/pituitary-directed-therapies-for-cushing-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Fabienne Langlois, Jennifer Chu, Maria Fleseriu
Cushing's disease (CD) is caused by a pituitary corticotroph neuroendocrine tumor inducing uncontrolled hypercortisolism. Transsphenoidal surgery is the first-line treatment in most cases. Nonetheless, some patients will not achieve cure even in expert hands, others may not be surgical candidates and a significant percentage will experience recurrence. Many patients will thus require medical therapy to achieve disease control. Pharmacologic options to treat CD have increased in recent years, with an explosion in knowledge related to pathophysiology at the molecular level...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765234/perioperative-chemotherapy-with-pemetrexed-and-cisplatin-for-pulmonary-large-cell-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#7
Hong Tang, Hongyan Wang, Shaoyan Xi, Chunyu He, Yuxi Chang, Qiming Wang, Yufeng Wu
Background: Pulmonary large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is associated with poor prognosis, and its treatment strategy is still controversial, especially regarding chemotherapy regimens. Case report: We present the case of a 49-year-old Chinese male with primary pulmonary LCNEC treated with neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin plus pemetrexed. A suspected quasi-circular mass in the left lower pulmonary lobe and an enlarged mediastinal lymph node were found...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764563/deubiquitinase-usp35-as-a-novel-mitotic-regulator-via-maintenance-of-aurora-b-stability
#8
Jinyoung Park, Eun Joo Song
Aurora B is an important kinase involved in dynamic cellular events in mitosis. Aurora B activity is controlled by several post-translational modifications (PTMs). Among them, E3 ubiquitin ligase-mediated ubiquitination plays crucial roles in controlling the relocation and degradation of Aurora B. Aurora B, ubiquitinated by different E3 ligases, moves to the exact site for its mitotic function during metaphase-anaphase transition and is then degraded for cell cycle progression at the end of mitosis. However, how the stability of Aurora B is maintained until its degradation has been poorly understood...
May 16, 2018: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762641/functional-genomics-paving-the-way-for-more-successful-cancer-immunotherapy
#9
Reham Ajina, Danielle Zamalin, Louis M Weiner
Immunotherapies have revolutionized cancer treatment. Immunotherapy is effective for the treatment of a wide range of cancer types and can mediate complete and durable tumor regression. Nonetheless, the field still faces many significant challenges, such as the need for personalized therapeutic strategies and better biomarkers, the difficulty of selecting the right combination therapy, and resistance to currently available immunotherapies. Both cancer and host immunity comprise significantly diverse and complex ecosystems, making immunogenomics an ideal field for functional genomics analysis...
May 11, 2018: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762513/spatiotemporal-labeling-of-melanocytes-in-mice
#10
REVIEW
Sarah Preston, Shweta Aras, M Raza Zaidi
Melanocytes are pigment producing cells in the skin that give rise to cutaneous malignant melanoma, which is a highly aggressive and the deadliest form of skin cancer. Studying melanocytes in vivo is often difficult due to their small proportion in the skin and the lack of specific cell surface markers. Several genetically-engineered mouse models (GEMMs) have been created to specifically label the melanocyte compartment. These models give both spatial and temporal control over the expression of a cellular 'beacon' that has an added benefit of inducible expression that can be activated on demand...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760790/anticancer-properties-of-fenofibrate-a-repurposing-use
#11
REVIEW
Xin Lian, Gang Wang, Honglan Zhou, Zongyu Zheng, Yaowen Fu, Lu Cai
Cancer is a leading cause of death throughout the world, and cancer therapy remains a big medical challenge in terms of both its therapeutic efficacy and safety. Therefore, to find out a safe anticancer drug has been long goal for oncologist and medical scientists. Among clinically used medicines with no or little toxicity, fenofibrate is a drug of the fibrate class that plays an important role in lowering the levels of serum cholesterol and triglycerides while elevating the levels of high-density lipoproteins...
2018: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759891/the-putative-role-of-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-the-pathophysiology-of-sleep-dysfunction-across-neuropsychiatric-disorders-focus-on-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-bipolar-disorder-and-multiple-sclerosis
#12
REVIEW
Gerwyn Morris, Brendon Stubbs, Cristiano A Köhler, Ken Walder, Anastasiya Slyepchenko, Michael Berk, André F Carvalho
Sleep and circadian abnormalities are prevalent and burdensome manifestations of diverse neuro-immune diseases, and may aggravate the course of several neuropsychiatric disorders. The underlying pathophysiology of sleep abnormalities across neuropsychiatric disorders remains unclear, and may involve the inter-play of several clinical variables and mechanistic pathways. In this review, we propose a heuristic framework in which reciprocal interactions of immune, oxidative and nitrosative stress, and mitochondrial pathways may drive sleep abnormalities across potentially neuroprogressive disorders...
April 4, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759567/epcam-duality-becomes-this-molecule-in-a-new-dr-jekyll-and-mr-hyde-tale
#13
REVIEW
Alejandro Herreros-Pomares, Cristóbal Aguilar-Gallardo, Silvia Calabuig-Fariñas, Rafael Sirera, Eloísa Jantus-Lewintre, Carlos Camps
EpCAM, known as an epithelial cell adhesion molecule, plays an essential role in cell adhesion, migration, metastasis and cell signalling. Rather than acting as an apoptosis antagonist, it induces cellular proliferation that impacts the cell cycle, and as a signalling transducer it uses and enhances the Wnt pathway, which is significantly relevant in cell renewal and cancer. EpCAM has become a marker of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in lung cancer due to its specificity, and its high and stable expression level...
June 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759563/targeting-the-tumor-promoting-effects-of-adenosine-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#14
REVIEW
Yiqing Cai, Lili Feng, Xin Wang
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a hematological malignancy which is characterized by progressive accumulation of functionally deficient B cells in blood, bone marrow, and lymphatic tissue. The tumor microenvironment (TME) appears to play a critical role in genesis and progression of CLL. High levels of extracellular adenosine (ADO) are detected in CLL as a consequence of expression of ecto-enzymes, such as CD39 and CD73. Extracellular ADO exhibits a broad range of effects on cell cycle control, immunoregulation, angiogenesis and cytokine regulation through both direct and indirect mechanisms...
June 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759551/genomics-and-pharmacogenomics-of-pediatric-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#15
REVIEW
Chuan Wu, Wei Li
Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is a prevalent form of pediatric cancer that accounts for 70-80% of all leukemias. Genome-based analysis, exome sequencing, transcriptomics and proteomics have provided insight into genetic classification of ALL and helped identify novel subtypes of the disease. B and T cell-based ALL are two well-characterized genomic subtypes, significantly marked by bone marrow disorders, along with mutations in trisomy 21 and T53. The other ALLs include Early T-cell precursor ALL, Philadelphia chromosome-like ALL, Down syndrome-associated ALL and Relapsed ALL...
June 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756604/alkaloids-nitric-oxide-and-nitrite-reductases-evolutionary-coupling-as-key-regulators-of-cellular-bioenergetics-with-special-relevance-to-the-human-microbiome
#16
George B Stefano, Richard M Kream
Typical alkaloids expressed by prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are small heterocyclic compounds containing weakly basic nitrogen groups that are critically important for mediating essential biological activities. The prototype opiate alkaloid morphine represents a low molecular mass heterocyclic compound that has been evolutionarily fashioned from a relatively restricted role as a secreted antimicrobial phytoalexin into a broad spectrum regulatory molecule. As an essential corollary, positive evolutionary pressure has driven the development of a cognate 6-transmembrane helical (TMH) domain μ3 opiate receptor that is exclusively responsive to morphine and related opiate alkaloids...
May 14, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755986/implications-of-cellular-aging-in-cardiac-reprogramming
#17
Fabiana Passaro, Gianluca Testa
Aging is characterized by a chronic functional decline of organ systems which leads to tissue dysfunction over time, representing a risk factor for diseases development, including cardiovascular. The aging process occurring in the cardiovascular system involves heart and vessels at molecular and cellular level, with subsequent structural modifications and functional impairment. Several modifications involved in the aging process can be ascribed to cellular senescence, a biological response that limits the proliferation of damaged cells...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755422/porcine-endogenous-retrovirus-perv-molecular-structure-and-replication-strategy-in-the-context-of-retroviral-infection-risk-of-human-cells
#18
REVIEW
Krzysztof Łopata, Emilia Wojdas, Roman Nowak, Paweł Łopata, Urszula Mazurek
The xenotransplantation of porcine tissues may help overcome the shortage of human organs for transplantation. However, there are some concerns about recipient safety because the risk of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) transmission to human cells remains unknown. Although, to date, no PERV infections have been noted in vivo , the possibility of such infections has been confirmed in vitro . Better understanding of the structure and replication cycle of PERVs is a prerequisite for determining the risk of infection and planning PERV-detection strategies...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755412/association-between-progesterone-elevation-on-the-day-of-human-chronic-gonadotropin-trigger-and-pregnancy-outcomes-after-fresh-embryo-transfer-in-in-vitro-fertilization-intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection-cycles
#19
REVIEW
Sandro C Esteves, Gautam Khastgir, Jatin Shah, Kshitiz Murdia, Shweta Mittal Gupta, Durga G Rao, Soumyaroop Dash, Kundan Ingale, Milind Patil, Kunji Moideen, Priti Thakor, Pavitra Dewda
Progesterone elevation (PE) during the late follicular phase of controlled ovarian stimulation in fresh embryo transfer in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles has been claimed to be associated with decreased pregnancy rates. However, the evidence is not unequivocal, and clinicians still have questions about the clinical validity of measuring P levels during the follicular phase of stimulated cycles. We reviewed the existing literature aimed at answering four relevant clinical questions, namely (i) Is gonadotropin type associated with PE during the follicular phase of stimulated cycles? (ii) Is PE on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) associated with negative fresh embryo transfer IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles outcomes in all patient subgroups? (iii) Which P thresholds are best to identify patients at risk of implantation failure due to PE in a fresh embryo transfer? and (iv) Should a freeze all policy be adopted in all the cycles with PE on the day of hCG? The existing evidence indicates that late follicular phase progesterone rise in gonadotropin releasing analog cycles is mainly caused by the supraphysiological stimulation of granulosa cells with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755342/mitochondria-estrogen-and-female-brain-aging
#20
REVIEW
Imane Lejri, Amandine Grimm, Anne Eckert
Mitochondria play an essential role in the generation of steroid hormones including the female sex hormones. These hormones are, in turn, able to modulate mitochondrial activities. Mitochondria possess crucial roles in cell maintenance, survival and well-being, because they are the main source of energy as well as of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the cell. The impairment of these important organelles is one of the central features of aging. In women's health, estrogen plays an important role during adulthood not only in the estrous cycle, but also in the brain via neuroprotective, neurotrophic and antioxidant modes of action...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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