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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454357/expression-regulation-and-function-of-mir-495-in-healthy-and-tumor-tissues
#1
Hongli Chen, Xiaman Wang, Ju Bai, Aili He
MicroRNA-495 (miR-495) is a small non-coding RNA encoded by a gene located on chromosome 14 (14q32.31). Its expression is regulated by the transcription factors EF12 and EF47, in addition to promoter methylation status and the fusion oncoprotein mixed-lineage leukemia-AF9. Previous studies suggest that miR-495 is involved in various developmental, immunological and inflammatory processes in healthy tissue, and in the proliferation, invasion, metastasis and drug resistance of cancer cells. The role miR-495 serves in tumors is controversial...
April 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454344/galectin-7-promotes-the-invasiveness-of-human-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cells-via-activation-of-erk-and-jnk-signaling
#2
Jia-Ping Guo, Xiao-Guang Li
Galectin-7 is a member of the β-galactoside-binding protein family, and is highly expressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of manipulating galectin-7 expression on the biological phenotype of human OSCC cells and the associated molecular mechanisms. Knockdown of endogenous galectin-7 via small interfering RNA (siRNA) was performed and cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion were subsequently assessed. The data indicated that galectin-7 silencing had no impact on the proliferation or apoptosis of OSCC cells...
March 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454155/efficient-terahertz-anti-reflection-properties-of-metallic-anti-dot-structures
#3
Kumar Neeraj, Samiran Choudhury, Debanjan Polley, Rakhi Acharya, Jaivardhan Sinha, Anjan Barman, Rajib Kumar Mitra
We report the use of micrometer-sized copper (Cu) anti-dot structures as a novel terahertz (THz) anti-reflection coating (ARC) material and their superior performance over conventionally used metallic (Cu) thin films. Cu anti-dot structures of two different thicknesses (7 and 10 nm) with varying anti-dot diameters (100, 200, and 300 μm, inter-anti-dot separation fixed at 100 μm) are deposited on silicon substrates by RF magnetron sputtering and e-beam evaporation. The anti-reflection performance of these samples is studied in the frequency range of 0...
May 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454150/selective-propagation-and-beam-splitting-of-surface-plasmons-on-metallic-nanodisk-chains
#4
Yuhui Hu, Di Zhao, Zhenghan Wang, Fei Chen, Xiang Xiong, Ruwen Peng, Mu Wang
Manipulating the propagation of surface plasmons (SPs) on a nanoscale is a fundamental issue of nanophotonics. By using focused electron beam, SPs can be excited with high spatial accuracy. Here we report on the propagation of SPs on a chain of gold nanodisks with cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy. Experimental evidence for the propagation of SPs excited by the focused electron beam is demonstrated. The wavelength of the transmitted SPs depends on the geometrical parameters of the nanodisk chain. Furthermore, we design and fabricate a beam splitter, which selectively transmits SPs of certain wavelengths to a specific direction...
May 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453970/on-chip-ultrasonic-manipulation-of-microparticles-by-using-the-flexural-vibration-of-a-glass-substrate
#5
Ryota Yamamoto, Daisuke Koyama, Mami Matsukawa
As biotechnology develops, techniques for manipulating and separating small particles such as cells and DNA are required in the life sciences. This paper investigates on-chip manipulation of microparticles in small channels by using ultrasonic vibration. The chip consists of a rectangular glass substrate with a cross-shaped channel (cross-section: 2.0×2.0mm(2)) and four lead zirconate titanate transducers attached to the substrate's four corners. To efficiently generate the flexural vibration mode on the chip, we used finite element analysis to optimize the configurations of the glass substrate and transducers...
December 15, 2016: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453744/significance-of-low-mtorc1-activity-in-defining-the-characteristics-of-brain-tumor-stem-cells
#6
Yi-Peng Han, Atsushi Enomoto, Yukihiro Shiraki, Shen-Qi Wang, Xiaoze Wang, Shinya Toyokuni, Naoya Asai, Kaori Ushida, Hosne Ara, Fumiharu Ohka, Toshihiko Wakabayashi, Jie Ma, Atsushi Natsume, Masahide Takahashi
Background.: The significance of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity in the maintenance of cancer stem cells (CSCs) remains controversial. Previous findings showed that mTORC1 activation depleted the population of leukemia stem cells in leukemia, while maintaining the stemness in pancreatic CSCs. The purpose of this study was to examine the currently unknown role and significance of mTORC1 activity in brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs). Methods.: Basal mTORC1 activity and its kinetics were investigated in BTSC clones isolated from patients with glioblastoma and their differentiated progenies (DIFFs)...
May 1, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453532/feasibility-of-computerized-working-memory-training-in-individuals-with-huntington-disease
#7
Mahsa Sadeghi, Emily Barlow-Krelina, Clare Gibbons, Komal T Shaikh, Wai Lun Alan Fung, Wendy S Meschino, Christine Till
OBJECTIVES: Huntington disease (HD) is associated with a variety of cognitive deficits, with prominent difficulties in working memory (WM). WM deficits are notably compromised in early-onset and prodromal HD patients. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of a computerized WM training program (Cogmed QM), novel to the HD population. METHODS: Nine patients, aged 26-62, with early stage HD underwent a 25-session (5 days/week for 5 weeks) WM training program (Cogmed QM)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453364/quantification-of-ucp1-function-in-human-brown-adipose-tissue
#8
Craig Porter
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) mitochondria are distinct from their counterparts in other tissues in that ATP production is not their primary physiologic role. BAT mitochondria are equipped with a specialized protein known as uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). UCP1 short-circuits the electron transport chain, allowing mitochondrial membrane potential to be transduced to heat, making BAT a tissue capable of altering energy expenditure and fuel metabolism in mammals without increasing physical activity. The recent discovery that adult humans have metabolically active BAT has rekindled an interest in this intriguing tissue, with the overarching aim of manipulating BAT function to augment energy expenditure as a countermeasure for obesity and the metabolic abnormalities it incurs...
April 14, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453288/photothermal-transport-of-dna-in-entropy-landscape-plasmonic-waveguides
#9
Cameron L C Smith, Anil H Thilsted, Jonas N Pedersen, Tomas H Youngman, Julia C Dyrnum, Nicolai A Michaelsen, Rodolphe Marie, Anders Kristensen
The ability to handle single, free molecules in lab-on-a-chip systems is key to the development of advanced biotechnologies. Entropic confinement offers passive control of polymers in nanofluidic systems by locally asserting a molecule's number of available conformation states through structured landscapes. Separately, a range of plasmonic configurations have demonstrated active manipulation of nano-objects by harnessing concentrated electric fields. The integration of these two independent techniques promises a range of sophisticated and complementary functions to handle, for example, DNA, but numerous difficulties, in particular, conflicting requirements of channel size, have prevented progress...
April 28, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453285/pharmacological-reprogramming-of-somatic-cells-for-regenerative-medicine
#10
Min Xie, Shibing Tang, Ke Li, Sheng Ding
Lost or damaged cells in tissues and organs can be replaced by transplanting therapeutically competent cells. This approach requires methods that effectively manipulate cellular identities and properties to generate sufficient numbers of desired cell types for transplantation. These cells can be generated by reprogramming readily available somatic cells, such as fibroblasts, into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which can replicate indefinitely and give rise to any somatic cell type. This reprogramming can be achieved with genetic methods, such as forced expression of pluripotency-inducing transcription factors (TFs), which can be further improved, or even avoided, with pharmacological agents...
April 28, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453246/robust-and-flexible-aramid-nanofiber-graphene-layer-by-layer-electrodes
#11
Se Ra Kwon, Meagan Elinski, James D Batteas, Jodie L Lutkenhaus
Aramid nanofibers (ANFs), or nanoscale Kevlar® fibers, are of interest for its high mechanical performance and functional nanostructure. The dispersible nature of ANFs opens up processing opportunities for creating mechanically robust and flexible nanocomposites, particularly for energy and power applications. The challenge is to manipulate ANFs into an electrode structure that balances mechanical and electrochemical performance to yield a robust and flexible electrode. Here, ANFs and graphene oxide (GO) sheets are blended using layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly to achieve mechanically flexible supercapacitor electrodes...
April 28, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449264/macroscopically-oriented-porous-materials-with-periodic-ordered-structures-from-zeolites-and-metal-organic-frameworks-to-liquid-crystal-templated-mesoporous-materials
#12
REVIEW
Joonil Cho, Yasuhiro Ishida
Porous materials with molecular-sized periodic structures, as exemplified by zeolites, metal-organic frameworks, or mesoporous silica, have attracted increasing attention due to their range of applications in storage, sensing, separation, and transformation of small molecules. Although the components of such porous materials have a tendency to pack in unidirectionally oriented periodic structures, such ideal types of packing cannot continue indefinitely, generally ceasing when they reach a micrometer scale...
April 27, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449248/betanodavirus-dissection-of-the-viral-life-cycle
#13
REVIEW
C-F Low, B Syarul Nataqain, H-Y Chee, M Z H Rozaini, M Najiah
Progressive research has been recently made in dissecting the molecular biology of Betanodavirus life cycle, the causative pathogen of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy in economic important marine fish species. Establishment of betanodavirus infectious clone allows the manipulation of virus genome for functional genomic study, which elucidates the biological event of the viral life cycle at molecular level. The betanodavirus strategizes its replication by expressing anti-apoptosis/antinecrotic proteins to maintain the cell viability during early infection...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448919/mechanochemical-mechanism-of-integrin-clustering-modulated-by-nanoscale-ligand-spacing-and-rigidity-of-extracellular-substrates
#14
Jing Yu, Jianyong Huang, John A Jansen, Chunyang Xiong, X Frank Walboomers
Experimental findings indicate that cell function and behavior such as cell growth, division, migration and differentiation, are subtly regulated via integrin-dependent cell adhesion. Cell adhesion is influenced by nanoscale ligand spacing and rigidity of extracellular substrates, as cell adhesion drops greatly when the ligand spacing is larger than ~60nm, and cell adhesion is stronger on stiff than soft substrates. However, how nanoscale ligand spacing and substrate stiffness jointly affect integrin clustering and hence nascent cell adhesion remains to be elucidated...
April 14, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448915/ozone-exposure-affects-tree-defoliation-in-a-continental-climate
#15
Alessandra De Marco, Marcello Vitale, Ionel Popa, Alessandro Anav, Ovidiu Badea, Diana Silaghi, Stefan Leca, Augusto Screpanti, Elena Paoletti
Ground-level ozone (O3) affects trees through visible leaf injury, accelerating leaf senescence, declining foliar chlorophyll content, photosynthetic activity, growth, carbon sequestration, predisposing to pests attack and a variety of other physiological effects. Tree crown defoliation is one of the most important parameters that is representative of forest health and vitality. Effects of air pollution on forests have been investigated through manipulative experiments that are not representative of the real environmental conditions observed in the field...
April 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448851/accurate-3d-reconstruction-of-bony-surfaces-using-ultrasonic-synthetic-aperture-techniques-for-robotic-knee-arthroplasty
#16
William Kerr, Philip Rowe, Stephen Gareth Pierce
Robotically guided knee arthroplasty systems generally require an individualized, preoperative 3D model of the knee joint. This is typically measured using Computed Tomography (CT) which provides the required accuracy for preoperative surgical intervention planning. Ultrasound imaging presents an attractive alternative to CT, allowing for reductions in cost and the elimination of doses of ionizing radiation, whilst maintaining the accuracy of the 3D model reconstruction of the joint. Traditional phased array ultrasound imaging methods, however, are susceptible to poor resolution and signal to noise ratios (SNR)...
April 19, 2017: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448738/site-specific-recruitment-of-epigenetic-factors-with-a-modular-crispr-cas-system
#17
Tobias Anton, Sebastian Bultmann
Dissecting the complex network of epigenetic modifications requires tools that combine precise recognition of DNA sequences with the capability to modify epigenetic marks. The CRISPR/Cas system has been proven to be a valuable addition to existing methodologies that fulfill these tasks. So far, sequence-specific editing of epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation and histone posttranslational modifications relied on direct fusions of enzymatically inactivated Cas9 (dCas9) with epigenetic effectors. Here, we report a novel, modular system that facilitates the recruitment of any GFP-tagged protein to desired genomic loci...
February 23, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448462/targeting-the-atr-chk1-axis-in-cancer-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Stuart Rundle, Alice Bradbury, Yvette Drew, Nicola J Curtin
Targeting the DNA damage response (DDR) is a new therapeutic approach in cancer that shows great promise for tumour selectivity. Key components of the DDR are the ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3 related (ATR) and checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) kinases. This review article describes the role of ATR and its major downstream target, CHK1, in the DDR and why cancer cells are particularly reliant on the ATR-CHK1 pathway, providing the rationale for targeting these kinases, and validation of this hypothesis by genetic manipulation...
April 27, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448223/the-alerrt-%C3%A2-instrument-a-quantitative-measure-of-the-effort-required-to-compromise-prescription-opioid-abuse-deterrent-tablets
#19
Edward J Cone, August R Buchhalter, Karsten Lindhardt, Torben Elhauge, Jeffrey M Dayno
BACKGROUND: US FDA guidance recommends measuring the degree of effort needed to manipulate abuse-deterrent (AD) opioids. The ALERRT(®) instrument (PinneyAssociates; Bethesda, MD) uses visual analog scales to assess the labor, effort, and resources necessary to physically compromise AD product candidates in standardized settings. OBJECTIVE: Use the ALERRT(®) instrument for testing morphine abuse-deterrent, extended-release, injection-molded tablets (ADER-IMT) 60 and 100 mg and the comparators immediate-release (IR) morphine sulfate 30 mg and extended-release (ER) morphine sulfate 60 mg...
May 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448034/using-a-fluorescent-pcr-capillary-gel-electrophoresis-technique-to-genotype-crispr-cas9-mediated-knockout-mutants-in-a-high-throughput-format
#20
Muhammad Khairul Ramlee, Jing Wang, Alice M S Cheung, Shang Li
The development of programmable genome-editing tools has facilitated the use of reverse genetics to understand the roles specific genomic sequences play in the functioning of cells and whole organisms. This cause has been tremendously aided by the recent introduction of the CRISPR/Cas9 system-a versatile tool that allows researchers to manipulate the genome and transcriptome in order to, among other things, knock out, knock down, or knock in genes in a targeted manner. For the purpose of knocking out a gene, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated double-strand breaks recruit the non-homologous end-joining DNA repair pathway to introduce the frameshift-causing insertion or deletion of nucleotides at the break site...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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