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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918562/crispr-cas9-genome-editing-in-wheat
#1
Dongjin Kim, Burcu Alptekin, Hikmet Budak
Genome editing has been a long-term challenge for molecular biology research, particularly for plants possess complex genome. The recently discovered Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system is a versatile tool for genome editing which enables editing of multiple genes based on the guidance of small RNAs. Even though the efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9 system has been shown with several studies from diploid plants, its application remains a challenge for plants with polyploid and complex genome...
September 16, 2017: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918538/genetic-manipulation-of-borrelia-spp
#2
Dan Drecktrah, D Scott Samuels
The spirochetes Borrelia (Borreliella) burgdorferi and Borrelia hermsii, the etiologic agents of Lyme disease and relapsing fever, respectively, cycle in nature between an arthropod vector and a vertebrate host. They have extraordinarily unusual genomes that are highly segmented and predominantly linear. The genetic analyses of Lyme disease spirochetes have become increasingly more sophisticated, while the age of genetic investigation in the relapsing fever spirochetes is just dawning. Molecular tools available for B...
September 17, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918530/exogenous-and-endogenous-increase-in-fungal-ggpp-increased-fungal-taxol-production
#3
Sameh S M Soliman, Kareem A Mosa, Ali A El-Keblawy, Mohamed I Husseiny
Taxol is an anticancer identified in both endophytic fungus and its host plant. Plant Taxol is a diterpenoid with geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) mediates the biosynthesis of its terpenoid moiety. Previous report has suggested that fungal Taxol may require terpenoid pathway for its biosynthesis. Here in this study, feeding a Taxol-producing endophytic fungus (Paraconiothyrium SSM001) with terpenoid precursors including isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP, isoprene) and GGPP enhanced Taxol production threefold and fivefold, respectively, compared to the control...
September 16, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918525/increasing-participant-motivation-reduces-rates-of-intentional-and-unintentional-mind-wandering
#4
Paul Seli, Daniel L Schacter, Evan F Risko, Daniel Smilek
We explored the possibility that increasing participants' motivation to perform well on a focal task can reduce mind wandering. Participants completed a sustained-attention task either with standard instructions (normal motivation), or with instructions informing them that they could be excused from the experiment early if they achieved a certain level of performance (higher motivation). Throughout the task, we assessed rates of mind wandering (both intentional and unintentional types) via thought probes. Results showed that the motivation manipulation led to significant reductions in both intentional and unintentional mind wandering as well as improvements in task performance...
September 16, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918374/a-general-strategy-to-fabricate-photonic-crystal-heterostructure-with-programmed-photonic-stopband
#5
Lijing Zhang, Bofan Liu, Jie Wang, Shengyang Tao, Qingfeng Yan
In this paper, we present a general fabrication strategy to achieve the structure control and the flexible photonic stop band regulation of (2+1) D photonic crystal heterostructures (PCHs) by layer-by-layer depositing the annealed colloidal crystal monolayers of different sphere size. The optical properties of the resulting (2+1) DPCHs with different lattice constants were systematically studied and a universal photonic stopband variation rule was proposed, which makes it possible to program any kind of stopband structure as required, such as dual- or multi-stopbands PCH and ultra-wide stopband PCH...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918314/empirical-research-evaluating-the-effects-of-non-traditional-approaches-to-enhancing-sleep-in-typical-and-clinical-children-and%C3%A2-young-people
#6
REVIEW
Karyn G France, Laurie K McLay, Jolene E Hunter, Madeline L S France
This paper examines the effects of non-traditional (non-behavioural and non-prescription pharmaceutical) approaches to sleep in children and young people (0-18 y). A systematic search identified 79 studies that met inclusion criteria. Seventeen percent of the studies were rated as having a conclusive level of evidence, forty-two percent with preponderant evidence and forty-one percent with only suggestive evidence. There were promising indications, with certain populations only, for aromatherapy, ketogenic diets, an elimination diet (few foods diet), elimination of cow's milk, avoidance of caffeine, tryptophan with adenosine and uridine, omega-3 and omega-6, valerian, music, osteopathic manipulation and white noise...
July 29, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918285/controlling-cell-volume-for-efficient-phb-production-by-halomonas
#7
Xiao-Ran Jiang, Zhi-Hao Yao, Guo-Qiang Chen
Bacterial morphology is decided by cytoskeleton protein MreB and cell division protein FtsZ encoded by essential genes mreB and ftsZ, respectively. Inactivating mreB and ftsZ lead to increasing cell sizes and cell lengths, respectively, yet seriously reduce cell growth ability. Here we develop a temperature-responsible plasmid expression system for compensated expression of relevant gene(s) in mreB or ftsZ disrupted recombinants H. campaniensis LS21, allowing mreB or ftsZ disrupted recombinants to grow normally at 30°C in a bioreactor for 12h so that a certain cell density can be reached, followed by 36h cell size expansions or cell shape elongations at elevated 37°C at which the mreB and ftsZ encoded plasmid pTKmf failed to replicate in the recombinants and thus lost themselves...
September 13, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918262/circuit-changes-in-motor-cortex-during-motor-skill-learning
#8
Andrew E Papale, Bryan M Hooks
Motor cortex is important for motor skill learning, particularly the dexterous skills necessary for our favorite sports and careers. We are especially interested in understanding how plasticity in motor cortex contributes to skill learning. Although human studies have been helpful in understanding the importance of motor cortex in learning skilled tasks, animal models are necessary for achieving a detailed understanding of the circuitry underlying these behaviors and the changes that occur during training. We review data from these models to try to identify sites of plasticity in motor cortex, focusing on rodents as a model system...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918256/transgene-is-specifically-and-functionally-expressed-in-retinal-inhibitory-interneurons-in-the-vgat-chr2-eyfp-mouse
#9
Guo-Zhong Xu, Ling-Jie Cui, Ai-Lin Liu, Wei Zhou, Xue Gong, Yong-Mei Zhong, Xiong-Li Yang, Shi-Jun Weng
Ectopic transgene expression in the retina has been reported in various transgenic mice, indicating the importance of characterizing retinal phenotypes. We examined transgene expression in the VGAT-ChR2-EYFP mouse retina by fluorescent immunohistochemistry and electrophysiology, with special emphasis on EYFP localization in retinal neuronal subtypes identified by specific markers. Strong EYFP signals were detected in both the inner and outer plexiform layers. In addition, the ChR2-EYFP fusion protein was also expressed in somata of the great majority of inhibitory interneurons, including horizontal cells and GABAergic and glycinergic amacrine cells...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918057/one-step-piggybac-transposon-based-crispr-cas9-activation-of-multiple-genes
#10
Shenglan Li, Anqi Zhang, Haipeng Xue, Dali Li, Ying Liu
Neural cell fate is determined by a tightly controlled transcription regulatory network during development. The ability to manipulate the expression of multiple transcription factors simultaneously is required to delineate the complex picture of neural cell development. Because of the limited carrying capacity of the commonly used viral vectors, such as lentiviral or retroviral vectors, it is often challenging to perform perturbation experiments on multiple transcription factors. Here we have developed a piggyBac (PB) transposon-based CRISPR activation (CRISPRa) all-in-one system, which allows for simultaneous and stable endogenous transactivation of multiple transcription factors and long non-coding RNAs...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917984/multi-objective-optimization-of-asymmetric-acoustic-transmission-with-periodical-structure
#11
Jiu-Jiu Chen, Jian-Cheng Zhang, Shao-Yong Huo
Asymmetric acoustic wave propagation is important for control and manipulation of the acoustic wave signals in various devices. However, previous approach to find optimal asymmetric acoustic transmission (AAT) is through repeatedly adjusting the geometrical parameters, thus causing time-consuming. Here we propose a study on the multi-objective optimization of the AAT, aiming to achieve the widest working frequency range (fr) and the highest transmittance peak (η) with regard to the design variables. For this purpose, the Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural work and finite element (FE) method are applied to obtain the valuable data in the procedure...
September 8, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917886/hydrogen-bonds-and-twist-in-cellulose-microfibrils
#12
Sridhar Kumar Kannam, Daniel P Oehme, Monika S Doblin, Michael J Gidley, Antony Bacic, Matthew T Downton
There is increasing experimental and computational evidence that cellulose microfibrils can exist in a stable twisted form. In this study, atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to investigate the importance of intrachain hydrogen bonds on the twist in cellulose microfibrils. We systematically enforce or block the formation of these intrachain hydrogen bonds by either constraining dihedral angles or manipulating charges. For the majority of simulations a consistent right handed twist is observed...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917802/on-chip-microfluidic-generation-of-monodisperse-bubbles-for-liquid-interfacial-tension-measurement
#13
Chen Wang, Jing Cao, Yue Zhou, Xing-Hua Xia
A novel microfluidic method for measuring liquid interfacial tension using monodisperse microbubbles generated in situ has been proposed. Instead of bulky gas supply used in traditional microfluidic devices, microbubbles are efficiently generated via water electrolysis in the devices. Since the bubble formation frequency is related to the interfacial tension of liquids used, thus, precisely measuring the interfacial tension of liquids in microfluidics can be achieved. In addition, it is found that during the microbubble formation, the electrochemical potential fluctuates regularly at controlled electrolysis current, and the fluctuating period depends on the microbubble generation rate...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917747/colorimetric-detection-of-ammonia-using-smartphones-based-on-localized-surface-plasmon-resonance-of-silver-nanoparticles
#14
Amirmostafa Amirjani, Davoud Haghshenas Fatmehsari
In this work, a rapid and straightforward method was developed for colorimetric determination of ammonia using smartphones. The mechanisms is based on the manipulation of the surface plasmon band of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) via the formation of Ag (NH3)2(+) complex. This complex decreases the amount of AgNPs in the solution and consequently, the color intensity of the colloidal system decreases. Not only the variation in color intensity of the solution can be tracked by a UV-vis spectrophotometer, but also a smartphone can be employed to monitor the color intensity variation by RGB analysis...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917744/differentiation-of-cumin-seeds-using-a-metal-oxide-based-gas-sensor-array-in-tandem-with-chemometric-tools
#15
Mahdi Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, Zahra Safari Amiri, Mojtaba Tohidi, Majid Dowlati, Seyed Saeid Mohtasebi, Adenilton C Silva, David D S Fernandes, Mário C U Araujo
Cumin is a plant of the Apiaceae family (umbelliferae) which has been used since ancient times as a medicinal plant and as a spice. The difference in the percentage of aromatic compounds in cumin obtained from different locations has led to differentiation of some species of cumin from other species. The quality and price of cumin vary according to the specie and may be an incentive for the adulteration of high value samples with low quality cultivars. An electronic nose simulates the human olfactory sense by using an array of sensors to distinguish complex smells...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917658/multiple-events-of-gene-manipulation-via-in-pouch-electroporation-in-a-marsupial-model-of-mammalian-forebrain-development
#16
Annalisa Paolino, Laura R Fenlon, Peter Kozulin, Linda J Richards, Rodrigo Suárez
BACKGROUND: The technique of in utero electroporation has been widely used in eutherians, such as mice and rats, to investigate brain development by selectively manipulating gene expression in specific neuronal populations. A major challenge, however, is that surgery is required to access the embryos, affecting animal survival and limiting the number of times it can be performed within the same litter. New method: Marsupials are born at an early stage of brain development as compared to eutherians...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917610/low-dose-dha-induced-astrocyte-proliferation-can-be-attenuated-by-insufficient-expression-of-blbp-in-vitro
#17
Haoming Li, Qingqing Yang, Xiao Han, Xuefeng Tan, Jianbing Qin, Guohua Jin
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) that is involved in a wide range of cellular processes in human cells. Brain lipid binding protein (BLBP) exhibits a high affinity for n-3 PUFAs, especially DHA, but the precise functional contributions of DHA and BLBP in astrocytes are not clear. We analyzed cell viability and the ratio of Ki67 positive cells after manipulating DHA and/or BLBP levels in cultured astrocytes, and found that low-dose DHA stimulated proliferation of astrocytes, whereas this proliferative effect could be attenuated by downregulation of BLBP...
September 13, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917535/selective-manipulation-of-superparamagnetic-nanoparticles-for-product-purification-and-microfluidic-diagnostics
#18
REVIEW
Johannes Gädke, Jan-Wilhelm Thies, Lennart Kleinfeldt, Torben Schulze, Rebekka Biedendieck, Ingo Rustenbeck, Georg Garnweitner, Rainer Krull, Andreas Dietzel
The needs of scalable product purification as well as the demand for sensitive diagnostics for highly dilute entities can be addressed with the utilization of tailored superparamagnetic nanoparticles. Recent developments have led to more efficient fluidic systems at different scales with suspended nanoparticles or nanoparticle aggregates. However, magnetic nanoparticle systems differ widely in properties and their applications are characterized by very specific challenges. This review summarizes advances in the synthesis of superparamagnetic particles and displays states and trends in research making use of these particles in biotechnological downstream processing and in biosensing...
September 13, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917330/-oral-administration-of-medicines-in-elderly-patients-and-adaptation-of-galenic-forms
#19
Éric Pautas, Lasamy Bui, Alexandra Monti, Sébastien Krypciak, Anastasia Obraztsova, Eléna Paillaud
Physiological ageing and pathologies can have an influence on the pharmacology of numerous medicines, leading to serious iatrogenic accidents, polypharmacy and incorrect use of a medicine in elderly people. An observational study carried out in a short-stay geriatric unit focused on the issues surrounding the difficulties the elderly may encounter when taking medicines and the prevalence of the manipulation of galenic forms.
September 2017: Soins. Gérontologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917250/emerging-technologies-in-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy
#20
Lijun Ma, Lei Wang, Chia-Lin Tseng, Arjun Sahgal
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) stems from the initial developments of intra-cranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Despite similarity in their names and clinical goals of delivering a sufficiently high tumoricidal dose, maximal sparing of the surrounding normal tissues and a short treatment course, SBRT technologies have transformed from the early days of body frame-based treatments with X-ray verification to primarily image-guided procedures with cone-beam CT or stereoscopic X-ray systems and non-rigid body immo-bilization...
September 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
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