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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817798/toward-a-wiring-diagram-understanding-of-appetite-control
#1
REVIEW
Mark L Andermann, Bradford B Lowell
Prior mouse genetic research has set the stage for a deep understanding of appetite regulation. This goal is now being realized through the use of recent technological advances, such as the ability to map connectivity between neurons, manipulate neural activity in real time, and measure neural activity during behavior. Indeed, major progress has been made with regard to meal-related gut control of appetite, arcuate nucleus-based hypothalamic circuits linking energy state to the motivational drive, hunger, and, finally, limbic and cognitive processes that bring about hunger-mediated increases in reward value and perception of food...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817796/the-strange-case-of-aggression-and-the-brain
#2
Vinicius M A Carvalho, Thiago S Nakahara, Fabio Papes
Territorial male mice are aggressive toward intruding males, but socially bonded males are not. Through manipulation of activity in a subset of neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus, Yang et al. (2017) report that social and physiological factors non-linearly interact to control male aggression.
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817660/cited4-is-related-to-cardiogenic-induction-and-maintenance-of-proliferation-capacity-of-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-during-in-vitro-cardiogenesis
#3
Junichiro Miake, Tomomi Notsu, Katsumi Higaki, Kyoko Hidaka, Takayuki Morisaki, Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Ichiro Hisatome
Cardiac progenitor cells have a limited proliferative capacity. The CREB-binding protein/p300-interacting transactivator, with the Glu/Asp-rich carboxy-terminal domain (Cited) gene family, regulates gene transcription. Increased expression of the Cited4 gene in an adult mouse is associated with exercise-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and proliferation. However, the expression patterns and functional roles of the Cited4 gene during cardiogenesis are largely unknown. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the expression patterns and functional roles of the Cited4 gene during in vitro cardiogenesis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817572/tissue-specific-insulin-signaling-mediates-female-sexual-attractiveness
#4
Tatyana Y Fedina, Devin Arbuthnott, Howard D Rundle, Daniel E L Promislow, Scott D Pletcher
Individuals choose their mates so as to maximize reproductive success, and one important component of this choice is assessment of traits reflecting mate quality. Little is known about why specific traits are used for mate quality assessment nor about how they reflect it. We have previously shown that global manipulation of insulin signaling, a nutrient-sensing pathway governing investment in survival versus reproduction, affects female sexual attractiveness in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Here we demonstrate that these effects on attractiveness derive from insulin signaling in the fat body and ovarian follicle cells, whose signals are integrated by pheromone-producing cells called oenocytes...
August 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817254/highly-001-textured-tetragonal-bifeo3-film-and-its-photoelectrochemical-behaviors-tuned-by-magnetic-field
#5
Haomin Xu, Yuanhua Lin, Takashi Harumoto, Ji Shi, Ce-Wen Nan
Highly (001)-textured BiFeO3 film in tetragonal phase (T-BFO) with a giant c/a ratio was firstly obtained on quartz/polycrystalline ITO substrate. Our results indicate that the polycrystalline ITO layer with small surface roughness is a critical point to control the growth of T-BFO structure. It should be ascribed to the fact that a Bi-rich phase interlayer (~5 nm) could be formed on ITO, which acted as a crystal seed layer and thus induced the growth of (001)-textured T-BFO structure. The observed weak room temperature ferromagnetism should be attributed to Fe valance change...
August 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817077/secure-localization-in-the-presence-of-colluders-in-wsns
#6
Wei Shi, Michel Barbeau, Jean-Pierre Corriveau, Joaquin Garcia-Alfaro, Meng Yao
We address the challenge of correctly estimating the position of wireless sensor network (WSN) nodes in the presence of malicious adversaries. We consider adversarial situations during the execution of node localization under three classes of colluding adversaries. We describe a decentralized algorithm that aims at determining the position of nodes in the presence of such colluders. Colluders are assumed to either forge or manipulate the information they exchange with the other nodes of the WSN. This algorithm allows location-unknown nodes to successfully detect adversaries within their communication range...
August 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816975/incidence-and-risk-factors-of-posterior-cage-migration-following-decompression-and-instrumented-fusion-for-degenerative-lumbar-disorders
#7
Hua Li, Hui Wang, Yanbo Zhu, Wenyuan Ding, Qian Wang
The aim of this study was to explore the incidence and risk factors for posterior cage migration (PCM) following decompression and instrumented fusion for degenerative lumbar disorders, and hope to provide references in decision making and surgical planning for spine surgeons.By retrieving the medical records from January 2011 to December 2015, 286 patients were retrospectively reviewed. According to the occurrence of PCM, patients were divided into 2 groups: PCM group and non-PCM (N-PCM). To investigate risk values for PCM, 3 categorized factors were analyzed statistically: patient characteristics: age, sex, body mass index, bone mineral density, duration of disease, diagnosis, comorbidity, smoke; surgical variables: surgery time, blood loss, surgical strategy, cage morphology, cage size, surgical segment, fusion number, source of bone graft, surgeon experience; radiographic parameters: preoperative lumbar lordosis, correction of lumbar lordosis, preoperative lumbar mobility, preoperative intervertebral height, change of intervertebral height, Modic changes, paraspinal muscle degeneration...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816679/adaptive-unknown-input-estimation-by-sliding-modes-and-differential-neural-network-observer
#8
Ivan Salgado, Isaac Chairez
In this paper, a differential neural network (DNN) implemented as a robust observer estimates the dynamics of perturbed uncertain nonlinear systems affected by exogenous unknown inputs. In the first stage, the identification error converges into a neighborhood around the origin. Then, the second-order sliding mode supertwisting algorithm implemented as a robust exact differentiator reconstructed the unknown inputs. The approach proposed in this paper can be applied in the case of full access to the state vector (identification problem) and in the case of partial access to the state vector (estimation problem)...
August 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816633/restoration-and-loss-after-disaster-applying-the-dual-process-model-of-coping-in-bereavement
#9
Ruth McManus, Tony Walter, Leon Claridge
The article asks whether disasters that destroy life but leave the material infrastructure relatively intact tend to prompt communal coping focussing on loss, while disasters that destroy significant material infrastructure tend to prompt coping through restoration / re-building. After comparing memorials to New Zealand's Christchurch earthquake and Pike River mine disasters, we outline circumstances in which collective restorative endeavour may be grassroots, organised from above, or manipulated, along with limits to effective restoration...
August 17, 2017: Death Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816598/short-versus-long-double-stranded-rna-activation-of-a-post-transcriptional-gene-knockdown-pathway
#10
Nir Shpak, Rivka Manor, Lihie Katzir Abilevich, Ortal Mantal, Keshet Shavit, Eliahu D Aflalo, Debra Toiber, Amir Sagi
RNA interference (RNAi) utilizes a conserved cellular autoimmune defense mechanism involving the internalization of dsRNA into cells and the activation of a set of RNAi related genes. Using RNAi, complete sex reversal is achievable in males of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii by knocking down the transcript level of an insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (Mr-IAG) through injections of dsRNA of the entire Mr-IAG ORF sequence (dsMr-IAG - 518 bp). Interestingly, in-vivo knockdown success and dsMr-IAG lengths seemed to correlate, with long dsRNA being the most effective and short dsRNA fragments showing no effect...
August 17, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816493/consequences-norms-and-generalized-inaction-in-moral-dilemmas-the-cni-model-of-moral-decision-making
#11
Bertram Gawronski, Joel Armstrong, Paul Conway, Rebecca Friesdorf, Mandy Hütter
Research on moral dilemma judgments has been fundamentally shaped by the distinction between utilitarianism and deontology. According to the principle of utilitarianism, the moral status of behavioral options depends on their consequences; the principle of deontology states that the moral status of behavioral options depends on their consistency with moral norms. To identify the processes underlying utilitarian and deontological judgments, researchers have investigated responses to moral dilemmas that pit one principle against the other (e...
September 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816473/the-effects-of-context-on-processing-words-during-sentence-reading-among-adults-varying-in-age-and-literacy-skill
#12
Allison A Steen-Baker, Shukhan Ng, Brennan R Payne, Carolyn J Anderson, Kara D Federmeier, Elizabeth A L Stine-Morrow
The facilitation of word processing by sentence context reflects the interaction between the build-up of message-level semantics and lexical processing. Yet, little is known about how this effect varies through adulthood as a function of reading skill. In this study, Participants 18-64 years old with a range of literacy competence read simple sentences as their eye movements were monitored. We manipulated the predictability of a sentence-final target word, operationalized as cloze probability. First fixation durations showed an interaction between age and literacy skill, decreasing with age among more skilled readers but increasing among less skilled readers...
August 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816471/how-much-will-the-sea-level-rise-outcome-selection-and-subjective-probability-in-climate-change-predictions
#13
Marie Juanchich, Miroslav Sirota
We tested whether people focus on extreme outcomes to predict climate change and assessed the gap between the frequency of the predicted outcome and its perceived probability while controlling for climate change beliefs. We also tested 2 cost-effective interventions to reduce the preference for extreme outcomes and the frequency-probability gap by manipulating the probabilistic format: numerical or dual-verbal-numerical. In 4 experiments, participants read a scenario featuring a distribution of sea level rises, selected a sea rise to complete a prediction (e...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816465/on-informing-jurors-of-potential-sanctions
#14
Jennifer Teitcher, Nicholas Scurich
Two experiments tested (a) whether jurors make assumptions about the potential punishment that would follow from a guilty verdict, (b) whether those assumptions influence jurors' implicit threshold for reasonable doubt, and (c) whether informing jurors of the potential punishment additionally influences their implicit threshold. Experiment 1 manipulated the alleged crime (grand theft vs. manslaughter) holding all other factors constant, and found that mock jurors (n = 102, recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk) had different expectations about the relative punishments but that these expectations did not affect their implicit threshold for reasonable doubt...
August 17, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816411/a-stereovision-model-applied-in-bio-micromanipulation-system-based-on-stereo-light-microscope
#15
Yuezong Wang
A bio-micromanipulation system is designed for manipulating micro-objects with a length scale of tens or hundreds of microns based on stereo light microscope. The world coordinate reconstruction of points on the surface of micro-objects is an important goal for the micromanipulation. Traditional pinhole camera model is applied widely in macrocomputer vision. However, this model will output bad data with remarkable error if it is directly used to reconstruct three-dimensional world coordinates for stereo light microscope...
August 17, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815807/molybdenum-oxides-from-fundamentals-to-functionality
#16
REVIEW
Isabela Alves de Castro, Robi Shankar Datta, Jian Zhen Ou, Andres Castellanos-Gomez, Sharath Sriram, Torben Daeneke, Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh
The properties and applications of molybdenum oxides are reviewed in depth. Molybdenum is found in various oxide stoichiometries, which have been employed for different high-value research and commercial applications. The great chemical and physical characteristics of molybdenum oxides make them versatile and highly tunable for incorporation in optical, electronic, catalytic, bio, and energy systems. Variations in the oxidation states allow manipulation of the crystal structure, morphology, oxygen vacancies, and dopants, to control and engineer electronic states...
August 16, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815755/large-scale-synthesis-of-freestanding-layer-structured-pbi2-and-mapbi3-nanosheets-for-high-performance-photodetection
#17
Changyong Lan, Ruoting Dong, Ziyao Zhou, Lei Shu, Dapan Li, SenPo Yip, Johnny C Ho
Recently, due to the possibility of thinning down to the atomic thickness to achieve exotic properties, layered materials have attracted extensive research attention. In particular, PbI2 , a kind of layered material, and its perovskite derivatives, CH3 NH3 PbI3 (i.e., MAPbI3 ), have demonstrated impressive photoresponsivities for efficient photodetection. Herein, the synthesis of large-scale, high-density, and freestanding PbI2 nanosheets is demonstrated by manipulating the microenvironment during physical vapor deposition...
August 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815718/a-potential-high-risk-for-fatty-liver-disease-was-found-in-mice-generated-after-assisted-reproductive-techniques
#18
Gu Ll, Zhang Jj, Zheng Mm, Dong Gy, Xu Jy, Zhang Wy, Yibo Wu, Yang Yang, Zhu H
Abnormal gametogenesis and embryonic development may lead to poor health status of the offspring. The operations involved in the assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) occur during the key stage of gametogenesis and early embryonic development. To assess the potential risk of abnormal lipid metabolism in the liver of adult ARTs offspring, two ARTs mice models derived from preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD group) and in vitro cultured embryos without biopsy (IVEM group) were constructed. And control mice were from in vivo naturally conceived (Normal group)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815592/sexual-selection-on-male-body-size-genital-length-and-heterozygosity-consistency-across-habitats-and-social-settings
#19
Megan L Head, Andrew T Kahn, Jonathan M Henshaw, J Scott Keogh, Michael D Jennions
1. Spatial and temporal variation in environmental factors and the social setting can help to maintain genetic variation in sexually selected traits if it affects the strength of directional selection. A key social parameter which affects the intensity of, and sometimes predicts the response to, mating competition is the operational sex ratio (OSR; ratio of receptive males to females). 2. How the OSR affects selection for specific male traits is poorly understood. It is also unclear how sexual selection is affected by interactions between the OSR and environmental factors, such as habitat complexity, that alter key male-female interactions such as mate encounter rates...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815533/hijacking-of-membrane-contact-sites-by-intracellular-bacterial-pathogens
#20
Isabelle Derré
Intracellular bacterial pathogens have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to hijack host cellular processes to promote their survival and replication inside host cells. Over the past two decades, much attention has been given to the strategies employed by these pathogens to manipulate various vesicular trafficking pathways. But in the past 5 years, studies have brought to light that intracellular bacteria also target non-vesicular trafficking pathways. Here we review how three vacuolar pathogens, namely, Legionella, Chlamydia, and Coxiella hijack components of cellular MCS with or without the formation of stable MCS...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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