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Cinthya Maria Neves Varandas, José Lucas Sena da Silva, Janeusa Rita L Primo, Maria de Fátima S P de Oliveira, Otávio Moreno-Carvalho, Lourdes Farre, Achiléa L Bittencourt
Background: HTLV-1 may cause severe diseases such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and infective dermatitis associated to HTLV-1 (IDH). The clinical characteristics and progression of 25 early onset HAM/TSP associated or not to IDH were described. Methods: Following-up 37 IDH patients with neurological examinations, 54% developed HAM/TSP. To these cases were added five cases of juvenile HAM/TSP. The patients were HTLV-1+ and were submitted to dermatological and neurological examinations...
April 18, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Megumi Maeda, Hidenori Matsuzaki, Shoko Yamamoto, Suni Lee, Naoko Kumagai-Takei, Kei Yoshitome, Yu Min, Nagisa Sada, Yasumitsu Nishimura, Takemi Otsuki
Prompted by the known carcinogenic activity of asbestos, our investigations revealed that asbestos causes a reduction in antitumor immunity. One mechanism involves the enhancement of regulatory T (Treg) cell function and volume assayed using MT‑2 original cells (Org), an HTLV‑1 immortalized human T cell line which possesses Treg‑like function. Continuous and relatively low‑dose exposure of MT‑2 to asbestos fibers yielded sublines resistant to asbestos‑induced apoptosis and enhanced Treg function via cell‑cell contact mechanisms and increased the production of soluble factors such as interleukin (IL)‑10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)‑β...
June 7, 2018: Oncology Reports
Chie Ishikawa, Masachika Senba, Naoki Mori
Adult T‑cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a disorder involving human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV‑1)-infected T‑cells characterized by increased clonal neoplastic proliferation. PDZ-binding kinase (PBK) [also known as T‑lymphokine-activated killer cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK)] is a serine/threonine kinase expressed in proliferative cells and is phosphorylated during mitosis. In this study, the expression and phosphorylation of PBK/TOPK were examined by western blot analysis and RT‑PCR...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Yasuko Sagara, Masako Iwanaga, Maiko Morita, Yasuhiro Sagara, Hitomi Nakamura, Hideaki Hirayama, Kazuo Irita
Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1) infection is endemic in Japan, particularly clustered in the southwestern district, Kyushu-Okinawa, which consists of eight prefectures that further consist of 274 municipalities. However, no information is available about the fine-scale distribution of HTLV-1 infection within Kyushu-Okinawa. In order to assess the municipal-level distribution of people with HTLV-1 infection in Kyushu-Okinawa, we performed a cross-sectional study using a fine-scale geographic-information-system map based on HTLV-1 screening test results from the Japanese Red Cross database from September 2012 to February 2014...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Cristiane R Ferreira, Shuchun Zhao, Malaya K Sahoo, Benjamin Pinsky, Jenna Weber, Luis A P C Lage, Juliana Pereira, Maria C N Zerbini, Yasodha Natkunam
Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) is a specific marker for regulatory T-cells (Tregs). We report 6 cases of T-cell lymphomas with Treg phenotype based on diffuse positivity for FOXP3 in tumor cells. The patients showed a median age of 56years with a male predominance. Sites of disease included lymph nodes (4), skin (2), subcutaneous tissue (1) and bone marrow (1). All cases showed monomorphic large cells, some with Hodgkin-like or anaplastic cells. All cases expressed pan T cell markers and lacked cytotoxic markers; one case showed diffuse PD1 staining...
June 10, 2018: Human Pathology
Setsuko Shioda, Fumio Kasai, Ken Watanabe, Kohei Kawakami, Azusa Ohtani, Masashi Iemura, Midori Ozawa, Akemi Arakawa, Noriko Hirayama, Eiko Kawaguchi, Tomoko Tano, Sayaka Miyata, Motonobu Satoh, Norio Shimizu, Arihiro Kohara
Human cell lines have been used in a variety of research fields as an in vitro model. These cells are all derived from human tissue samples, thus there is a possibility of virus infection. Virus tests are routinely performed in clinical practice, but are limited in cell lines. In this study, we investigated 15 kinds of viruses in 844 human cell lines registered at the Japanese Collection of Research Bioresources (JCRB) Cell Bank. Our real-time PCR analysis revealed that six viruses, EBV, HTLV-1, HBV, B19V, HHV-6 and HHV-7, were detected in 43 cell lines...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Nneoma Confidence JeanStephanie Anyanwu, Elijah Ekah Ella, Aghogho Ohwofasa, Maryam Aminu-Mukhtar
Human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLV) are Deltaretroviruses that infect millions of individuals worldwide via the same transmission routes as HIV. With the aim of exposing the possible re-emergence of HTLV in West Africa since discovery, a systematic review was carried out, focusing on the distribution of the virus types and significance of frequent indeterminate reports, while highlighting the need for mandatory routine blood screening. Capturing relevant data from discovery till date, sources searched were Google Scholar, CrossRef, NCBI (PubMed), MEDLINE, Research Gate, Mendeley, abstracts of Conferences and Proceedings, organization websites and reference lists of selected papers...
June 4, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Koichi Ohshima, Hiroaki Miyoshi, Kyohei Yamada
Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) originates from follicular helper T cells and shows variable biological and clinical presentations. The survival rate of patients with AITL did not correlate with T-cell clonality, the presence of EBV-infected cells, EBV-DNA copy number, or IgH rearrangements. However, tumor-associated macrophage/M2 macrophages significantly correlated with worse overall survival (OS). Additionally, patients with composite lymphoma with diffuse large B cell lymphoma and AITL showed worse OS...
2018: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
Fabio E Leal, Soraya Maria Menezes, Emanuela A S Costa, Phillip M Brailey, Lucio Gama, Aluisio C Segurado, Esper G Kallas, Douglas F Nixon, Tim Dierckx, Ricardo Khouri, Jurgen Vercauteren, Bernardo Galvão-Castro, Rui Andre Saraiva Raposo, Johan Van Weyenbergh
HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy (HAM/TSP) is a progressive neuroinflammatory disorder for which no disease-modifying treatment exists. Modest clinical benefit from type I interferons (IFN-α/β) in HAM/TSP contrasts with its recently identified IFN-inducible gene signature. In addition, IFN-α treatment in vivo decreases proviral load and immune activation in HAM/TSP, whereas IFN-β therapy decreases tax mRNA and lymphoproliferation. We hypothesize this "IFN paradox" in HAM/TSP might be explained by both cell type- and gene-specific effects of type I IFN in HTLV-1-associated pathogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Francesca Marino-Merlo, Antonio Mastino, Sandro Grelli, Olivier Hermine, Ali Bazarbachi, Beatrice Macchi
Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (HAM/TSP), and of a number of inflammatory diseases with an estimated 10-20 million infected individuals worldwide. Despite a number of therapeutic approaches, a cure for ATL is still in its infancy. Conventional chemotherapy has short-term efficacy, particularly in the acute subtype. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation offers long-term disease control to around one third of transplanted patients, but few can reach to transplant...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Maria A F Queiroz, Vânia N Azevedo, Ednelza da S G Amoras, Tuane C F Moura, Marluísa de O Guimarães Ishak, Ricardo Ishak, Antonio C R Vallinoto, Rosimar N Martins Feitosa
HTLV-1 infections are persistent and frequently latent; however, productive infections trigger different types of immunological responses that utilize cytokines to control infection. The present study investigated the role of IFNG +874A/T polymorphisms among 153 HTLV-1-infected individuals (33 clinically diagnosed with TSP/HAM, 22 with rheumatologic manifestations, 2 with dermatitis, 1 with uveitis, and 95 asymptomatic patients) and 300 healthy control individuals. Genotyping and proviral HTLV-1 load assessment were performed using real-time PCR assays, and the plasma levels of IFN-γ were measured using an enzyme immunoassay (ELISA)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ayako Masaki, Takashi Ishida, Susumu Suzuki, Asahi Ito, Tomoko Narita, Shiori Kinoshita, Masaki Ri, Shigeru Kusumoto, Hirokazu Komatsu, Hiroshi Inagaki, Ryuzo Ueda, Shinsuke Iida
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is caused by human T-cell lymphotropic/leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), and a higher HTLV-1 provirus load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) is a risk factor for ATL development. Here, we document a significant inverse correlation between the function of HTLV-1 Tax-specific cytotoxic T-cells (Tax-CTL), as assessed by ex vivo cytokine production in response to cognate peptide, and the HTLV-1 provirus load in PBMC in both HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers (AC) (Spearman rank correlation coefficient [Rs] = -0...
May 29, 2018: Cancer Science
Ivonizete Pires Ribeiro, Aline Garcia Kozlowski, Marcia Alves Dias de Matos, Ágabo Macedo da Costa E Silva, Megmar Aparecida Dos Santos Carneiro, Ana Carolina Paulo Vicente, Regina Maria Bringel Martins
Independent epidemiology for respective human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) types 1 and 2 is little known in blood donors in Brazil, where screening for HTLV-1/2 is mandatory at blood banks, but no testing to confirm/differentiate these viruses. Therefore, this study aims to assess the prevalence of HTLV-1 and 2 in a first-time blood donor population in Northeastern Brazil and to carry out molecular characterization of respective isolates. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the State Blood Bank in Piauí...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Arjun Saradna, Amith Shenoy, Paurush Ambesh, Stephan Kamholz
Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) is an intestinal nematode endemic to tropical regions. An accelerated infection, known as a hyperinfection, occurs in immunocompromised patients, most commonly those treated chronically with glucocorticoids or those who have human T cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) infection. We describe a 67-year-old Hispanic female who presented with complaints of decreased oral intake and fatigue since three months. Hyponatremia on initial presentation was attributed to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion and managed with fluid restriction...
March 20, 2018: Curēus
Jenna M Antonucci, Sun Hee Kim, Corine St Gelais, Serena Bonifati, Tai-Wei Li, Olga Buzovetsky, Kirsten M Knecht, Alice A Duchon, Yong Xiong, Karin Musier-Forsyth, Li Wu
Sterile alpha motif and HD domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) restricts human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in non-dividing cells by degrading intracellular deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs). SAMHD1 is highly expressed in resting CD4+ T-cells that are important for the HIV-1 reservoir and viral latency; however, whether SAMHD1 affects HIV-1 latency is unknown. Recombinant SAMHD1 binds HIV-1 DNA or RNA fragments in vitro , but the function of this binding remains unclear. Here we investigate the effect of SAMHD1 on HIV-1 gene expression and reactivation of viral latency...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Virology
Julissa Guevara Miranda, Patricia Guzmán Rojas, Fernando Alonso Mejía Cordero
Acute liver failure is the development of severe hepatic injury with deterioration of liver synthesis function and encephalopathy. Among all the variety of causes, neoplastic infiltration represents less than 0.5%. We present the case of a male patient with a past medical history of HTLV-1 infection, who reports symptoms of acute hepatitis, being diagnosed with Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Unfortunately, the patient had a rapid deterioration and passed away a few days after admission.
January 2018: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
Varun K Sharma, Vittoria Raimondi, Katia Ruggero, Cynthia A Pise-Masison, Ilaria Cavallari, Micol Silic-Benussi, Vincenzo Ciminale, Donna M D'Agostino
Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) immortalizes T-cells and is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). HTLV-1 replication and transformation are governed by multiple interactions between viral regulatory proteins and host cell factors that remain to be fully elucidated. The present study investigated the impact of HTLV-1 infection on the expression of miR-34a, a microRNA whose expression is downregulated in many types of cancer. Results of RT-PCR assays showed that five out of six HTLV-1-positive cell lines expressed higher levels of miR-34a compared to normal PBMC or purified CD4+ T-cells...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Tetiana Hutchison, Aditi Malu, Laçin Yapindi, Rachel Bergeson, Kendra Peck, Megan Romeo, Carolyn Harrod, Jordan Pope, Louisa Smitherman, Wesleigh Gwinn, Lee Ratner, Courtney Yates, Robert Harrod
The human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is an oncoretrovirus that infects and transforms CD4+ T-cells and causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) -an aggressive lymphoproliferative disease that is highly refractive to most anticancer therapies. The HTLV-1 proviral genome encodes several regulatory products within a conserved 3' nucleotide sequence, known as pX; however, it remains unclear how these factors might cooperate or dynamically interact in virus-infected cells. Here we demonstrate that the HTLV-1 latency-maintenance factor p30II induces the TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) and counters the oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, and cytotoxicity caused by the viral oncoproteins Tax and HBZ...
May 16, 2018: Virology
Lucia Martinez Cuesta, Pamela Anahi Lendez, Maria Victoria Nieto Farias, Guillermina Laura Dolcini, Maria Carolina Ceriani
The incidence of breast cancer is continuously increasing worldwide, as influenced by many factors that act synergistically. In the last decade there was an increasing interest in the possible viral etiology of human breast cancer. Since then, many viruses have been associated with this disease (murine mammary tumor virus, MMTV; Epstein-Barr virus, EBV; and human papillomavirus, HPV). Recently, BLV has been identified in human breast cancers giving rise to the hypothesis that it could be one of the causative agents of this condition...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Arthur M Paiva, Tatiane Assone, Michel E J Haziot, Jerusa Smid, Luiz Augusto M Fonseca, Olinda do Carmo Luiz, Augusto Cesar Penalva de Oliveira, Jorge Casseb
HTLV-1 is transmitted primarily either through sexual intercourse or from mother to child. The mother/child pairs were classified as seroconcordant or serodiscordant. We analyzed mother to child transmission (MTCT) according to sociodemographic, clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the mother, child's gender and duration of breastfeeding. Between June 2006 and August 2016 we followed 192 mothers with HTLV-1 infection (mean age 41 years old), resulting in 499 exposed offspring, 288 (57.7%) of whom were tested for HTLV-1, making up the final sample for the study, along with their 134 respective mothers...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
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