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Eiji Matsuura, Yoshimi Enose-Akahata, Karen Yao, Unsong Oh, Yuetsu Tanaka, Hiroshi Takashima, Steven Jacobson
Pathology of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/Tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is believed to be the result of "bystander damage" involving effector CD8 (+) T lymphocytes (CTLs) killing of virus infected cells. But the specific cellular events leading up to tissue injury are still unclear. Here, we developed the Microscopy Imaging of Cytotoxic T lymphocyte assay with Fluorescence emission (MI-CaFé), an optimized visualization analysis to explore the interactions between CTLs and virus infected or viral antigen presenting target cells...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Ivan Manhiça, Nilesh Bhatt, Nália Ismael, Egidio Nhavene, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Valdileia Veloso, Cremildo Maueia, Orvalho Augusto, Ilesh Jani, Eduardo Samo Gudo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Karoline Rodrigues Campos, Maria Gisele Gonçalves, Adele Caterino-de-Araujo
Changes in retrovirus acquisition/transmission behaviors have been reported in Brazil, with a concerning increase in HIV-1 infected individuals aged 15 to 39 years. In São Paulo, HIV-1/HTLV-1 and HIV-1/HTLV-2 coinfections have been associated with intravenous drug use and failure to detect HTLV-1/2 with immunosuppression and the use of active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Negative results for HTLV serologic [western blotting (WB)] and molecular [real-time PCR pol (qPCR)] confirmatory assays have been reported, whereas the best sensitivity has been found for INNO-LIA (LIA)...
October 17, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Miwa Higashiarakawa, Tetsuo Hirata, Teruhisa Tanaka, Gretchen Parrott, Tetsu Kinjo, Hidekatsu Naka, Akira Hokama, Jiro Fujita
Infections with parasites, such as Strongyloides stercoralis, typically cause elevated levels of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and eosinophils; however, co-infection with human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) can cause lower levels of serum IgE during S. stercoralis infection. We conducted this study to determine whether serum IgE levels and eosinophil counts could also be related to other patient characteristics or symptoms. Between 1991 and 2014, we measured and compared the symptoms of 237 patients and evaluated serum IgE levels and eosinophil counts of 199 patients who were infected with S...
October 12, 2016: Parasitology International
Risa Mukai, Takayuki Ohshima
Human T-cell leukemia virus type1 (HTLV-1) is an oncogenic retrovirus that is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). The HTLV-1 basic leucine-zipper factor (HBZ), which is encoded by the minus strand of the provirus, is constitutively expressed in all ATL patient cells and likely contributes to the development and maintenance of ATL. Furthermore, the overexpression of myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL1) is frequently observed in hematological cancers as well as several other types of cancers. Here, we found that the expression of HBZ in cells stabilized MCL1 protein expression and suppressed MCL-mediated release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria...
October 3, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
D Resiere
Martinique was accepted as an associate member by the Council of Ministers of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean State since February 2015. This membership constitutes a major asset in bringing Martiniquais closer to the other Caribbean populations and should play a key role as it relates to regional cooperation especially in the domain of healthcare. Martinique and several Caribbean countries share common health issues such as; dengue, chikungunya virus, Zika Virus leptospirosis, snakebite, severe cardiovascular diseases (CVD), HTLV-1, sickle cell diseases and so on...
August 1, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Lloyd J Einsiedel, Hai Pham, Richard J Woodman, Clinton Pepperill, Kerry A Taylor
OBJECTIVE: Hospital and laboratory data indicate that human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is endemic to central Australia, but no community-based studies of its prevalence or disease burden have been reported. We determined the prevalence rates of HTLV-1 infection and of HTLV-1-associated diseases in a remote Indigenous community. SETTING: A remote Northern Territory community. DESIGN: All residents were asked to complete a health survey and offered a limited clinical examination, together with serological tests for HTLV-1 and Strongyloides, and HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL) assessment...
October 3, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
Junki Kato, Ayako Masaki, Keiichiro Fujii, Hisashi Takino, Takayuki Murase, Kentaro Yonekura, Atae Utsunomiya, Takashi Ishida, Shinsuke Iida, Hiroshi Inagaki
Detection of HTLV-1 provirus using paraffin tumor sections may assist the diagnosis of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). For the detection, non-quantitative PCR assay has been reported, but its usefulness and limitations remain unclear. To our knowledge, quantitative PCR assay using paraffin tumor sections has not been reported. Using paraffin sections from ATLLs and non-ATLL T-cell lymphomas, we first performed non-quantitative PCR for HTLV-1 provirus. Next, we determined tumor ratios and carried out quantitative PCR to obtain provirus copy numbers...
September 27, 2016: Pathology International
Marina Lobato Martins, Jacqueline Cronemberger Guimarães, João Gabriel Ribas, Luiz Cláudio Ferreira Romanelli, Anna Bárbara de Freitas Carneiro-Proietti
HTLV-1 proviral load (pvl) is an important risk marker for HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), but its value as prognostic marker is not well defined. Long-term prospective cohort studies are necessary to clarify this question. Here, we analyzed HTLV-1 pvl in the peripheral blood of 82 asymptomatic carriers (AC; 351 samples), 12 HAM/TSP patients (HAM; 46 samples), and six incident cases of HAM/TSP (iHAM), with serial samples collected before (n = 10) and after (n = 20) the disease onset...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Yasuhiro Ishidou, Kanehiro Matsuyama, Eiji Matsuura, Takao Setoguchi, Satoshi Nagano, Hironori Kakoi, Masataka Hirotsu, Ichiro Kawamura, Takuya Yamamoto, Setsuro Komiya
Allograft bone is a widely used as a convenient tool for reconstructing massive bone defects in orthopedic surgery. However, allografts are associated with the risk of viral disease transmission. One of the viruses transmitted in this manner is human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), which is found worldwide but is unevenly distributed. The southwestern parts of Japan are a highly endemic for HTLV-1. We investigated the HTLV-1 seroprevalence in candidate allograft donors at the regional bone bank in Kagoshima, Japan during its first 5 years of service...
September 27, 2016: Cell and Tissue Banking
Anastasia Zotova, Ivan Zotov, Alexander Filatov, Dmitriy Mazurov
An essential step in monoclonal antibody (mAb) development is the characterization and final identification of the specific target antigen and its epitope. Antibody validation is rather straightforward when immunization is carried out with peptide or purified protein, but is more difficult when whole cells or other complex antigens are used for the immunization. Determining antigen specificity of a mAb is further complicated, when reactivity of an antibody is not detected in Western blotting and/or immunoprecipitation assay...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Immunological Methods
Alexandria E-B Rossheim, Tina D Cunningham, Stephanie B Troy
INTRODUCTION: Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 or 2 (HTLV-1/2) co-infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can lead to increased morbidity. Because HTLV-1/2 shares a similar transmission route with HIV, HTLV-1/2 infection may be more prevalent in HIV-infected individuals. However, rates of HTLV-1/2 co-infection among HIV-infected individuals have not been studied recently in the United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using serum from 292 HIV-infected subjects from one clinic in Virginia...
September 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Maria Fernanda Rios Grassi, Normeide Pedreira Dos Santos, Monique Lírio, Afrânio Lineu Kritski, Maria da Conceição Chagas Almeida, Leonardo Pereira Santana, Noilson Lázaro, Juarez Dias, Eduardo Martins Netto, Bernardo Galvão-Castro
BACKGROUND: Few reports have investigated the association between human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and tuberculosis (TB) in countries where both infections are endemic. This study estimates the incidence of TB in a cohort infected with HTLV-1, compared with non-infected individuals, over a ten-year period. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study involving the cross-matching of records of individuals for whom a HTLV serology was performed at a referral center for HTLV (CHTLV) with a database of TB cases from Sinan-the Information System on Diseases of Compulsory Declaration between 2002 and 2012...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
C Joaquín Cáceres, Jenniffer Angulo, Nataly Contreras, Karla Pino, Jorge Vera-Otarola, Marcelo López-Lastra
Replication of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is dependent on eIF5A hypusination. Hypusine is formed post-translationally on the eIF5A precursor by two consecutive enzymatic steps; a reversible reaction involving the enzyme deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) and an irreversible step involving the enzyme deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH). In this study we explored the effect of inhibiting DOHH activity and therefore eIF5A hypusination, on HIV-1 gene expression. Results show that the expression of proteins from an HIV-1 molecular clone is reduced when DOHH activity is inhibited by Deferiprone (DFP) or Ciclopirox (CPX)...
October 2016: Antiviral Research
María Isabel Bermúdez-Forero, Maritza Berrío-Pérez, Andrea Magally Herrera-Hernández, Magda Juliana Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Sandra García-Blanco, Guillermo Orjuela-Falla, Mauricio Beltrán
INTRODUCTION: The human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) 1 and 2 cause various clinical disorders associated with degenerative diseases. Blood transfusion is a primary mechanism of transmission that is associated with the use of cellular components such as red blood cells.  OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of HTLV 1 and 2 in blood donors in Colombia from 2001-2014.  MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed using screening, reactivity and positivity for HTLV 1 and 2 data collected from 2001 to 2014 by Colombian blood banks and consolidated by the Instituto Nacional de Salud...
2016: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Carmenza Macía, Sandra Vargas, Ana María Mora, Ashly Melissa Sarmiento, Robinson Pacheco, Fernando Rosso
INTRODUCTION: Human lymphotropic virus (HTLV I/II) is a retrovirus that is prevalent across the Colombian Pacific coast, and is potentially transmissible by transfusion. Blood bank screening has been regulated since 2004, in order to reduce transmission of HTLV I/II through donation. Information on the seroprevalence of the virus in southwestern Colombia is limited.  OBJECTIVE: To determine the seroprevalence and the behavior of reactivity to HTLV I/II before and after the introduction of Western blot, and the comorbidity of HTLV and other infectious markers in donors from a blood bank in Cali, Colombia...
2016: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
E H Phillips, A Hodson, O Hermine, A Bazarbachi, K Cwynarski
Adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive HTLV-1-related malignancy, rare outside of regions where the retrovirus is endemic. Although the use of antiviral therapy has improved outcomes, particularly for indolent forms of ATL, response to combination chemotherapy is poor and outcomes for aggressive subtypes remains dismal. Consolidation with allogeneic stem cell transplant (alloSCT) has an increasing role in the management of ATL in eligible patients, offering favourable long-term remission rates...
September 12, 2016: Bone Marrow Transplantation
Xiaotong He, Innocent O Maranga, Anthony W Oliver, Peter Gichangi, Lynne Hampson, Ian N Hampson
The oncogenic retrovirus human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is endemic in some countries although its prevalence and relationship with other sexually transmitted infections in Sub-Saharan Africa is largely unknown. A novel endpoint PCR method was used to analyse the prevalence of HTLV-1 proviral DNA in genomic DNA extracted from liquid based cytology (LBC) cervical smears and invasive cervical carcinomas (ICCs) obtained from human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV+ve) and HIV-negative (HIV-ve) Kenyan women...
2016: Viruses
Ramon de Almeida Kruschewsky, Luciana Santos Cardoso, Jamille Souza Fernandes, Robson da Paixão de Souza, Diego Mota Lopes, Otavio Augusto Moreno de Carvalho, Maria Ilma Araujo
BACKGROUND: Schistosomal myeloradiculopathy (SMR) is the most serious ectopic presentation of Schistosoma mansoni infection. The pathogenesis occurs mainly via the host inflammatory response to the eggs of the parasite that are stuck in the central nervous system, and the diagnosis is generally made by the exclusion of other neurological diseases. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the immune status of SMR patients and to identify a marker for SMR diagnosis. METHODS: We enrolled 15 patients with a presumptive diagnosis of SMR, and the control groups included 17 patients with myelopathy associated with human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and 11 with other neurological disorders...
September 9, 2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
Jason Rosado, Sandra Morales, Giovanni Lopez, Daniel Clark, Kristien Verdonck, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Guy Van Camp, Michael Talledo
BACKGROUND: Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of the HTLV-I-Associated Myelopathy-Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Apoptosis is a mechanism of defense elicited by many triggers, including cross-linking of the FAS receptor expressed in viruses-infected cells, and the ligand FASL presented by T-cytotoxic cells. Since HAM/TSP has been associated with high levels of proviral load (PVL), we hypothesized that certain genotypes of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with a decreased protein expression of FAS and FASL could be risk factors for this disease...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
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