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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520877/abundance-and-molecular-diversity-of-thraustochytrids-in-coastal-waters-of-southern-china
#1
Ying Liu, Purnima Singh, Yuanmei Liang, Jingjing Li, Ningdong Xie, Zhiquan Song, Maurycy Daroch, Keming Leng, Zackary I Johnson, Guangyi Wang
Thraustochytrids are unicellular fungi-like (heterotrophic) marine protists and have long been considered to play an important role in the biogeochemical cycles of the coastal oceans. However, the significance of their ecological functions and diversity in marine ecosystems remain largely unknown. In this report, we examined the spatial and temporal variations of planktonic thraustochytrids, their relationship with other environmental factors, and their diversity in the subtropical coastal waters of China. The abundance of planktonic thraustochytrids ranged from 2...
May 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515886/aquatic-microfauna-alter-larval-food-resources-and-affect-development-and-biomass-of-west-nile-and-saint-louis-encephalitis-vector-culex-nigripalpus-diptera-culicidae
#2
Dagne Duguma, Michael G Kaufman, Arthur B Simas Domingos
Ciliate protists and rotifers are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats and can comprise a significant portion of the microbial food resources available to larval mosquitoes, often showing substantial declines in abundance in the presence of mosquito larvae. This top-down regulation of protists is reported to be strong for mosquitoes inhabiting small aquatic containers such as pitcher plants or tree holes, but the nature of these interactions with larval mosquitoes developing in other aquatic habitats is poorly understood...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509379/microbial-eukaryotes-that-lack-sterols
#3
Kiyotaka Takishita, Yoshito Chikaraishi, Goro Tanifuji, Naohiko Ohkouchi, Tetsuo Hashimoto, Katsunori Fujikura, Andrew J Roger
It is widely held that sterols are key cyclic triterpenoid lipids in eukaryotic cell membranes and are synthesized through oxygen-dependent multi-enzyme pathways. However, there are known exceptions-ciliated protozoans, such as Tetrahymena, along with diverse low-oxygen adapted eukaryotes produce, instead of sterols, the cyclic triterpenoid lipid tetrahymanol that does not require molecular oxygen for its biosynthesis. Here, we report that a number of anaerobic microbial eukaryotes (protists) utilize neither sterols nor tetrahymanol in their membranes...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500633/the-novel-role-of-pyrvinium-in-cancer-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Amir Abbas Momtazi-Borojeni, Elham Abdollahi, Faezeh Ghasemi, Michele Caraglia, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Pyrvinium pamoate (PP) is a quinoline-derived cyanine dye which was officially approved by FDA for its anthelmintic properties and therapeutic function against animal-like protists such as Cryp-tosporidium parvum and Plasmodium falciparum in the 1950 s. In the last 10 years, several studies have shown the novel activity of pyrvinium in tumor therapy. Some investigations have indicated that pyrvinium could delay or inhibit tumor cell proliferation in cancer models including colon, breast, lung and prostate cancer and some hematological malignancies...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499076/single-cell-analysis-linking-ribosomal-r-dna-and-rrna-copy-numbers-to-cell-size-and-growth-rate-provides-insights-into-molecular-protistan-ecology
#5
Rao Fu, Jun Gong
Ribosomal (r)RNA and rDNA have been golden molecular markers in microbial ecology. However, it remains poorly understood how ribotype copy number (CN)-based characteristics are linked with diversity, abundance and activity of protist populations and communities observed at organismal levels. Here, we applied a single-cell approach to quantify ribotype CNs in two ciliate species reared at different temperatures. We found that in actively growing cells, the per-cell rDNA and rRNA CNs scaled with cell volume (CV) to 0...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497122/the-microbiome-mitochondrion-connection-common-ancestries-common-mechanisms-common-goals
#6
Alfredo Franco-Obregón, Jack A Gilbert
Lynn Margulis in the 1960s elegantly proposed a shared phylogenetic history between bacteria and mitochondria; this relationship has since become a cornerstone of modern cellular biology. Yet, an interesting facet of the interaction between the microbiome and mitochondria has been mostly ignored, that of the systems biology relationship that underpins host health and longevity. The mitochondria are descendants of primordial aerobic pleomorphic bacteria (likely genus Rickettsia) that entered (literally and functionally) into a mutualistic partnership with ancient anaerobic microbes (likely Archaea)...
May 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495225/detection-and-molecular-status-of-isospora-sp-from-the-domestic-pigeon-columba-livia-domestica
#7
Ryuma Matsubara, Yasuhiro Fukuda, Fumi Murakoshi, Osamu Nomura, Toru Suzuki, Chika Tada, Yutaka Nakai
The domestic pigeon, Columba livia domestica, is reared for meat production, as a pet, or for racing. Few reports have characterized the parasitic protists from the genus Isospora isolated from Columbiformes. We detected Isospora-like oocysts from C. livia reared for racing. The oocyst contained two sporocysts, and each sporocyst included four sporozoites. The sporulated oocysts (n=4) were spherical; their mean diameters were 25.6 (24.0-27.2)×24.7 (23.4-26.0) μm. Micropyles, polar granules, and oocyst residuum were absent...
May 8, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493958/evolutionary-transition-towards-permanent-chloroplasts-division-of-kleptochloroplasts-in-starved-cells-of-two-species-of-dinophysis-dinophyceae
#8
Pernille Møller Rusterholz, Per Juel Hansen, Niels Daugbjerg
Species within the marine toxic dinoflagellate genus Dinophysis are phagotrophic organisms that exploit chloroplasts (kleptochloroplasts) from other protists to perform photosynthesis. Dinophysis spp. acquire the kleptochloroplasts from the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum, which in turn acquires the chloroplasts from a unique clade of cryptophytes. Dinophysis spp. digest the prey nuclei and all other cell organelles upon ingestion (except the kleptochloroplasts) and they are therefore believed to constantly acquire new chloroplasts as the populations grow...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489329/differential-responses-of-soil-bacteria-fungi-archaea-and-protists-to-plant-species-richness-and-plant-functional-group-identity
#9
Sigrid Dassen, Roeland Cortois, Henk Martens, Mattias de Hollander, George A Kowalchuk, Wim H van der Putten, Gerlinde B De Deyn
Plants are known to influence belowground microbial community structure along their roots, but the impacts of plant species richness and plant functional group (FG) identity on microbial communities in the bulk soil are still not well understood. Here, we used 454-pyrosequencing to analyse the soil microbial community composition in a long-term biodiversity experiment at Jena, Germany. We examined responses of bacteria, fungi, archaea, and protists to plant species richness (communities varying from 1-60 sown species) and plant FG identity (grasses, legumes, small herbs, tall herbs) in bulk soil...
May 10, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489281/unveiling-microbial-interactions-in-stratified-mat-communities-from-a-warm-saline-shallow-pond
#10
Aurélien Saghaï, Ana Gutiérrez-Preciado, Philippe Deschamps, David Moreira, Paola Bertolino, Marie Ragon, Purificación López-García
Modern phototrophic microbial mats are complex communities often used as analogs of major Precambrian ecosystems. Characterizing biotic, notably metabolic, interactions among different microbial mat members is essential to gain insights into the ecology and biogeochemistry of these systems. We applied 16S/18S rRNA metabarcoding approaches to characterize the structure of archaea, bacteria and protist communities from microbial mats collected along strong physicochemical (oxygen, salinity, temperature, depth) gradients in a shallow pond at the salar de Llamara (Chile)...
May 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480012/exploring-the-impact-of-multidecadal-environmental-changes-on-the-population-genetic-structure-of-a-marine-primary-producer
#11
Nina Lundholm, Sofia Ribeiro, Anna Godhe, Lene Rostgaard Nielsen, Marianne Ellegaard
Many marine protists form resting stages that can remain viable in coastal sediments for several decades. Their long-term survival offers the possibility to explore the impact of changes in environmental conditions on population dynamics over multidecadal time scales. Resting stages of the phototrophic dinoflagellate Pentapharsodinium dalei were isolated and germinated from five layers in dated sediment cores from Koljö fjord, Sweden, spanning ca. 1910-2006. This fjord has, during the last century, experienced environmental fluctuations linked to hydrographic variability mainly driven by the North Atlantic Oscillation...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479986/phylogenetic-origins-of-biological-cognition-convergent-patterns-in-the-early-evolution-of-learning
#12
REVIEW
Marc van Duijn
Various forms of elementary learning have recently been discovered in organisms lacking a nervous system, such as protists, fungi and plants. This finding has fundamental implications for how we view the role of convergent evolution in biological cognition. In this article, I first review the evidence for basic forms of learning in aneural organisms, focusing particularly on habituation and classical conditioning and considering the plausibility for convergent evolution of these capacities. Next, I examine the possible role of convergent evolution regarding these basic learning abilities during the early evolution of nervous systems...
June 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479598/the-origin-of-metazoa-a-unicellular-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Arnau Sebé-Pedrós, Bernard M Degnan, Iñaki Ruiz-Trillo
The first animals evolved from an unknown single-celled ancestor in the Precambrian period. Recently, the identification and characterization of the genomic and cellular traits of the protists most closely related to animals have shed light on the origin of animals. Comparisons of animals with these unicellular relatives allow us to reconstruct the first evolutionary steps towards animal multicellularity. Here, we review the results of these investigations and discuss their implications for understanding the earliest stages of animal evolution, including the origin of metazoan genes and genome function...
May 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477402/tfvps32-regulates-cell-division-in-the-parasite-tritrichomonas-foetus
#14
Lucrecia S Iriarte, Victor Midlej, Lorena S Frontera, Daniel Moros Duarte, Claudio G Barbeito, Wanderley de Souza, Marlene Benchimol, Natalia de Miguel, Veronica M Coceres
The flagellated protist Tritrichomonas foetus is a parasite that causes bovine trichomonosis, a major sexually transmitted disease in cattle. Cell division has been described as a key player in controlling cell survival in other cells, including parasites but there is no information on the regulation of this process in T. foetus. The regulation of cytokinetic abscission, the final stage of cell division, is mediated by members of the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) machinery. VPS32 is a subunit within the ESCRTIII complex and here, we report that TfVPS32 is localized on cytoplasmic vesicles and a redistribution of the protein to the midbody is observed during the cellular division...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473806/sinks-and-sources-of-intracellular-nitrate-in-gromiids
#15
Signe Høgslund, Tomas Cedhagen, Samuel S Bowser, Nils Risgaard-Petersen
A substantial nitrate pool is stored within living cells in various benthic marine environments. The fate of this bioavailable nitrogen differs according to the organisms managing the intracellular nitrate (ICN). While some light has been shed on the nitrate carried by diatoms and foraminiferans, no study has so far followed the nitrate kept by gromiids. Gromiids are large protists and their ICN concentration can exceed 1000x the ambient nitrate concentration. In the present study we investigated gromiids from diverse habitats and showed that they contained nitrate at concentrations ranging from 1 to 370 mM...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470715/trapped-intermediate-state-of-plant-pyruvate-phosphate-dikinase-indicates-sub-steps-in-catalytic-swiveling-domain-mechanism
#16
Alexander Minges, Astrid Höppner, Georg Groth
Pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) is an essential enzyme of both the C4 photosynthetic pathway and cellular energy metabolism of some bacteria and unicellular protists. In C4 plants, it catalyzes the ATP- and Pi-dependent formation of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) while in bacteria and protozoa the ATP-forming direction is used. PPDK is composed out of three distinct domains and exhibits one of the largest single domain movements known today during its catalytic cycle. However, little information about potential intermediate steps of this movement were available...
May 3, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465215/glycogen-synthase-from-the-parabasalian-parasite-trichomonas-vaginalis-an-unusual-member-of-the-starch-glycogen-synthase-family
#17
Wayne A Wilson, Prajakta Pradhan, Nayasha Madhan, Galen C Gist, Andrew Brittingham
Trichomonas vaginalis, a parasitic protist, is the causative agent of the common sexually-transmitted infection trichomoniasis. The organism has long been known to synthesize substantial glycogen as a storage polysaccharide, presumably mobilizing this compound during periods of carbohydrate limitation, such as might be encountered during transmission between hosts. However, little is known regarding the enzymes of glycogen metabolism in T. vaginalis. We had previously described the identification and characterization of two forms of glycogen phosphorylase in the organism...
April 29, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457024/conserved-nucleolar-stress-at-the-onset-of-cell-death
#18
REVIEW
Pierre Golstein
Cell death pervasiveness among multicellular eukaryotes suggested that some core steps of cell death may be conserved. This could be addressed by comparing the course of cell death in organisms belonging to distinct eukaryotic kingdoms. A search for early cell death events in a protist revealed nucleolar disorganization similar to the nucleolar stress often reported in dying animal cells. This indicated a conserved role for the nucleolus at the onset of eukaryotic cell death and leads one to consider the course of cell death as a succession of unequally conserved modules...
April 29, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452248/response-of-aquatic-protists-to-electric-field-exposure
#19
Marko Miliša, Domagoj Đikić, Tvrtko Mandić, Dino Grozić, Ivan Čolić, Ana Ostojić
PURPOSE: To test the effects of short term exposure of aquatic organisms to electric field (EF) with negligible magnetic component. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We built a plate capacitor that served as a source of EF of strengths that can be found in nature near transmission lines. We exposed two cultured protist species Euglena viridis and Paramecium caudatum to EFs for 24 hours and monitored their abundance, morphology, intracellular superoxide anion (by DHE), hydrogen peroxide by (H2DCF) and MDA contents, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity...
April 28, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450706/intracellular-symbiosis-of-algae-with-possible-involvement-of-mitochondrial-dynamics
#20
Chihong Song, Kazuyoshi Murata, Toshinobu Suzaki
Algal endosymbiosis is widely present among eukaryotes including many protists and metazoans. However, the mechanisms involved in their interactions between host and symbiont remain unclear. Here, we used electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction analyses to examine the ultrastructural interactions between the symbiotic zoochlorella and the organelles in the host Paramecium bursaria, which is a model system of endosymbiosis. Although in chemically fixed samples the symbiotic algae show no direct structural interactions with the host organelles and the perialgal vacuole membrane (PVM), in cryofixed P...
April 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
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