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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928220/characterization-of-a-cytoplasmic-glucosyltransferase-that-extends-the-core-trisaccharide-of-the-toxoplasma-skp1-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-subunit
#1
Kazi Rahman, Msano Mandalasi, Peng Zhao, M Osman Sheikh, Rahil Taujale, Hyun W Kim, Hanke van der Wel, Khushi Matta, Natarajan Kannan, John N Glushka, Lance Wells, Christopher M West
Skp1 is a subunit of the SCF (Skp1/Cullin-1/F-box protein) class of E3 ubiquitin ligases that are important for eukaryotic protein degradation. Unlike its animal counterparts, Skp1 from Toxoplasma gondii is hydroxylated by an O2-dependent prolyl-4-hydroxylase (PhyA), and the resulting hydroxyproline can subsequently be modified by a five-sugar chain. A similar modification is found in the social amoeba Dictyostelium, where it regulates SCF assembly and O2-dependent development. Homologous glycosyltransferases assemble a similar core trisaccharide in both organisms, and a bifunctional α-galactosyltransferase from CAZy family GT77 mediates addition of the final two sugars in Dictyostelium, generating Galα1,3Galα1,3Fucα1,2Galβ1,3GlcNAcα1-...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928219/o2-sensing-associated-glycosylation-exposes-the-f-box-combining-site-of-the-dictyostelium-skp1-subunit-in-e3-ubiquitin-ligases
#2
M Osman Sheikh, David Thieker, Gordon Chalmers, Christopher M Schafer, Mayumi Ishihara, Parastoo Azadi, Robert J Woods, John N Glushka, Brad Bendiak, James H Prestegard, Christopher M West
Skp1 is a conserved protein linking cullin-1 to F-box proteins in SCF (Skp1-Cullin1-F-box) E3 ubiquitin ligases, which modify protein substrates with polyubiquitin chains that typically target them for 26S proteasome-mediated degradation. In Dictyostelium (a social amoeba), Toxoplasma gondii (the agent for human toxoplasmosis), and other protists, Skp1 is regulated by a unique pentasaccharide attached to hydroxylated Pro-143 within its C-terminal F-box binding domain. Prolyl hydroxylation of Skp1 contributes to O2-dependent Dictyostelium development, but full glycosylation at that position is required for optimal O2 sensing...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924189/communication-via-extracellular-vesicles-enhances-viral-infection-of-a-cosmopolitan-alga
#3
Daniella Schatz, Shilo Rosenwasser, Sergey Malitsky, Sharon G Wolf, Ester Feldmesser, Assaf Vardi
Communication between microorganisms in the marine environment has immense ecological impact by mediating trophic-level interactions and thus determining community structure (1) . Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are produced by bacteria (2,3) , archaea (4) , protists (5) and metazoans, and can mediate pathogenicity (6) or act as vectors for intercellular communication. However, little is known about the involvement of EVs in microbial interactions in the marine environment (7) . Here we investigated the signalling role of EVs produced during interactions between the cosmopolitan alga Emiliania huxleyi and its specific virus (EhV, Phycodnaviridae) (8) , which leads to the demise of these large-scale oceanic blooms (9,10) ...
September 18, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922803/micropredator-niche-differentiation-between-bulk-soil-and-rhizosphere-of-an-agricultural-soil-depends-on-bacterial-prey
#4
Lu Zhang, Tillmann Lueders
Predation is a fundamental mechanism of all food webs, but its drivers and organismic connectivities, especially at microbial level, are still poorly understood. Specifically, competitive carbon flows in the presence of multiple micropredators, as well as trophic links within and between microbial kingdoms have rarely been resolved. Here, using maize-planted agricultural soil as a model system, we have investigated the predation of amended bacterial prey by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic micropredators. We have queried how soil compartment (rhizosphere vs bulk soil) and nature of prey (Gram-positive vs Gram-negative) influence predation outcomes...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922368/a-tree-of-life-based-on-ninety-eight-expressed-genes-conserved-across-diverse-eukaryotic-species
#5
Pawan Kumar Jayaswal, Vivek Dogra, Asheesh Shanker, Tilak Raj Sharma, Nagendra Kumar Singh
Rapid advances in DNA sequencing technologies have resulted in the accumulation of large data sets in the public domain, facilitating comparative studies to provide novel insights into the evolution of life. Phylogenetic studies across the eukaryotic taxa have been reported but on the basis of a limited number of genes. Here we present a genome-wide analysis across different plant, fungal, protist, and animal species, with reference to the 36,002 expressed genes of the rice genome. Our analysis revealed 9831 genes unique to rice and 98 genes conserved across all 49 eukaryotic species analysed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917710/molecular-identification-of-vermamoeba-vermiformis-from-freshwater-fish-in-lake-taal-philippines
#6
Giovanni D Milanez, Frederick R Masangkay, Rey C Thomas, Ma Olive Grace O Ordona, Gabriel Q Bernales, Vyanna Camille M Corpuz, Hannah Selina V Fortes, Charezze Margarette S Garcia, Larra Camille Nicolas, Veeranoot Nissapatorn
Free Living Amoebae (FLA) are considered ubiquitous. FLAs may infect various biological organisms which act as reservoir hosts. Infected freshwater fishes can pose a public health concern due to possible human consumption. This study aims to identify possible pathogenic FLAs present in freshwater fishes. Seventy five (75) Oreochromis niloticus were studied for the presence of FLAs. Fish organs were suspended in physiologic saline pelleted and cultured in non-nutrient agar (NNA) lawned with Escherichia coli and were incubated in 33 °C for 14 days...
September 13, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916813/genome-sequencing-reveals-metabolic-and-cellular-interdependence-in-an-amoeba-kinetoplastid-symbiosis
#7
Goro Tanifuji, Ugo Cenci, Daniel Moog, Samuel Dean, Takuro Nakayama, Vojtěch David, Ivan Fiala, Bruce A Curtis, Shannon J Sibbald, Naoko T Onodera, Morgan Colp, Pavel Flegontov, Jessica Johnson-MacKinnon, Michael McPhee, Yuji Inagaki, Tetsuo Hashimoto, Steven Kelly, Keith Gull, Julius Lukeš, John M Archibald
Endosymbiotic relationships between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells are common in nature. Endosymbioses between two eukaryotes are also known; cyanobacterium-derived plastids have spread horizontally when one eukaryote assimilated another. A unique instance of a non-photosynthetic, eukaryotic endosymbiont involves members of the genus Paramoeba, amoebozoans that infect marine animals such as farmed fish and sea urchins. Paramoeba species harbor endosymbionts belonging to the Kinetoplastea, a diverse group of flagellate protists including some that cause devastating diseases...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911809/taxonomy-ecology-and-biotechnological-applications-of-thraustochytrids-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Loris Fossier Marchan, Kim J Lee Chang, Peter D Nichols, Wilfrid J Mitchell, Jane L Polglase, Tony Gutierrez
Thraustochytrids were first discovered in 1934, and since the 1960's they have been increasingly studied for their beneficial and deleterious effects. This review aims to provide an enhanced understanding of these protists with a particular emphasis on their taxonomy, ecology and biotechnology applications. Over the years, thraustochytrid taxonomy has improved with the development of modern molecular techniques and new biochemical markers, resulting in the isolation and description of new strains. In the present work, the taxonomic history of thraustochytrids is reviewed, while providing an up-to-date classification of these organisms...
September 11, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892189/sensitive-community-responses-of-microbiota-to-copper-in-sediment-toxicity-test
#9
Jianghua Yang, Yuwei Xie, Katherine Jeppe, Sara Long, Vincent Pettigrove, Xiaowei Zhang
Sediment contamination is widespread and can be toxic to aquatic ecosystems and impair human health. Despite their significantly ecological function, meio- and microbiota in aquatic ecosystems have been poorly studied in conventional sediment ecotoxicity tests because of the difficulty in samples collecting and identification. Here, a novel DNA metabarcoding method was uesd to assess the effects of spiked-Cu on the benthic eukaryotic and prokaryotic communities in laboratory sediment toxicity tests with macroinvertebrate, chironomid Chironomus tepperi or amphipod Austrochiltonia subtenuis...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889907/are-thraustochytrids-algae
#10
REVIEW
Ben Leyland, Stefan Leu, Sammy Boussiba
Thraustochytrids, a heterotrophic fungus-like clade of Stramenopiles, are becoming an increasingly important source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for biotechnological industries. PUFA rich oils from these organisms are subsequently referred to in some literature and marketing sources as being derived from 'algae', in spite of their non-photosynthetic source organism. In this review, we attempt to disentangle the evolutionary relationship of the Thraustochytrids from other Protists, demonstrating that there is no scientific basis for the aforementioned misnomer...
October 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887122/blastocystis-subtypes-detected-in-long-tailed-macaques-in-thailand-further-evidence-of-cryptic-host-specificity
#11
Kotchaphon Vaisusuk, Weerachai Saijuntha, Sutthira Sedlak, Thongchit Thanchomnang, Warayutt Pilap, Warong Suksavate, Christen Rune Stensvold, Chairat Tantrawatpan
Blastocystis is an enteric parasitic protist with a widespread distribution in a variety of human and non-human hosts and supposedly a source of zoonotic transmission. This study aimed to determine the frequency and distribution of Blastocystis subtypes in free-ranging Macaca fascicularis (long-tailed macaques, LTMs) in Thailand. A total of 628 faecal samples were collected from free-ranging LTMs inhabiting fourteen tourist attraction sites in Thailand. Fresh faecal samples were individually cultured in Jones' medium, and Blastocystis-positive samples were subtyped using nuclear small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequencing...
September 5, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884403/resonance-raman-studies-on-the-flavohemoglobin-of-the-protist-giardia-intestinalis-evidence-of-a-type-i-ii-peroxidase-like-heme-environment-and-roles-of-the-active-site-distal-residues
#12
Brian Lukaszewicz, Eliza McColl, Janet Yee, Steven Rafferty, Manon Couture
Flavohemoglobins are microbial enzymes that counter nitrosative stress, but the details of their underlying enzymatic activities and structure-function relationships are not completely understood. These enzymes have been identified in Gram-negative bacteria, certain fungi, and the parasitic protist Giardia intestinalis (gFlHb) which, despite lacking the ability to make heme, encodes several hemeproteins. To gain knowledge about the biophysical properties of the active site of gFlHb, we used resonance Raman spectroscopy to probe the wild-type protein and variants at globin domain positions E11, E7, and B10 on the distal, ligand-binding side of the heme...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878056/community-responses-to-seawater-warming-are-conserved-across-diverse-biological-groupings-and-taxonomic-resolutions
#13
Dan A Smale, Joe D Taylor, Steve H Coombs, Gerald Moore, Michael Cunliffe
Temperature variability is a major driver of ecological pattern, with recent changes in average and extreme temperatures having significant impacts on populations, communities and ecosystems. In the marine realm, very few experiments have manipulated temperature in situ, and current understanding of temperature effects on community dynamics is limited. We developed new technology for precise seawater temperature control to examine warming effects on communities of bacteria, microbial eukaryotes (protists) and metazoans...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866006/the-natural-selection-of-metabolism-and-mass-selects-allometric-transitions-from-prokaryotes-to-mammals
#14
Lars Witting
The exponents of inter-specific allometries for several life history (metabolism, lifespan, reproductive rate, survival) and ecological (population density, home range) traits may evolve from the spatial dimensionality (d) of the intra-specific interactive competition that selects net assimilated energy into mass, with 1∕4 exponents being the two-dimensional (2D) case of the more general 1∕2d (Witting, 1995). While the exponents for mass-specific metabolism cluster around the predicted -1/4 and -1/6 in terrestrial and pelagic vertebrates, the allometries of mobile organisms are more diverse than the prediction...
September 1, 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860470/pathogenic-lineage-of-perkinsea-associated-with-mass-mortality-of-frogs-across-the-united-states
#15
Marcos Isidoro-Ayza, Jeffrey M Lorch, Daniel A Grear, Megan Winzeler, Daniel L Calhoun, William J Barichivich
Emerging infectious diseases such as chytridiomycosis and ranavirus infections are important contributors to the worldwide decline of amphibian populations. We reviewed data on 247 anuran mortality events in 43 States of the United States from 1999-2015. Our findings suggest that a severe infectious disease of tadpoles caused by a protist belonging to the phylum Perkinsea might represent the third most common infectious disease of anurans after ranavirus infections and chytridiomycosis. Severe Perkinsea infections (SPI) were systemic and led to multiorganic failure and death...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859319/autophagy-participates-in-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-toxoplasma-gondii
#16
Hoa Mai Nguyen, Laurence Berry, William J Sullivan, Sébastien Besteiro
Environmental and genetic perturbations of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function can lead to the accumulation of unfolded proteins. In these conditions, eukaryotic cells can activate a complex signaling network called the unfolded protein response (UPR) to reduce ER stress and restore cellular homeostasis. Autophagy, a degradation and recycling process, is part of this response. The parasitic protist Toxoplasma gondii is known to be able to activate the UPR upon ER stress, and we now show that this pathway leads to autophagy activation, supporting the idea of a regulated function for canonical autophagy as part of an integrated stress response in the parasites...
August 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852424/screening-and-evolution-of-a-novel-protist-xylose-isomerase-from-the-termite-reticulitermes-speratus-for-efficient-xylose-fermentation-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#17
Satoshi Katahira, Nobuhiko Muramoto, Shigeharu Moriya, Risa Nagura, Nobuki Tada, Noriko Yasutani, Moriya Ohkuma, Toru Onishi, Kenro Tokuhiro
BACKGROUND: The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a promising host for lignocellulosic bioethanol production, is unable to metabolize xylose. In attempts to confer xylose utilization ability in S. cerevisiae, a number of xylose isomerase (XI) genes have been expressed heterologously in this yeast. Although several of these XI encoding genes were functionally expressed in S. cerevisiae, the need still exists for a S. cerevisiae strain with improved xylose utilization ability for use in the commercial production of bioethanol...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844456/seagrass-wasting-disease-nitrate-enrichment-and-exposure-to-a-herbicide-diuron-increases-susceptibility-of-zostera-marina-to-infection
#18
R G Hughes, M Potouroglou, Z Ziauddin, J C Nicholls
Seagrass meadows suffered large-scale declines in the past century. The 'wasting disease', pathognomonically associated with Labyrinthula zosterae, reduced populations of Zostera marina on both sides of the North Atlantic in, and since, the 1930s, coinciding with intensive agricultural use of artificial fertilizers and herbicides. This study tests the long-standing hypothesis that nutrient enrichment and a herbicide increases vulnerability to pathogens. Z. marina shoots from the Thames Estuary grown in elevated nitrate concentrations had significantly higher rates of infection by L...
August 22, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843671/expanding-francisella-models-pairing-up-the-soil-amoeba-dictyostelium-with-aquatic-francisella
#19
REVIEW
Yannick Brenz, Hanne C Winther-Larsen, Monica Hagedorn
The bacterial genus Francisella comprises highly pathogenic species that infect mammals, arthropods, fish and protists. Understanding virulence and host defense mechanisms of Francisella infection relies on multiple animal and cellular model systems. In this review, we want to summarize the most commonly used Francisella host model platforms and highlight novel, alternative model systems using aquatic Francisella species. Established mouse and macrophage models contributed extensively to our understanding of Francisella infection...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828570/the-cryptomonad-nucleomorph
#20
Geoffrey I McFadden
The cryptomonad nucleomorph is a vestigial nucleus of a eukaryotic red alga engulfed by a phagotrophic protist and retained as a photosynthetic endosymbiont. This review recounts the initial discovery and subsequent characterisation of the cryptomonad nucleomorph focusing on the key role of Peter Sitte and his protégés in our understanding of secondary endosymbiosis to create complex plastids, one of the major transition events in the evolution of life on Earth.
August 21, 2017: Protoplasma
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