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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432811/yu-et%C3%A2-al-host-cell-mutants-resistant-to-cryptosporidium-parvum-characterization-of-host-cell-mutants-significantly-resistant-to-cryptosporidium-parvum-infection
#1
Xue Yu, Haili Zhang, Guan Zhu
Cryptosporidium parvum is a parasitic protist and a causative agent of mild to severe diarrheal diseases in humans and animals. Despite its globally recognized importance, knowledge on the mechanism of parasite invasion and molecular interactions between host cells and the parasite is limited. Here we report the establishment of 43 mutant cell lines derived from HCT-8 cells by UV-induced mutagenesis and the characterization of three mutants with significantly reduced susceptibility to cryptosporidial infection...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430160/subverting-host-cell-p21-activated-kinase-a-case-of-convergent-evolution-across-pathogens
#2
REVIEW
Simona John Von Freyend, Terry Kwok-Schuelein, Hans Netter, Gholamreza Haqshenas, Jean-Philippe Semblat, Christian Doerig
Intracellular pathogens have evolved a wide range of strategies to not only escape from the immune systems of their hosts, but also to directly exploit a variety of host factors to facilitate the infection process. One such strategy is to subvert host cell signalling pathways to the advantage of the pathogen. Recent research has highlighted that the human serine/threonine kinase PAK, or p21-activated kinase, is a central component of host-pathogen interactions in many infection systems involving viruses, bacteria, and eukaryotic pathogens...
April 21, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429321/euglena-transcript-processing
#3
David C McWatters, Anthony G Russell
RNA transcript processing is an important stage in the gene expression pathway of all organisms and is subject to various mechanisms of control that influence the final levels of gene products. RNA processing involves events such as nuclease-mediated cleavage, removal of intervening sequences referred to as introns and modifications to RNA structure (nucleoside modification and editing). In Euglena, RNA transcript processing was initially examined in chloroplasts because of historical interest in the secondary endosymbiotic origin of this organelle in this organism...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429320/euglena-gracilis-genome-and-transcriptome-organelles-nuclear-genome-assembly-strategies-and-initial-features
#4
ThankGod Echezona Ebenezer, Mark Carrington, Michael Lebert, Steven Kelly, Mark C Field
Euglena gracilis is a major component of the aquatic ecosystem and together with closely related species, is ubiquitous worldwide. Euglenoids are an important group of protists, possessing a secondarily acquired plastid and are relatives to the Kinetoplastidae, which themselves have global impact as disease agents. To understand the biology of E. gracilis, as well as to provide further insight into the evolution and origins of the Kinetoplastidae, we embarked on sequencing the nuclear genome; the plastid and mitochondrial genomes are already in the public domain...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429319/biochemistry-and-physiology-of-heavy-metal-resistance-and-accumulation-in-euglena
#5
Rafael Moreno-Sánchez, Sara Rodríguez-Enríquez, Ricardo Jasso-Chávez, Emma Saavedra, Jorge D García-García
Free-living microorganisms may become suitable models for removal of heavy metals from polluted water bodies, sediments, and soils by using and enhancing their metal accumulating abilities. The available research data indicate that protists of the genus Euglena are a highly promising group of microorganisms to be used in bio-remediation of heavy metal-polluted aerobic and anaerobic acidic aquatic environments. This chapter analyzes the variety of biochemical mechanisms evolved in E. gracilis to resist, accumulate and remove heavy metals from the environment, being the most relevant those involving (1) adsorption to the external cell pellicle; (2) intracellular binding by glutathione and glutathione polymers, and their further compartmentalization as heavy metal-complexes into chloroplasts and mitochondria; (3) polyphosphate biosynthesis; and (4) secretion of organic acids...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429317/biochemistry-and-physiology-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-euglena
#6
Takahiro Ishikawa, Shun Tamaki, Takanori Maruta, Shigeru Shigeoka
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are by-products of various metabolic processes in aerobic organisms including Euglena. Chloroplasts and mitochondria are the main sites of ROS generation by photosynthesis and respiration, respectively, through the active electron transport chain. An efficient antioxidant network is required to maintain intracellular ROS pools at optimal conditions for redox homeostasis. A comparison with the networks of plants and animals revealed that Euglena has acquired some aspects of ROS metabolic process...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429315/the-mitochondrion-of-euglena-gracilis
#7
Verena Zimorski, Cessa Rauch, Jaap J van Hellemond, Aloysius G M Tielens, William F Martin
In the presence of oxygen, Euglena gracilis mitochondria function much like mammalian mitochondria. Under anaerobiosis, E. gracilis mitochondria perform a malonyl-CoA independent synthesis of fatty acids leading to accumulation of wax esters, which serve as the sink for electrons stemming from glycolytic ATP synthesis and pyruvate oxidation. Some components (enzymes and cofactors) of Euglena's anaerobic energy metabolism are found among the anaerobic mitochondria of invertebrates, others are found among hydrogenosomes, the H2-producing anaerobic mitochondria of protists...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428832/a-meta-analysis-testing-eusocial-co-option-theories-in-termite-gut-physiology-and-symbiosis
#8
Michael E Scharf, Yunpeng Cai, Yijun Sun, Ruchira Sen, Rhitoban Raychoudhury, Drion G Boucias
The termite gut accomplishes key physiologic functions that underlie termite symbiosis and sociality. However, potential candidate functions of the host-symbiont holobiome have not yet been explored across seemingly divergent processes such as digestion, immunity, caste differentiation, and xenobiotic tolerance. This study took a meta-analysis approach for concurrently studying host and symbiont gut metatranscriptome responses of the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes, which has ancestral characteristics and hosts a diverse mix of eukaryotic and bacterial symbionts...
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428299/draft-genome-sequence-of-tritrichomonas-foetus-strain-k
#9
Marlene Benchimol, Luiz G P de Almeida, Ana Tereza Vasconcelos, Ivone de Andrade Rosa, Maurício Reis Bogo, Luiza Wilges Kist, Wanderley de Souza
The protist Tritrichomonas foetus (Excavata, Parabasalia) is a parasite that causes bovine and feline trichomonosis. Bovine trichomonosis is a venereal disease that leads to abortion and reproductive problems in herds. Feline trichomonosis affects domestic cats. Here, we report the genome sequence of the T. foetus K strain, isolated in Brazil.
April 20, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427742/investigating-the-biodiversity-of-ciliates-in-the-age-of-integration
#10
REVIEW
John C Clamp, Denis H Lynn
Biology is now turning toward a more integrative approach to research, distinguished by projects that depend on collaboration across hierarchical levels of organization or across disciplines. This trend is prompted by the need to solve complex, large-scale problems and includes disciplines that could be defined as integrative biodiversity. Integrative biodiversity of protists, including that of ciliates, is still partially in its infancy. This is the result of a shortage of historical data resources such as curated museum collections...
March 16, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427445/parasites-pathogens-and-commensals-in-the-low-impact-non-native-amphipod-host-gammarus-roeselii
#11
Jamie Bojko, Karolina Bącela-Spychalska, Paul D Stebbing, Alison M Dunn, Michał Grabowski, Michał Rachalewski, Grant D Stentiford
BACKGROUND: Whilst vastly understudied, pathogens of non-native species (NNS) are increasingly recognised as important threats to native wildlife. This study builds upon recent recommendations for improved screening for pathogens in NNS by focusing on populations of Gammarus roeselii in Chojna, north-western Poland. At this location, and in other parts of continental Europe, G. roeselii is considered a well-established and relatively 'low-impact' invader, with little understanding about its underlying pathogen profile and even less on potential spill-over of these pathogens to native species...
April 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419631/tgpl2-a-patatin-like-phospholipase-domain-containing-protein-is-involved-in-the-maintenance-of-apicoplast-lipids-homeostasis-in-toxoplasma
#12
Maude F Lévêque, Laurence Berry, Yoshiki Yamaryo-Botté, Hoa Mai Nguyen, Marine Galera, Cyrille Y Botté, Sébastien Besteiro
Patatin-like phospholipases are involved in numerous cellular functions, including lipid metabolism and membranes remodeling. The patatin-like catalytic domain, whose phospholipase activity relies on a serine-aspartate dyad and an anion binding box, is widely spread among prokaryotes and eukaryotes. We describe TgPL2, a novel patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein from the parasitic protist Toxoplasma gondii. TgPL2 is a large protein, in which the key motifs for enzymatic activity are conserved in the patatin-like domain...
April 17, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417932/marine-microbial-derived-molecules-and-their-potential-use-in-cosmeceutical-and-cosmetic-products
#13
REVIEW
Cinzia Corinaldesi, Giulio Barone, Francesca Marcellini, Antonio Dell'Anno, Roberto Danovaro
The oceans encompass a wide range of habitats and environmental conditions, which host a huge microbial biodiversity. The unique characteristics of several marine systems have driven a variety of biological adaptations, leading to the production of a large spectrum of bioactive molecules. Fungi, fungi-like protists (such as thraustochytrids) and bacteria are among the marine organisms with the highest potential of producing bioactive compounds, which can be exploited for several commercial purposes, including cosmetic and cosmeceutical ones...
April 12, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414791/speciation-in-progress-a-phylogeographic-study-among-populations-of-hemitrichia-serpula-myxomycetes
#14
Nikki Heherson A Dagamac, Carlos Rojas, Yuri K Novozhilov, Gabriel H Moreno, Rabea Schlueter, Martin Schnittler
Myxomycetes (plasmodial slime molds, Amoebozoa) are often perceived as widely distributed, confounding to the "everything is everywhere" hypothesis. To test if gene flow within these spore-dispersed protists is restricted by geographical barriers, we chose the widespread but morphologically unmistakable species Hemitrichia serpula for a phylogeographic study. Partial sequences from nuclear ribosomal RNA genes (SSU) revealed 40 ribotypes among 135 specimens, belonging to three major clades. Each clade is dominated by specimens from a certain region and by one of two morphological varieties which can be differentiated by SEM micrographs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410875/particle-sorting-by-paramecium-cilia-arrays
#15
Richard Mayne, James G H Whiting, Gabrielle Wheway, Chris Melhuish, Andrew Adamatzky
Motile cilia are cell-surface organelles whose purposes, in ciliated protists and certain ciliated vertebrate epithelia, include generating fluid flow, sensing and substance uptake. Certain properties of cilia arrays, such as beating synchronisation and manipulation of external proximate particulate matter, are considered emergent, but remain incompletely characterised despite these phenomena having being the subject of extensive modelling. This study constitutes a laboratory experimental characterisation of one of the emergent properties of motile cilia: manipulation of adjacent particulates...
April 11, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410591/eurasian-golden-jackal-as-host-of-canine-vector-borne-protists
#16
Barbora Mitková, Kristýna Hrazdilová, Gianluca D'Amico, Georg Gerhard Duscher, Franz Suchentrunk, Pavel Forejtek, Călin Mircea Gherman, Ioana Adriana Matei, Angela Monica Ionică, Aikaterini Alexandra Daskalaki, Andrei Daniel Mihalca, Jan Votýpka, Pavel Hulva, David Modrý
BACKGROUND: Jackals are medium-sized canids from the wolf-like clade, exhibiting a unique combination of ancestral morphotypes, broad trophic niches, and close phylogenetic relationships with the wolf and dog. Thus, they represent a potential host of several pathogens with diverse transmission routes. Recently, populations of the Eurasian golden jackal Canis aureus have expanded into the Western Palaearctic, including most of Europe. The aim of our study was to examine Eurasian golden jackals from Romania, Czech Republic and Austria for a wide spectrum of vector-borne protists and to evaluate the role of this species as a reservoir of disease for domestic dogs and/or humans...
April 14, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408476/ogt-a-short-overview-of-an-enzyme-standing-out-from-usual-glycosyltransferases
#17
REVIEW
Moyira Aquino-Gil, Annick Pierce, Yobana Perez-Cervera, Edgar Zenteno, Tony Lefebvre
O-GlcNAcylation is a highly dynamic post-translational modification whose level depends on nutrient status. Only two enzymes regulate O-GlcNAcylation cycling, the glycosyltransferase OGT (O-GlcNAc transferase) and the glycoside hydrolase OGA (O-GlcNAcase), that add and remove the GlcNAc moiety to and from acceptor proteins, respectively. During the last 30 years, OGT has emerged as a master regulator of cell life with O-GlcNAcylation being found in viruses, bacteria, insects, protists and metazoans. The study of OGT in different biological systems opens new perspectives for understanding this enzyme in many kingdoms of life...
April 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406895/the-superfamily-keeps-growing-identification-in-trypanosomatids-of-ribj-the-first-riboflavin-transporter-family-in-protists
#18
Darío E Balcazar, María Cristina Vanrell, Patricia S Romano, Claudio A Pereira, Fernando A Goldbaum, Hernán R Bonomi, Carolina Carrillo
BACKGROUND: Trypanosomatid parasites represent a major health issue affecting hundreds of million people worldwide, with clinical treatments that are partially effective and/or very toxic. They are responsible for serious human and plant diseases including Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease), Trypanosoma brucei (Sleeping sickness), Leishmania spp. (Leishmaniasis), and Phytomonas spp. (phytoparasites). Both, animals and trypanosomatids lack the biosynthetic riboflavin (vitamin B2) pathway, the vital precursor of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactors...
April 13, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400531/genomics-and-evolution-of-protein-phosphatases
#19
Mark J Chen, Jack E Dixon, Gerard Manning
Protein phosphatases are the essential opposite to protein kinases; together, these enzymes regulate all protein phosphorylation and most cellular processes. To better understand the global roles of protein phosphorylation, we cataloged the human protein phosphatome, composed of 189 known and predicted human protein phosphatase genes. We also identified 79 protein phosphatase pseudogenes or retrogenes, some of which may have residual function. We traced the origin and diversity of phosphatases by building protein phosphatomes for eight other eukaryotes, from the protist Dictyostelium to the sea urchin...
April 11, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392403/matrix-metalloproteinases-outside-vertebrates
#20
Laura Marino-Puertas, Theodoros Goulas, F Xavier Gomis-Rüth
The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family belongs to the metzincin clan of zinc-dependent metallopeptidases. Due to their enormous implications in physiology and disease, MMPs have mainly been studied in vertebrates. They are engaged in extracellular protein processing and degradation, and present extensive paralogy, with 23 forms in humans. One characteristic of MMPs is a~165-residue catalytic domain (CD), which has been structurally studied for 14 MMPs from human, mouse, rat, pig and the oral-microbiome bacterium Tannerella forsythia...
April 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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