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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919329/making-the-pathogen-evolution-and-adaptation-in-parasitic-protists
#1
EDITORIAL
Michael Ginger, Mark C Field
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914926/metschnikowia-cf-typographi-and-other-pathogens-from-the-bark-beetle-ips-sexdentatus-prevalence-histological-and-ultrastructural-evidence-and-molecular-characterization
#2
Regina G Kleespies, Young Woon Lim, Cezary Tkaczuk, Marta Wrzosek, Bernhardt M Steinwender, Rudolf Wegensteiner
Ips sexdentatus (Six-spined engraver beetle) from Austria and Poland were dissected and examined for the presence of pathogens. Specimens collected in Austria were found to contain the ascomycetous fungus Metschnikowia cf. typographi. Infection rates ranged from 3.6% to 26.8% at different collection sites. M. cf. typographi infected midguts were investigated by histological, ultrastructural and molecular techniques. Extraordinary ultrastructural details are shown, such as ascospores with bilateral flattened flanks resembling alar rims at both sides of their attenuating tube-like ends...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913733/identification-of-2-methylthio-cyclic-n6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine-ms2ct6a-as-a-novel-rna-modification-at-position-37-of-trnas
#3
Byeong-Il Kang, Kenjyo Miyauchi, Michal Matuszewski, Gabriel Silveira D'Almeida, Mary Anne T Rubio, Juan D Alfonzo, Kazuki Inoue, Yuriko Sakaguchi, Takeo Suzuki, Elzbieta Sochacka, Tsutomu Suzuki
Transfer RNA modifications play pivotal roles in protein synthesis. N(6)-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t(6)A) and its derivatives are modifications found at position 37, 3'-adjacent to the anticodon, in tRNAs responsible for ANN codons. These modifications are universally conserved in all domains of life. t(6)A and its derivatives have pleiotropic functions in protein synthesis including aminoacylation, decoding and translocation. We previously discovered a cyclic form of t(6)A (ct(6)A) as a chemically labile derivative of t(6)A in tRNAs from bacteria, fungi, plants and protists...
December 2, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913732/a-hydantoin-isoform-of-cyclic-n6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine-ct6a-is-present-in-trnas
#4
Michal Matuszewski, Jakub Wojciechowski, Kenjyo Miyauchi, Zofia Gdaniec, Wojciech M Wolf, Tsutomu Suzuki, Elzbieta Sochacka
N(6)-Threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t(6)A) and its derivatives are universally conserved modified nucleosides found at position 37, 3' adjacent to the anticodon in tRNAs responsible for ANN codons. These modifications have pleiotropic functions of tRNAs in decoding and protein synthesis. In certain species of bacteria, fungi, plants and protists, t(6)A is further modified to the cyclic t(6)A (ct(6)A) via dehydration catalyzed by TcdA. This additional modification is involved in efficient decoding of tRNA(Lys) Previous work indicated that the chemical structure of ct(6)A is a cyclic active ester with an oxazolone ring...
December 2, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911440/the-prey-s-scent-volatile-organic-compound-mediated-interactions-between-soil-bacteria-and-their-protist-predators
#5
Kristin Schulz-Bohm, Stefan Geisen, E R Jasper Wubs, Chunxu Song, Wietse de Boer, Paolina Garbeva
Protists are major predators of bacteria in soils. However, it remains unknown how protists sense their prey in this highly complex environment. Here, we investigated whether volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of six phylogenetic distinct soil bacteria affect the performance of three different soil protists and how that relates to direct feeding interactions. We observed that most bacteria affected protist activity by VOCs. However, the response of protists to the VOCs was strongly dependent on both the bacterial and protist interacting partner...
December 2, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904880/microbial-community-patterns-associated-with-automated-teller-machine-keypads-in-new-york-city
#6
Holly M Bik, Julia M Maritz, Albert Luong, Hakdong Shin, Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, Jane M Carlton
In densely populated urban environments, the distribution of microbes and the drivers of microbial community assemblages are not well understood. In sprawling metropolitan habitats, the "urban microbiome" may represent a mix of human-associated and environmental taxa. Here we carried out a baseline study of automated teller machine (ATM) keypads in New York City (NYC). Our goal was to describe the biodiversity and biogeography of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes in an urban setting while assessing the potential source of microbial assemblages on ATM keypads...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903906/eupathdb-the-eukaryotic-pathogen-genomics-database-resource
#7
Cristina Aurrecoechea, Ana Barreto, Evelina Y Basenko, John Brestelli, Brian P Brunk, Shon Cade, Kathryn Crouch, Ryan Doherty, Dave Falke, Steve Fischer, Bindu Gajria, Omar S Harb, Mark Heiges, Christiane Hertz-Fowler, Sufen Hu, John Iodice, Jessica C Kissinger, Cris Lawrence, Wei Li, Deborah F Pinney, Jane A Pulman, David S Roos, Achchuthan Shanmugasundram, Fatima Silva-Franco, Sascha Steinbiss, Christian J Stoeckert, Drew Spruill, Haiming Wang, Susanne Warrenfeltz, Jie Zheng
The Eukaryotic Pathogen Genomics Database Resource (EuPathDB, http://eupathdb.org) is a collection of databases covering 170+ eukaryotic pathogens (protists & fungi), along with relevant free-living and non-pathogenic species, and select pathogen hosts. To facilitate the discovery of meaningful biological relationships, the databases couple preconfigured searches with visualization and analysis tools for comprehensive data mining via intuitive graphical interfaces and APIs. All data are analyzed with the same workflows, including creation of gene orthology profiles, so data are easily compared across data sets, data types and organisms...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894878/functionally-conserved-rna-binding-and-protein-protein-interaction-properties-of-line-orf1p-in-an-ancient-clade-of-non-ltr-retrotransposons-of-entamoeba-histolytica
#8
Amit Kumar Gaurav, Jitender Kumar, Mridula Agrahari, Alok Bhattacharya, Vijay Pal Yadav, Sudha Bhattacharya
Retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements found in most organisms. Their origin and evolution is not very well understood. Retrotransposons that lack long terminal repeats (non-LTR) have been classified based on their reverse transcriptase (RT) and endonuclease sequences into groups, of which R2 is the most ancient. Its members contain a single open reading frame (ORF) while there are two ORFs in the other groups, of which ORF2 contains the RT and endonuclease sequences. It is thought that ORF1 was added later to the single-ORF-containing elements, and codes for a protein with nucleic acid binding activity...
November 25, 2016: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894159/phylogenetic-and-ecological-diversity-of-apusomonads-a-lineage-of-deep-branching-eukaryotes
#9
Guifré Torruella, David Moreira, Purificación López-García
Apusomonads are a mysterious group of heterotrophic gliding biflagellates branching deeply in the eukaryotic tree of life as sister group to opisthokonts (including animals, fungi and a variety of unicellular protists). Despite their evolutionary interest, their diversity and ecology remain largely unknown, with very few described species and environmental sequences in databases. Most environmental 18S rRNA gene-based studies generally fail to identify apusomonad sequences, which might be due to primer bias, low abundance and/or to the fact that their biotopes remain poorly explored...
November 28, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892792/e2fl1-is-a-meiosis-specific-transcription-factor-in-the-protist-tetrahymena-thermophila
#10
Jing Zhang, Miao Tian, Guan-Xiong Yan, Anura Shodhan, Wei Miao
Members of the E2F family of transcription factors have been reported to regulate the expression of genes involved in cell cycle control, DNA replication, and DNA repair in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, E2FL1, a meiosis-specific E2F transcription factor gene, was identified in the model ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. Loss of this gene resulted in meiotic arrest prior to anaphase I. The cytological experiments revealed that the meiotic homologous pairing was not affected in the absence of E2FL1, but the paired homologous chromosomes did not separate and assumed a peculiar tandem arrangement...
November 28, 2016: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881071/genome-wide-analyses-of-chitin-synthases-identify-horizontal-gene-transfers-towards-bacteria-and-allow-a-robust-and-unifying-classification-into-fungi
#11
Isabelle R Gonçalves, Sophie Brouillet, Marie-Christine Soulié, Simonetta Gribaldo, Catherine Sirven, Noémie Charron, Martine Boccara, Mathias Choquer
BACKGROUND: Chitin, the second most abundant biopolymer on earth after cellulose, is found in probably all fungi, many animals (mainly invertebrates), several protists and a few algae, playing an essential role in the development of many of them. This polysaccharide is produced by type 2 glycosyltransferases, called chitin synthases (CHS). There are several contradictory classifications of CHS isoenzymes and, as regards their evolutionary history, their origin and diversity is still a matter of debate...
November 24, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875688/morphological-identification-and-single-cell-genomics-of-marine-diplonemids
#12
Ryan M R Gawryluk, Javier Del Campo, Noriko Okamoto, Jürgen F H Strassert, Julius Lukeš, Thomas A Richards, Alexandra Z Worden, Alyson E Santoro, Patrick J Keeling
Recent global surveys of marine biodiversity have revealed that a group of organisms known as "marine diplonemids" constitutes one of the most abundant and diverse planktonic lineages [1]. Though discovered over a decade ago [2, 3], their potential importance was unrecognized, and our knowledge remains restricted to a single gene amplified from environmental DNA, the 18S rRNA gene (small subunit [SSU]). Here, we use single-cell genomics (SCG) and microscopy to characterize ten marine diplonemids, isolated from a range of depths in the eastern North Pacific Ocean...
November 21, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874080/integrated-omics-study-of-lipid-droplets-from-plasmodiophora-brassicae
#13
Kai Bi, Zhangchao He, Zhixiao Gao, Ying Zhao, Yanping Fu, Jiasen Cheng, Jiatao Xie, Daohong Jiang, Tao Chen
Plasmodiophora brassicae causes clubroot disease in cruciferous. In this report, lipid droplets were observed in the resting spores of P. brassicae. 295 lipid droplet-associated proteins were identified and categorized into nine groups. Transcriptome analysis of these proteins during three different zoosporic stages revealed differences in gene expression pattern. GO enrichment analysis revealed that these proteins associated with lipid droplets were mainly linked to biosynthesis and metabolism. GC-MS analysis revealed that lipid droplets contain seven types of free fatty acids: saturated fatty acids C16:0 and C18:0, and unsaturated fatty acids C18:1Δ9, C18:1Δ11, C18:2, C20:4 and C20:5...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867198/probing-the-evolution-ecology-and-physiology-of-marine-protists-using-transcriptomics
#14
David A Caron, Harriet Alexander, Andrew E Allen, John M Archibald, E Virginia Armbrust, Charles Bachy, Callum J Bell, Arvind Bharti, Sonya T Dyhrman, Stephanie M Guida, Karla B Heidelberg, Jonathan Z Kaye, Julia Metzner, Sarah R Smith, Alexandra Z Worden
Protists, which are single-celled eukaryotes, critically influence the ecology and chemistry of marine ecosystems, but genome-based studies of these organisms have lagged behind those of other microorganisms. However, recent transcriptomic studies of cultured species, complemented by meta-omics analyses of natural communities, have increased the amount of genetic information available for poorly represented branches on the tree of eukaryotic life. This information is providing insights into the adaptations and interactions between protists and other microorganisms and macroorganisms, but many of the genes sequenced show no similarity to sequences currently available in public databases...
November 21, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864674/interactions-between-giardia-duodenalis-sm-proteins-and-their-association-with-spliceosomal-snrnas
#15
Vanessa Gómez, Moisés Wasserman
Giardia duodenalis is a parasite that colonises the intestines of humans and other vertebrates, causing diarrhoea and poor nutrient absorption. G. duodenalis is sometimes considered an early diverging eukaryote, and its genome exhibits simplified molecular machinery for many cellular processes, which makes it an interesting model to study. The spliceosome, one of the most complex molecular machines in the eukaryotic cell, is responsible for intron excision and exon splicing. Just over a decade ago, it was believed that the G...
November 18, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854317/modulating-the-gut-micro-environment-in-the-treatment-of-intestinal-parasites
#16
REVIEW
Luis Vitetta, Emma Tali Saltzman, Tessa Nikov, Isabelle Ibrahim, Sean Hall
The interactions of micro-organisms cohabitating with Homo sapiens spans millennia, with microbial communities living in a symbiotic relationship with the host. Interacting to regulate and maintain physiological functions and immunological tolerance, the microbial community is able to exert an influence on host health. An example of micro-organisms contributing to an intestinal disease state is exhibited by a biodiverse range of protozoan and bacterial species that damage the intestinal epithelia and are therefore implicated in the symptoms of diarrhea...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845269/mitochondrial-genomes-of-two-babesia-taxa-from-sheep-in-china-as-a-foundation-for-population-genetic-and-epidemiological-investigations
#17
Tao Wang, Guiquan Guan, Pasi K Korhonen, Anson V Koehler, Neil D Young, Ross S Hall, Hong Yin, Robin B Gasser
Here, we sequenced, assembled and annotated the mitochondrial (mt) genomes of two operational taxonomic units of Babesia from sheep from China using a deep sequencing-coupled approach. Then, we defined and compared the gene order of these mt genomes (~5.8 to 6.2kb in size), assessed sequence differences in mt genes among Babesia taxa and evaluated genetic relationships among these taxa and related apicomplexans (Theileria) for which mt genomic data sets were available. We also identified mt genetic regions that might be useful as markers for future population genetic and molecular epidemiological studies of Babesia from small ruminants...
November 11, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830090/drosophila-enhancer-of-rudimentary-homolog-erh-is-a-binding-partner-of-rps3-rpl19-and-ddit4-suggesting-a-mechanism-for-the-nuclear-localization-of-erh
#18
Stuart I Tsubota, Anthony C Phillips
The protein enhancer of rudimentary homolog, ERH, is a small, highly conserved protein that has been found in animals, plants, and protists. Genetic and biochemical interactions have implicated ERH in the regulation of pyrimidine biosynthesis, DNA replication, transcription, mRNA splicing, cellular proliferation, tumorigenesis, and the Notch signaling pathway. In vertebrates and insects, ERH is nuclearly localized; however, an examination of the ERH amino-acid sequence does not reveal any nuclear localization signals...
2016: Molecular Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828996/biogeography-and-character-evolution-of-the-ciliate-genus-euplotes-spirotrichea-euplotia-with-description-of-euplotes-curdsi-sp-nov
#19
Mitchell J Syberg-Olsen, Nicholas A T Irwin, Claudia Vannini, Fabrizio Erra, Graziano Di Giuseppe, Vittorio Boscaro, Patrick J Keeling
Ciliates comprise a diverse and ecologically important phylum of unicellular protists. One of the most specious and best-defined genera is Euplotes, which constitutes more than 70 morphospecies, many of which have never been molecularly tested. The increasing number of described Euplotes taxa emphasizes the importance for detailed characterizations of new ones, requiring standardized morphological observations, sequencing of molecular markers and careful comparison with previous literature. Here we describe Euplotes curdsi sp...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828770/responding-to-a-zoonotic-emergency-with-multi-omics-research-pentatrichomonas-hominis-hydrogenosomal-protein-characterization-with-use-of-rna-sequencing-and-proteomics
#20
Yi-Kai Fang, Kun-Yi Chien, Kuo-Yang Huang, Wei-Hung Cheng, Fu-Mann Ku, Rose Lin, Ting-Wen Chen, Po-Jung Huang, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Petrus Tang
Pentatrichomonas hominis is an anaerobic flagellated protist that colonizes the large intestine of a number of mammals, including cats, dogs, nonhuman primates, and humans. The wide host range of this organism is alarming and suggests a rising zoonotic emergency. However, knowledge on in-depth biology of this protist is still limited. Similar to the human pathogen, Trichomonas vaginalis, P. hominis possesses hydrogenosomes instead of mitochondria. Studies in T. vaginalis indicated that hydrogenosome is essential for cell survival and associated with numerous pivotal biological functions, including drug resistance...
November 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
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