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Jack A Gilbert
It is now well accepted that our modern lifestyle has certain implications for our health (Schaub et al., ), mainly as a result of our willingness to remove ourselves from the biological diversity of our natural environments (Roduit et al., ), while still being drawn inextricably to interact with it (Kellert and Wilson, ). Much of our interaction with the biological world is shaped by our interaction with the microbiological world. The bacteria, fungi, viruses, archaea and protists that comprise the microbiome of this planet, are also key to the development and normal functioning of our bodies...
October 17, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
G D Stentiford, A Ramilo, E Abollo, R Kerr, K S Bateman, S W Feist, D Bass, A Villalba
The Paramyxida, closely related to haplosporidians, paradinids, and mikrocytids, is an obscure order of parasitic protists within the class Ascetosporea. All characterized ascetosporeans are parasites of invertebrate hosts, including molluscs, crustaceans and polychaetes. Representatives of the genus Marteilia are the best studied paramyxids, largely due to their impact on cultured oyster stocks, and their listing in international legislative frameworks. Although several examples of microsporidian hyperparasitism of paramyxids have been reported, phylogenetic data for these taxa are lacking...
October 17, 2016: Parasitology
Lional Rajappa-Titu, Takuma Suematsu, Paola Munoz-Tello, Marius Long, Özlem Demir, Kevin J Cheng, Jason R Stagno, Hartmut Luecke, Rommie E Amaro, Inna Aphasizheva, Ruslan Aphasizhev, Stéphane Thore
Terminal uridyltransferases (TUTases) execute 3' RNA uridylation across protists, fungi, metazoan and plant species. Uridylation plays a particularly prominent role in RNA processing pathways of kinetoplastid protists typified by the causative agent of African sleeping sickness, Trypanosoma brucei In mitochondria of this pathogen, most mRNAs are internally modified by U-insertion/deletion editing while guide RNAs and rRNAs are U-tailed. The founding member of TUTase family, RNA editing TUTase 1 (RET1), functions as a subunit of the 3' processome in uridylation of gRNA precursors and mature guide RNAs...
October 15, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Harald Preisner, Eli Levy Karin, Gereon Poschmann, Kai Stühler, Tal Pupko, Sven B Gould
Certain protist lineages bear cytoskeletal structures that are germane to them and define their individual group. Trichomonadida are excavate parasites united by a unique cytoskeletal framework, which includes tubulin-based structures such as the pelta and axostyle, but also other filaments such as the striated costa whose protein composition remains unknown. We determined the proteome of the detergent-resistant cytoskeleton of Tetratrichomonas gallinarum. 203 proteins with homology to Trichomonas vaginalis were identified, which contain significantly more long coiled-coil regions than control protein sets...
September 16, 2016: Protist
Alba Hykollari, Katharina Paschinger, Barbara Eckmair, Iain B H Wilson
N-glycans from invertebrates and protists have often unusual structures which present analytical challenges. Both core and antennal modifications can be quite different from the more familiar vertebrate glycan motifs; thereby, contrary to the concept that "simple" organisms have "simple" N-glycans, rather complex oligosaccharides structures, including zwitterionic and anionic ones, have been found in a range of species. Thus, to facilitate the optimized elucidation of the maximal possible range of structures, the analytical workflow for glycomics of these organisms should include sequential release and fractionation steps...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Franziska Szokoli, Michele Castelli, Elena Sabaneyeva, Martina Schrallhammer, Sascha Krenek, Thomas G Doak, Thomas U Berendonk, Giulio Petroni
In the past ten years, the number of endosymbionts described within the bacterial order Rickettsiales has constantly grown. Since 2006, 18 novel Rickettsiales genera inhabiting protists, such as ciliates and amoebae, have been described. In this work, we characterize two novel bacterial endosymbionts from Paramecium collected near Bloomington, Indiana (USA). Both endosymbiotic species inhabit the cytoplasm of the same host. The Gram-negative bacterium "Candidatus Bealeia paramacronuclearis" occurs in clumps and is frequently associated with the host macronucleus...
October 14, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Ewa Waclawek, Ewa Joachimiak, Malgorzata Hanna Hall, Hanna Fabczak, Dorota Wloga
Katanin is a microtubule severing protein that functions as a heterodimer composed of an AAA domain catalytic subunit, p60, and a regulatory subunit, a WD40 repeat protein, p80. Katanin-dependent severing of microtubules is important for proper execution of key cellular activities including cell division, migration, and differentiation. Published data obtained in C. elegans, Xenopus and mammals indicate that katanin is regulated at multiple levels including transcription, posttranslational modifications (of both katanin and microtubules) and degradation...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Susanne Kramer, Dörte Dibbern, Julia Moll, Maike Huenninghaus, Robert Koller, Dirk Krueger, Sven Marhan, Tim Urich, Tesfaye Wubet, Michael Bonkowski, François Buscot, Tillmann Lueders, Ellen Kandeler
The flow of plant-derived carbon in soil is a key component of global carbon cycling. Conceptual models of trophic carbon fluxes in soil have assumed separate bacterial and fungal energy channels in the detritusphere, controlled by both substrate complexity and recalcitrance. However, detailed understanding of the key populations involved and niche-partitioning between them is limited. Here, a microcosm experiment was performed to trace the flow of detritusphere C from substrate analogs (glucose, cellulose) and plant biomass amendments (maize leaves, roots) in an agricultural soil...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Alexander J McMenamin, Laura M Brutscher, William Glenny, Michelle L Flenniken
Bees are important pollinators of plants in both agricultural and non-agricultural landscapes. Recent losses of both managed and wild bee species have negative impacts on crop production and ecosystem diversity. Therefore, in order to mitigate bee losses, it is important to identify the factors most responsible. Multiple factors including pathogens, agrochemical exposure, lack of quality forage, and reduced habitat affect bee health. Pathogen prevalence is one factor that has been associated with colony losses...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Aleksey Chudnovskiy, Arthur Mortha, Veronika Kana, Andrea Kennard, Juan David Ramirez, Adeeb Rahman, Romain Remark, Ilaria Mogno, Ruby Ng, Sasha Gnjatic, El-Ad David Amir, Alexander Solovyov, Benjamin Greenbaum, Jose Clemente, Jeremiah Faith, Yasmine Belkaid, Michael E Grigg, Miriam Merad
While conventional pathogenic protists have been extensively studied, there is an underappreciated constitutive protist microbiota that is an integral part of the vertebrate microbiome. The impact of these species on the host and their potential contributions to mucosal immune homeostasis remain poorly studied. Here, we show that the protozoan Tritrichomonas musculis activates the host epithelial inflammasome to induce IL-18 release. Epithelial-derived IL-18 promotes dendritic cell-driven Th1 and Th17 immunity and confers dramatic protection from mucosal bacterial infections...
October 6, 2016: Cell
Brittany F Peterson, Michael E Scharf
BACKGROUND: Symbioses throughout the animal kingdom are known to extend physiological and ecological capabilities to hosts. Insect-microbe associations are extremely common and are often related to novel niche exploitation, fitness advantages, and even speciation events. These phenomena include expansions in host diet, detoxification of insecticides and toxins, and increased defense against pathogens. However, dissecting the contributions of individual groups of symbionts at the molecular level is often underexplored due to methodological and analytical limitations...
October 1, 2016: BMC Genomics
Lukáš Novák, Zuzana Zubáčová, Anna Karnkowska, Martin Kolisko, Miluše Hroudová, Courtney W Stairs, Alastair G B Simpson, Patrick J Keeling, Andrew J Roger, Ivan Čepička, Vladimír Hampl
BACKGROUND: Multiple prokaryotic lineages use the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway for anaerobic energy production by arginine degradation. The distribution of this pathway among eukaryotes has been thought to be very limited, with only two specialized groups living in low oxygen environments (Parabasalia and Diplomonadida) known to possess the complete set of all three enzymes. We have performed an extensive survey of available sequence data in order to map the distribution of these enzymes among eukaryotes and to reconstruct their phylogenies...
October 6, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Matus Valach, Sandrine Moreira, Drahomíra Faktorová, Julius Lukeš, Gertraud Burger
The instructions to make proteins and structural RNAs are laid down in gene sequences. Yet, in certain instances, these primary instructions need to be modified considerably during gene expression, most often at the transcript level. Here we review a case of massive post-transcriptional revisions via trans-splicing and RNA editing, a phenomenon occurring in mitochondria of a recently recognized protist group, the diplonemids. As of now, the various post-transcriptional steps have been catalogued in detail, but how these processes function is still unknown...
October 7, 2016: RNA Biology
Ruslan Aphasizhev, Takuma Suematsu, Liye Zhang, Inna Aphasizheva
RNA uridylation is a significant transcriptome-shaping factor in protists, fungi, metazoans, and plants. The 3' U-additions are catalyzed by terminal uridyltransferases (TUTases), a diverse group of enzymes that along with non-canonical poly(A) polymerases form a distinct group in the superfamily of DNA polymerase β-like nucleotidyl transferases. Within and across studied organisms and subcellular compartments, TUTases differ in nucleotide triphosphate selectivity, interacting partners, and RNA targets. A general premise linking RNA uridylation to 3'-5' degradation received support from several studies of small RNAs and mRNA turnover...
October 7, 2016: RNA Biology
Fiona M Menzies, David Macphail, Fiona L Henriquez
Protists are a diverse collection of eukaryotic organisms that account for a significant global infection burden. Often, the immune responses mounted against these parasites cause excessive inflammation and therefore pathology in the host. Elucidating the mechanisms of both protective and harmful immune responses is complex, and often relies of the use of animal models. In any immune response, leucocyte trafficking to the site of infection, or inflammation, is paramount, and this involves the production of chemokines, small chemotactic cytokines of approximately 8-10 kDa in size, which bind to specific chemokine receptors to induce leucocyte movement...
October 6, 2016: Parasitology
Sabrice Guerrier, Helmut Plattner, Elizabeth H Richardson, Joel B Dacks, Aaron P Turkewitz
As most of eukaryotic diversity lies in single-celled protists, they represent unique opportunities to ask questions about the balance of conservation and innovation in cell biological features. Among free-living protists the ciliates offer ease of culturing, a rich array of experimental approaches, and versatile molecular tools, particularly in Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetraurelia. These attributes have been exploited by researchers to analyze a wealth of cellular structures in these large and complex cells...
October 3, 2016: Traffic
Naohisa Wada, Frederic J Pollock, Bette L Willis, Tracy Ainsworth, Nobuhiro Mano, David G Bourne
In situ visualization of microbial communities within their natural habitats provides a powerful approach to explore complex interactions between microorganisms and their macroscopic hosts. Specifically, the application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to simultaneously identify and visualize diverse microbial taxa associated with coral hosts, including symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium), Bacteria, Archaea, Fungi and protists, could help untangle the structure and function of these diverse taxa within the coral holobiont...
2016: PeerJ
Josef Loidl
Comparisons among a variety of eukaryotes have revealed considerable variability in the structures and processes involved in their meiosis. Nevertheless, conventional forms of meiosis occur in all major groups of eukaryotes, including early-branching protists. This finding confirms that meiosis originated in the common ancestor of all eukaryotes and suggests that primordial meiosis may have had many characteristics in common with conventional extant meiosis. However, it is possible that the synaptonemal complex and the delicate crossover control related to its presence were later acquisitions...
September 28, 2016: Annual Review of Genetics
Tao Chen, Kai Bi, Zhangchao He, Zhixiao Gao, Ying Zhao, Yanping Fu, Jiasen Cheng, Jiatao Xie, Daohong Jiang
Botrytis-induced kinase1 (BIK1), a receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, plays an important role in resistance against pathogens and insects in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, it remains unknown whether BIK1 functions against Plasmodiophora brassicae, an obligate biotrophic protist that attacks cruciferous plants and induces gall formation on roots. Here, we investigated the potential roles of receptors FLS2, BAK1, and BIK1 in the infection of P. brassicae cruciferous plants. Wild-type plants, fls2, and bak1 mutants showed typical symptom on roots, and the galls were filled with large quantities of resting spores, while bik1 mutant plants exhibited strong resistance to P...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
R Piredda, M P Tomasino, A M D'Erchia, C Manzari, G Pesole, M Montresor, W H C F Kooistra, D Sarno, A Zingone
We tracked temporal changes in protist diversity at the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER)-MC site in the Gulf of Naples (Mediterranean Sea) on eight dates in 2011 using a metabarcoding approach. The ILLUMINA analysis of the V4 and V9 fragments of the 18S rDNA produced 869,522 and 1,410,071 sequences resulting in 6,517 and 6,519 OTUs, respectively. Marked compositional variations were recorded across the year, with less than 2% of OTUs shared among all samples and similar patterns for the two marker tags...
September 26, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
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