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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158985/coral-associated-viral-communities-show-high-levels-of-diversity-and-host-auxiliary-functions
#1
Karen D Weynberg, Patrick W Laffy, Elisha M Wood-Charlson, Dmitrij Turaev, Thomas Rattei, Nicole S Webster, Madeleine J H van Oppen
Stony corals (Scleractinia) are marine invertebrates that form the foundation and framework upon which tropical reefs are built. The coral animal associates with a diverse microbiome comprised of dinoflagellate algae and other protists, bacteria, archaea, fungi and viruses. Using a metagenomics approach, we analysed the DNA and RNA viral assemblages of seven coral species from the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR), demonstrating that tailed bacteriophages of the Caudovirales dominate across all species examined, and ssDNA viruses, notably the Microviridae, are also prevalent...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153830/-disc-o-fever-getting-down-with-giardia-s-groovy-microtubule-organelle
#2
REVIEW
Christopher Nosala, Kari D Hagen, Scott C Dawson
Protists have evolved a myriad of highly specialized cytoskeletal organelles that expand known functional capacities of microtubule (MT) polymers. One such innovation - the ventral disc - is a cup-shaped MT organelle that the parasite Giardia uses to attach to the small intestine of its host. The molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of suction-based forces by overall conformational changes of the disc remain unclear. The elaborate disc architecture is defined by novel proteins and complexes that decorate almost all disc MT protofilaments, and vary in composition and conformation along the length of the MTs...
November 15, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148062/flagellar-incorporation-of-proteins-follows-at-least-two-different-routes-in-trypanosomes
#3
Laetitia Vincensini, Thierry Blisnick, Eloïse Bertiaux, Sebastian Hutchinson, Christina Georgikou, Cher-Pheng Ooi, Philippe Bastin
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are sophisticated organelles composed of several hundreds of proteins that need to be incorporated at the right time and the right place during assembly. RESULTS: Two methods were used to investigate this process in the model protist Trypanosoma brucei: inducible expression of epitope-tagged labelled proteins and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) of fluorescent fusion proteins. This revealed that skeletal components of the radial spokes (RSP3), the central pair (PF16) and the outer dynein arms (DNAI1) are incorporated at the distal end of the growing flagellum...
November 16, 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133150/structure-and-function-of-per-arnt-sim-domains-and-their-possible-role-in-the-life-cycle-biology-of-trypanosoma-cruzi
#4
REVIEW
Maura Rojas-Pirela, Daniel J Rigden, Paul A Michels, Ana J Cáceres, Juan Luis Concepción, Wilfredo Quiñones
Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS) domains of proteins play important roles as modules for signalling and cellular regulation processes in widely diverse organisms such as Archaea, Bacteria, protists, plants, yeasts, insects and vertebrates. These domains are present in many proteins where they are used as sensors of stimuli and modules for protein interactions. Characteristically, they can bind a broad spectrum of molecules. Such binding causes the domain to trigger a specific cellular response or to make the protein containing the domain susceptible to responding to additional physical or chemical signals...
November 10, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125596/contrasting-the-relative-importance-of-species-sorting-and-dispersal-limitation-in-shaping-marine-bacterial-versus-protist-communities
#5
Wenxue Wu, Hsiao-Pei Lu, Akash Sastri, Yi-Chun Yeh, Gwo-Ching Gong, Wen-Chen Chou, Chih-Hao Hsieh
A central challenge in microbial ecology is to understand the underlying mechanisms driving community assembly, particularly in the continuum of species sorting and dispersal limitation. However, little is known about the relative importance of species sorting and dispersal limitation in shaping marine microbial communities; especially, how they are related to organism types/traits and water depth. Here, we used variation partitioning and null model analysis to compare mechanisms driving bacterial and protist metacommunity dynamics at the basin scale in the East China Sea, based on MiSeq paired-end sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and 18S rDNA, respectively, in surface, deep chlorophyll maximum and bottom layers...
November 10, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124812/dartintinnus-alderae-n-g-n-sp-a-brackish-water-tintinnid-ciliophora-spirotrichea-with-dual-ended-lorica-collapsibility
#6
Susan A Smith, Wen Song, Nelly A Gavrilova, Alexander V Kurilov, Weiwei Liu, George B McManus, Luciana F Santoferrara
A tintinnid ciliate isolated from waters of the Thames River (Connecticut, USA) is described through combined in vivo observation, protargol impregnation, and phylogenetic analysis. The novel genus Dartintinnus and its type species, D. alderae are distinct from established tintinnid taxa by a lorica that collapses on both anterior and posterior ends. Dartintinnus is placed in the family Eutintinnidae based on a hyaline, elongated lorica opened at both ends, a ciliary pattern including a ventral kinety, at least one dorsal kinety, and right, left and lateral fields, and a sister relationship to Eutintinnus in gene trees...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117860/erv1-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-can-directly-oxidize-mitochondrial-intermembrane-space-proteins-in-the-absence-of-redox-active-mia40
#7
Valentina Peleh, Flavien Zannini, Sandra Backes, Nicolas Rouhier, Johannes M Herrmann
BACKGROUND: Many proteins of the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS) contain structural disulfide bonds formed by the mitochondrial disulfide relay. In fungi and animals, the sulfhydryl oxidase Erv1 'generates' disulfide bonds that are passed on to the oxidoreductase Mia40, which oxidizes substrate proteins. A different structural organization of plant Erv1 proteins compared to that of animal and fungal orthologs was proposed to explain its inability to complement the corresponding yeast mutant...
November 8, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116455/do-habituation-host-traits-and-seasonality-have-an-impact-on-protist-and-helminth-infections-of-wild-western-lowland-gorillas
#8
Barbora Pafčo, Julio A Benavides, Ilona Pšenková-Profousová, David Modrý, Barbora Červená, Kathryn A Shutt, Hideo Hasegawa, Terence Fuh, Angelique F Todd, Klára J Petrželková
Increased anthropogenic activity can result in parasite exchanges and/or general changes in parasite communities, imposing a health risk to great apes. We studied protist and helminth parasites of wild western lowland gorilla groups in different levels of habituation, alongside humans inhabiting Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas in the Central African Republic. Faeces were collected yearly during November and December from 2007 to 2010 and monthly from November 2010 to October 2011. Protist and helminth infections were compared among gorilla groups habituated, under habituation and unhabituated, and the effect of host traits and seasonality was evaluated...
December 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105292/ediacaran-developmental-biology
#9
Frances S Dunn, Alexander G Liu, Philip C J Donoghue
Rocks of the Ediacaran System (635-541 Ma) preserve fossil evidence of some of the earliest complex macroscopic organisms, many of which have been interpreted as animals. However, the unusual morphologies of some of these organisms have made it difficult to resolve their biological relationships to modern metazoan groups. Alternative competing phylogenetic interpretations have been proposed for Ediacaran taxa, including algae, fungi, lichens, rhizoid protists, and even an extinct higher-order group (Vendobionta)...
November 3, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103997/metagenomics-reshapes-the-concepts-of-rna-virus-evolution-by-revealing-extensive-horizontal-virus-transfer
#10
REVIEW
Valerian V Dolja, Eugene V Koonin
Virus metagenomics is a young research filed but it has already transformed our understanding of virus diversity and evolution, and illuminated at a new level the connections between virus evolution and the evolution and ecology of the hosts. In this review article, we examine the new picture of the evolution of RNA viruses, the dominant component of the eukaryotic virome, that is emerging from metagenomic data analysis. The major expansion of many groups of RNA viruses through metagenomics allowed the construction of substantially improved phylogenetic trees for the conserved virus genes, primarily, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp)...
November 8, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103901/parasitic-amoebae-found-in-water-bodies-of-ukraine
#11
Marina Patsyuk
Two parasitic amoebian species are found in mollusks of the water bodies of Ukraine. Vahlkampfia sp. is found in hepatopankreas of Unio conus Spengler, 1793, and Acanthamoeba sp. is observed in mantle cavity of Viviparus viviparus Linnaeus, 1758. For these protist species, the mollusks are shown to be intermediate hosts where amoebae feed and reproduce. An experimental infection with Vahlkampfia sp. and Acanthamoeba sp. was not successful, no pathological changes in mollusks were observed. These amoebae are successfully cultured in fresh water and agar medium, hence we can safely consider them free-living...
November 2, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103267/intestinal-parasitic-infections-and-environmental-water-contamination-in-a-rural-village-of-northern-lao-pdr
#12
Alexis Ribas, Chloé Jollivet, Serge Morand, Boupha Thongmalayvong, Silaphet Somphavong, Chern-Chiang Siew, Pei-Jun Ting, Saipin Suputtamongkol, Viengsaene Saensombath, Surapol Sanguankiat, Boon-Huan Tan, Phimpha Paboriboune, Kongsap Akkhavong, Kittipong Chaisiri
A field survey studying intestinal parasites in humans and microbial pathogen contamination at environment was performed in a Laotian rural village to identify potential risks for disease outbreaks. A parasitological investigation was conducted in Ban Lak Sip village, Luang Prabang, Lao PDR involving fecal samples from 305 inhabitants as well as water samples taken from 3 sites of the local stream. Water analysis indicated the presence of several enteric pathogens, i.e., Aeromonas spp., Vibrio spp., E. coli H7, E...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098118/gut-microbiota-and-salivary-diagnostics-the-mouth-is-salivating-to-tell-us-something
#13
REVIEW
Krishna Kodukula, Douglas V Faller, David N Harpp, Iphigenia Kanara, Julie Pernokas, Mark Pernokas, Whitney R Powers, Nikolaos S Soukos, Kosta Steliou, Walter H Moos
The microbiome of the human body represents a symbiosis of microbial networks spanning multiple organ systems. Bacteria predominantly represent the diversity of human microbiota, but not to be forgotten are fungi, viruses, and protists. Mounting evidence points to the fact that the "microbial signature" is host-specific and relatively stable over time. As our understanding of the human microbiome and its relationship to the health of the host increases, it is becoming clear that many and perhaps most chronic conditions have a microbial involvement...
2017: BioResearch Open Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097280/analysis-of-the-biosynthetic-process-of-fatty-acids-in-thraustochytrium
#14
Xianming Zhao, Xiao Qiu
Thraustochytrium is a marine protist producing a specific profile of nutritionally important fatty acids, including very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), even chain saturated fatty acids (SFAs) palmitic acid (16:0), and odd chain SFAs pentadecanoic acid (15:0). To study how these fatty acids are synthesized, a series of radiolabeled precursors were used to trace the biosynthetic process in vivo and in vitro. When Thraustochytrium was fed with long chain fatty acid intermediates such as [1-(14)C]-oleic acid, [1-(14)C]-linoleic acid and [1-(14)C]-α-linolenic acid, no VLCPUFAs were produced, indicating that the aerobic pathway for the biosynthesis of VLCPUFAs was not functional in Thraustochytrium...
October 30, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096084/nitric-oxide-upregulates-expression-of-alternative-oxidase-1-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#15
Zhanneta Zalutskaya, Mariya Ostroukhova, Valentina Filina, Elena Ermilova
The mitochondrial respiratory chain in plants, many fungi and some protists consists of the ATP-coupling cyanide-sensitive cytochrome pathway and the cyanide-resistant alternative respiratory pathway. The alternative pathway is mediated by alternative oxidase (AOX). In unicellular algae, AOXs are monomeric fungi-type proteins. Studies performed in the model plant Chlamydomonas reinhardtii showed that a range of stress factors lead to induction of its AOX1. However, signaling molecules that trigger upregulation of AOX1 have not yet been identified...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080999/unravel-the-hidden-protistan-diversity-application-of-blocking-primers-to-suppress-pcr-amplification-of-metazoan-dna
#16
Shangjin Tan, Hongbin Liu
Planktonic protists, including both autotroph and heterotroph, have been recognized as a major contributor to primary production and consumers of bacteria, archaea and picophytoplankton. However, the understanding of protistan diversity is typically impeded by the large amount of metazoans when employing universal primers to environmental samples. In this study, we developed 3 blocking primers to inhibit the amplification of metazoan DNA in PCR. First, we optimized the design and concentration of blocking primers by using 2 metazoans and 3 protists in quantitative PCR...
October 28, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070070/molecular-investigation-of-cryptosporidium-and-giardia-in-pre-and-post-weaned-calves-in-hubei-province-china
#17
Yingying Fan, Tao Wang, Anson V Koehler, Min Hu, Robin B Gasser
BACKGROUND: The protistan pathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia can cause significant intestinal diseases in animals and humans. Cattle, particularly calves, carrying these protists can be significant reservoirs for human infections and disease. However, little is known about the genetic make-up of Cryptosporidium and Giardia populations in cattle and other ruminants in some regions of China. RESULTS: In the present study, PCR-based tools were used to genetically characterise these protists in faecal samples from a total of 339 pre- and post-weaned calves from four distinct locations in Hubei Province using markers in the large (LSU) or small (SSU) subunits of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes...
October 25, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070053/distribution-of-blastocystis-subtypes-isolated-from-humans-from-an-urban-community-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#18
Carolina Valença Barbosa, Rosemary de Jesus Batista, Ricardo Pereira Igreja, Claudia Masini d'Avila Levy, Heloisa Werneck de Macedo, Helena Lúcia Carneiro Santos
BACKGROUND: Blastocystis is a cosmopolitan protist parasite found in the human gastrointestinal tract and is highly prevalent in developing countries. Recent molecular studies have revealed extensive genetic diversity, which has been classified into different subtypes (STs) based on sequence analysis of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Blastocystis is one of the most common fecal parasites in Brazil, but the diversity of subtypes remains unknown in the country. This study aimed to determine the distribution of Blastocystis STs in an urban community in Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
October 25, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064598/contribution-to-mitochondrial-research-in-brazil-10-th-anniversary-of-the-mitomeeting
#19
Anibal E Vercesi, Helena C F Oliveira
This issue comprises communications, articles and mini-reviews authored by speakers of the 10th Mitomeeting, held in Guapé, MG (Brazil), April 27-30, 2017. Mitomeetings gather people interested in all aspects of mitochondrial biology in diverse species, including protists, animals, plants and fungi.
October 24, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061899/cognitive-innovations-and-the-evolutionary-biology-of-expertise
#20
REVIEW
Reuven Dukas
Animal life can be perceived as the selective use of information for maximizing survival and reproduction. All organisms including bacteria and protists rely on genetic networks to build and modulate sophisticated structures and biochemical mechanisms for perceiving information and responding to environmental changes. Animals, however, have gone through a series of innovations that dramatically increased their capacity to acquire, retain and act upon information. Multicellularity was associated with the evolution of the nervous system, which took over many tasks of internal communication and coordination...
December 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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