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Peng Zhao, Hui-Juan Zhou, Daniel Potter, Yi-Heng Hu, Xiao-Jia Feng, Meng Dang, Li Feng, Saman Zulfiqar, Wen-Zhe Liu, Guifang Zhao, Keith Woeste
Genomic data are a powerful tool for elucidating the processes involved in the evolution and divergence of species. The speciation and phylogenetic relationships among Chinese Juglans remain unclear. Here, we used results from phylogenomic and population genetic analyses, transcriptomics, Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS), and whole chloroplast genomes (Cp genome) data to infer processes of lineage formation among the five native Chinese species of the walnut genus (Juglans, Juglandaceae), a widespread, economically important group...
April 18, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Amaia Zúñiga-Ripa, Thibault Barbier, Leticia Lázaro-Antón, María J de Miguel, Raquel Conde-Álvarez, Pilar M Muñoz, Jean J Letesson, Maite Iriarte, Ignacio Moriyón
Bacteria of the genus Brucella infect a range of vertebrates causing a worldwide extended zoonosis. The best-characterized brucellae infect domestic livestock, behaving as stealthy facultative intracellular parasites. This stealthiness depends on envelope molecules with reduced pathogen-associated molecular patterns, as revealed by the low lethality and ability to persist in mice of these bacteria. Infected cells are often engorged with brucellae without signs of distress, suggesting that stealthiness could also reflect an adaptation of the parasite metabolism to use local nutrients without harming the cell...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ian J Kitching, Rodolphe Rougerie, Andreas Zwick, Chris A Hamilton, Ryan A St Laurent, Stefan Naumann, Liliana Ballesteros Mejia, Akito Y Kawahara
Background: Bombycoidea is an ecologically diverse and speciose superfamily of Lepidoptera. The superfamily includes many model organisms, but the taxonomy and classification of the superfamily has remained largely in disarray. Here we present a global checklist of Bombycoidea. Following Zwick (2008) and Zwick et al. (2011), ten families are recognized: Anthelidae, Apatelodidae, Bombycidae, Brahmaeidae, Carthaeidae, Endromidae, Eupterotidae, Phiditiidae, Saturniidae and Sphingidae. The former families Lemoniidae and Mirinidae are included within Brahmaeidae and Endromidae respectively...
2018: Biodiversity Data Journal
Zheng Li, George P Tiley, Sally R Galuska, Chris R Reardon, Thomas I Kidder, Rebecca J Rundell, Michael S Barker
Polyploidy or whole genome duplication (WGD) is a major contributor to genome evolution and diversity. Although polyploidy is recognized as an important component of plant evolution, it is generally considered to play a relatively minor role in animal evolution. Ancient polyploidy is found in the ancestry of some animals, especially fishes, but there is little evidence for ancient WGDs in other metazoan lineages. Here we use recently published transcriptomes and genomes from more than 150 species across the insect phylogeny to investigate whether ancient WGDs occurred during the evolution of Hexapoda, the most diverse clade of animals...
April 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Andrii P Gryganskyi, Jacob Golan, Somayeh Dolatabadi, Stephen Mondo, Sofia Robb, Alexander Idnurm, Anna Muszewska, Kamil Steczkiewicz, Sawyer Masonjones, Hui-Ling Liao, Michael T Gajdeczka, Felicia Anike, Antonina Vuek, Iryna M Anishchenko, Kerstin Voigt, G Sybren de Hoog, Matthew E Smith, Joseph Heitman, Rytas Vilgalys, Jason E Stajich
Phylogenomic approaches have the potential to improve confidence about the inter-relationships of species in the order Mucorales within the fungal tree of life. Rhizopus species are especially important as plant and animal pathogens and bioindustrial fermenters for food and metabolite production. A dataset of 192 orthologous genes was used to construct a phylogenetic tree of 21 Rhizopus strains, classified into four species isolated from habitats of industrial, medical and environmental importance. The phylogeny indicates that the genus Rhizopus consists of three major clades, with R...
April 19, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Vivek Keshri, Arup Panda, Anthony Levasseur, Jean-Marc Rolain, Pierre Pontarotti, Didier Raoult
β-lactamases are enzymes which are commonly produced by bacteria and which degrade the β-lactam ring of β-lactam antibiotics, namely penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams, and inactivate these antibiotics. We performed a rational and comprehensive investigation of β-lactamases in different biological databases. In this study, we constructed hidden Markov model profiles as well as the ancestral sequence of four classes of β-lactamases (A, B, C, and D), which were used to identify potential β-lactamases from environmental metagenomic (1206), human microbiome metagenomic (6417), human microbiome reference genome (1310), and NCBI's nonredundant databases (44101)...
April 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
F Dumetz, B Cuypers, H Imamura, D Zander, E D'Haenens, I Maes, M A Domagalska, J Clos, J-C Dujardin, G De Muylder
Antimonials (Sb) were used for decades for chemotherapy of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Now abandoned in the Indian subcontinent (ISC) because of Leishmania donovani resistance, this drug offers a unique model for understanding drug resistance dynamics. In a previous phylogenomic study, we found two distinct populations of L. donovani : the core group (CG) in the Gangetic plains and ISC1 in the Nepalese highlands. Sb resistance was only encountered within the CG, and a series of potential markers were identified...
April 25, 2018: MSphere
Gabriela P Martino, Martín Espariz, Gabriel Gallina Nizo, Luis Esteban, Víctor S Blancato, Christian Magni
The members of the Enterococcus genus are widely distributed in nature. Its strains have been extensively reported to be present in plant surfaces, soil, water and food. In an attempt to assess their potential application in food industry, four Enterococcus faecium group-strains recently isolated from Argentinean regional cheese products were evaluated using a combination of whole genome analyses and in vivo assays. In order to identify these microorganisms at species level, in silico analyses using their newly reported sequences were conducted...
April 11, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Kyung Min Lee, Sami M Kivelä, Vladislav Ivanov, Axel Hausmann, Lauri Kaila, Niklas Wahlberg, Marko Mutanen
A rapid shift from traditional Sanger sequencing-based molecular methods to the phylogenomic approach with large numbers of loci is underway. Among phylogenomic methods, RAD (Restriction site Associated DNA) sequencing approaches have gained much attention as they enable rapid generation of up to thousands of loci randomly scattered across the genome and are suitable for non-model species. RAD data sets however suffer from large amounts of missing data and rapid locus dropout along with decreasing relatedness among taxa...
April 14, 2018: Systematic Biology
Matthew B Parks, Teofil Nakov, Elizabeth C Ruck, Norman J Wickett, Andrew J Alverson
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Diatoms are one of the most species-rich lineages of microbial eukaryotes. Similarities in clade age, species richness, and primary productivity motivate comparisons to angiosperms, whose genomes have been inordinately shaped by whole-genome duplication (WGD). WGDs have been linked to speciation, increased rates of lineage diversification, and identified as a principal driver of angiosperm evolution. We synthesized a large but scattered body of evidence that suggests polyploidy may be common in diatoms as well...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Omri Bronstein, Andreas Kroh
Assembly of publically available next-generation sequence data facilitated the generation of three camarodont echinoid mitogenomes: two for the Green Urchin (Lytechinus variegatus) and one for the Red Urchin (Mesocentrotus franciscanus). The data generated are exploited in a phylogenomic analysis of the superfamily Odontophora, originally proposed for echinoids with tooth supports on the epiphyses of the jaw. The analysis highly supports this taxon and its current subdivision into three families: the Echinometridae, Toxopneustidae, and Strongylocentrotidae...
April 13, 2018: Genomics
Alexandre Alié, Laurel Sky Hiebert, Paul Simion, Marta Scelzo, Maria Mandela Prünster, Sonia Lotito, Frédéric Delsuc, Emmanuel J P Douzery, Christelle Dantec, Patrick Lemaire, Sébastien Darras, Kazuo Kawamura, Federico D Brown, Stefano Tiozzo
Asexual propagation and whole body regeneration are forms of non-embryonic development (NED) widespread across animal phyla and central in life history and evolutionary diversification of metazoans. Whereas it is challenging to reconstruct the gains or losses of NED at large phylogenetic scale, comparative studies could benefit from being conducted at more restricted taxonomic scale, in groups for which phylogenetic relationships are well established. The ascidian family of Styelidae encompasses strictly sexually reproducing solitary forms as well as colonial species that combine sexual reproduction with different forms of NED...
April 11, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Victor A Tagliacollo, Robert Lanfear
UltraConserved Elements (UCEs) are popular markers for phylogenomic studies. They are relatively simple to collect from distantly-related organisms, and contain sufficient information to infer relationships at almost all taxonomic levels. Most studies of UCEs use partitioning to account for variation in rates and patterns of molecular evolution among sites, for example by estimating an independent model of molecular evolution for each UCE. However, rates and patterns of molecular evolution vary substantially within as well as between UCEs, suggesting that there may be opportunities to improve how UCEs are partitioned for phylogenetic inference...
April 11, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Anna M Floriano, Michele Castelli, Sascha Krenek, Thomas U Berendonk, Chiara Bazzocchi, Giulio Petroni, Davide Sassera
"Candidatus Fokinia solitaria" is an obligate intracellular endosymbiont of a unicellular eukaryote, a ciliate of the genus Paramecium. Here we present the genome sequence of this bacterium and subsequent analysis. Phylogenomic analysis confirmed the previously reported positioning of the symbiont within the "Candidatus Midichloriaceae" family (order Rickettsiales), as well as its high sequence divergence from other members of the family, indicative of fast sequence evolution. Consistently with this high evolutionary rate, a comparative genomic analysis revealed that the genome of this symbiont is the smallest of the Rickettsiales to date...
April 5, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Princess S Gilbert, Jing Wu, Margaret W Simon, Janet S Sinsheimer, Michael E Alfaro
Despite genome scale analyses, high-level relationships among Neoaves birds remain contentious. The placements of the Neoaves superorders are notoriously difficult to resolve because they involve deep splits followed by short internodes. Using our approach, we investigate whether filtering UCE loci on their phylogenetic signal to noise ratio helps to resolve key nodes in the Neoaves tree of life. We find that our analysis of data sets filtered for high signal to noise ratio results in topologies that are inconsistent with unfiltered results but that are congruent with whole-genome analyses...
April 4, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Shifeng Cheng, Michael Melkonian, Stephen A Smith, Samuel Brockington, John M Archibald, Pierre-Marc Delaux, Fay-Wei Li, Barbara Melkonian, Evgeny V Mavrodiev, Wenjing Sun, Yuan Fu, Huanming Yang, Douglas E Soltis, Sean W Graham, Pamela S Soltis, Xin Liu, Xun Xu, Gane Ka-Shu Wong
Understanding plant evolution and diversity in a phylogenomic context is an enormous challenge due, in part, to limited availability of genome-scale data across phylodiverse species. The 10KP (10,000 Plants) Genome Sequencing Project will sequence and characterize representative genomes from every major clade of embryophytes, green algae, and protists (excluding fungi) within the next 5 years. By implementing and continuously improving leading-edge sequencing technologies and bioinformatics tools, 10KP will catalogue the genome content of plant and protist diversity and make these data freely available as an enduring foundation for future scientific discoveries and applications...
March 1, 2018: GigaScience
Sumit Mukherjee, Matan Drory Retwitzer, Danny Barash, Supratim Sengupta
Riboswitches are metabolite or ion sensing cis-regulatory elements that regulate the expression of the associated genes involved in biosynthesis or transport of the corresponding metabolite. Among the nearly 40 different classes of riboswitches discovered in bacteria so far, only the TPP riboswitch has also been found in algae, plants, and in fungi where their presence has been experimentally validated in a few instances. We analyzed all the available complete fungal and related genomes and identified TPP riboswitch-based regulation systems in 138 fungi and 15 oomycetes...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
V Manzanilla, A Kool, L Nguyen Nhat, H Nong Van, H Le Thi Thu, H J de Boer
BACKGROUND: The economic value of ginseng in the global medicinal plant trade is estimated to be in excess of US$2.1 billion. At the same time, the evolutionary placement of ginseng (Panax ginseng) and the complex evolutionary history of the genus is poorly understood despite several molecular phylogenetic studies. In this study, we use a full plastome phylogenomic framework to resolve relationships in Panax and to identify molecular markers for species discrimination. RESULTS: We used high-throughput sequencing of MBD2-Fc fractionated Panax DNA to supplement publicly available plastid genomes to create a phylogeny based on fully assembled and annotated plastid genomes from 60 accessions of 8 species...
April 3, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Anna-Lena Sander, Victor Max Corman, Alexander N Lukashev, Jan Felix Drexler
The enterically transmitted hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis E viruses (HEV) are the leading causes of acute viral hepatitis in humans. Despite the discovery of HAV and HEV 40-50 years ago, their evolutionary origins remain unclear. Recent discoveries of numerous nonprimate hepatoviruses and hepeviruses allow revisiting the evolutionary history of these viruses. In this review, we provide detailed phylogenomic analyses of primate and nonprimate hepatoviruses and hepeviruses. We identify conserved and divergent genomic properties and corroborate historical interspecies transmissions by phylogenetic comparisons and recombination analyses...
April 2, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Denis H Lynn, Martin Kolisko, William Bourland
The class Nassophorea includes the microthoracids and nassulids, which share morphological similarities in their somatic kinetids and cytopharyngeal baskets. The monophyly of this clade has been challenged by small subunit rRNA gene sequences and multi-gene analyses that do not provide strong support. To provide a more robust test of the monophyly of the Nassophorea, phylogenomic analyses were based on 124 genes derived from the single-cell transcriptomes of the microthoracid Pseudomicrothorax dubius and the nassulid Furgasonia blochmanni...
February 13, 2018: Protist
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