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Phylogenomics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051622/genome-guided-phylo-transcriptomic-methods-and-the-nuclear-phylogentic-tree-of-the-paniceae-grasses
#1
Jacob D Washburn, James C Schnable, Gavin C Conant, Thomas P Brutnell, Ying Shao, Yang Zhang, Martha Ludwig, Gerrit Davidse, J Chris Pires
The past few years have witnessed a paradigm shift in molecular systematics from phylogenetic methods (using one or a few genes) to those that can be described as phylogenomics (phylogenetic inference with entire genomes). One approach that has recently emerged is phylo-transcriptomics (transcriptome-based phylogenetic inference). As in any phylogenetics experiment, accurate orthology inference is critical to phylo-transcriptomics. To date, most analyses have inferred orthology based either on pure sequence similarity or using gene-tree approaches...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051505/large-scale-genomic-analyses-reveal-the-population-structure-and-evolutionary-trends-of-streptococcus-agalactiae-strains-in-brazilian-fish-farms
#2
Gustavo M Barony, Guilherme C Tavares, Felipe L Pereira, Alex F Carvalho, Fernanda A Dorella, Carlos A G Leal, Henrique C P Figueiredo
Streptococcus agalactiae is a major pathogen and a hindrance on tilapia farming worldwide. The aims of this work were to analyze the genomic evolution of Brazilian strains of S. agalactiae and to establish spatial and temporal relations between strains isolated from different outbreaks of streptococcosis. A total of 39 strains were obtained from outbreaks and their whole genomes were sequenced and annotated for comparative analysis of multilocus sequence typing, genomic similarity and whole genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST)...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051389/new-genes-often-acquire-male-specific-functions-but-rarely-become-essential-in-drosophila
#3
Shu Kondo, Jeffrey Vedanayagam, Jaaved Mohammed, Sogol Eizadshenass, Lijuan Kan, Nan Pang, Rajaguru Aradhya, Adam Siepel, Josefa Steinhauer, Eric C Lai
Relatively little is known about the in vivo functions of newly emerging genes, especially in metazoans. Although prior RNAi studies reported prevalent lethality among young gene knockdowns, our phylogenomic analyses reveal that young Drosophila genes are frequently restricted to the nonessential male reproductive system. We performed large-scale CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis of "conserved, essential" and "young, RNAi-lethal" genes and broadly confirmed the lethality of the former but the viability of the latter...
September 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048525/genome-based-analyses-of-six-hexacorallian-species-reject-the-naked-coral-hypothesis
#4
Xin Wang, Guénola Drillon, Taewoo Ryu, Christian R Voolstra, Manuel Aranda
Scleractinian corals are the foundation species of the coral-reef ecosystem. Their calcium carbonate skeletons form extensive structures that are home to millions of species, making coral reefs one of the most diverse ecosystems of our planet. However, our understanding of how reef-building corals have evolved the ability to calcify and become the ecosystem builders they are today is hampered by uncertain relationships within their subclass Hexacorallia. Corallimorpharians have been proposed to originate from a complex scleractinian ancestor that lost the ability to calcify in response to increasing ocean acidification, suggesting the possibility for corals to lose and gain the ability to calcify in response to increasing ocean acidification...
October 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045639/a-new-perspective-on-polyploid-fragaria-strawberry-genome-composition-based-on-large-scale-multi-locus-phylogenetic-analysis
#5
Yilong Yang, Thomas M Davis
The subgenomic compositions of the octoploid (2n=8x=56) strawberry (Fragaria) species, including the economically important cultivated species Fragaria x ananassa, have been a topic of long-standing interest. Phylogenomic approaches utilizing next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies offer a new window into species relationships and the subgenomic compositions of polyploids. We have conducted a large scale phylogenetic analyses of Fragaria (strawberry) species using the Fluidigm Access Array system and 454 sequencing platform...
October 16, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044782/phylogenomics-of-pike-cichlids-cichlidae-crenicichla-the-rapid-evolution-and-trophic-diversification-of-an-incipient-species-flock
#6
Edward D Burress, Fernando Alda, Alejandro Duarte, Marcelo Loureiro, Jonathan W Armbruster, Prosanta Chakrabarty
The rapid rise of phenotypic and ecological diversity in independent lake-dwelling groups of cichlids is emblematic of the East African Great Lakes. In this study, we show that similar ecologically-based diversification has occurred in pike cichlids (Crenicichla) throughout the Uruguay River drainage of South America. We collected genomic data from nearly 500 ultraconserved element (UCEs) loci and >260,000 base pairs across 33 species, to obtain a phylogenetic hypothesis for the major species-groups and to evaluate the relationships and genetic structure among five closely-related, endemic, co-occurring species (the Uruguay River species flock; URSF)...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042494/insights-from-the-genome-sequence-of-mycobacterium-lepraemurium-massive-gene-decay-and-reductive-evolution
#7
Andrej Benjak, Tanvi P Honap, Charlotte Avanzi, Enrique Becerril-Villanueva, Iris Estrada-García, Oscar Rojas-Espinosa, Anne C Stone, Stewart T Cole
Mycobacterium lepraemurium is the causative agent of murine leprosy, a chronic, granulomatous disease similar to human leprosy. Due to the similar clinical manifestations of human and murine leprosy and the difficulty of growing both bacilli axenically, Mycobacterium leprae and M. lepraemurium were once thought to be closely related, although it was later suggested that M. lepraemurium might be related to Mycobacterium avium In this study, the complete genome of M. lepraemurium was sequenced using a combination of PacBio and Illumina sequencing...
October 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041914/analysis-of-the-genome-of-the-new-zealand-giant-collembolan-holacanthella-duospinosa-sheds-light-on-hexapod-evolution
#8
Chen Wu, Melissa D Jordan, Richard D Newcomb, Neil J Gemmell, Sarah Bank, Karen Meusemann, Peter K Dearden, Elizabeth J Duncan, Sefanie Grosser, Kim Rutherford, Paul P Gardner, Ross N Crowhurst, Bernd Steinwender, Leah K Tooman, Mark I Stevens, Thomas R Buckley
BACKGROUND: The New Zealand collembolan genus Holacanthella contains the largest species of springtails (Collembola) in the world. Using Illumina technology we have sequenced and assembled a draft genome and transcriptome from Holacanthella duospinosa (Salmon). We have used this annotated assembly to investigate the genetic basis of a range of traits critical to the evolution of the Hexapoda, the phylogenetic position of H. duospinosa and potential horizontal gene transfer events. RESULTS: Our genome assembly was ~375 Mbp in size with a scaffold N50 of ~230 Kbp and sequencing coverage of ~180×...
October 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040712/signal-uncertainty-and-conflict-in-phylogenomic-data-for-a-diverse-lineage-of-microbial-eukaryotes-diatoms-bacillariophyta
#9
Matthew B Parks, Norman J Wickett, Andrew J Alverson
Diatoms (Bacillariophyta) are a species-rich group of eukaryotic microbes diverse in morphology, ecology, and metabolism. Previous reconstructions of the diatom phylogeny based on one or a few genes have resulted in inconsistent resolution or low support for critical nodes. We applied phylogenetic paralog pruning techniques to a dataset of 94 diatom genomes and transcriptomes to infer perennially difficult species relationships, using concatenation and summary-coalescent methods to reconstruct species trees from datasets spanning a wide range of thresholds for taxon and column occupancy in gene alignments...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036401/the-all-rounder-sodalis-a-new-bacteriome-associated-endosymbiont-of-the-lygaeoid-bug-henestaris-halophilus-heteroptera-henestarinae-and-a-critical-examination-of-its-evolution
#10
Diego Santos-Garcia, Francisco J Silva, Shai Morin, Konrad Dettner, Stefan Martin Kuechler
Hemipteran insects are well-known in their ability to establish symbiotic relationships with bacteria. Among them, heteropteran insects present an array of symbiotic systems, ranging from the most common gut crypt symbiosis to the more restricted bacteriome-associated endosymbiosis, which have only been detected in members of the superfamily Lygaeoidea and the family Cimicidae so far. Genomic data of heteropteran endosymbionts are scarce and have merely been analyzed from the Wolbachia endosymbiont in bed bug and a few gut crypt-associated symbionts in pentatomoid bugs...
September 25, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036288/strategies-for-partitioning-clock-models-in-phylogenomic-dating-application-to-the-angiosperm-evolutionary-timescale
#11
Charles S P Foster, Simon Y W Ho
Evolutionary timescales can be inferred from molecular sequence data using a Bayesian phylogenetic approach. In these methods, the molecular clock is often calibrated using fossil data. The uncertainty in these fossil calibrations is important because it determines the limiting posterior distribution for divergence-time estimates as the sequence length tends to infinity. Here we investigate how the accuracy and precision of Bayesian divergence-time estimates improve with the increased clock-partitioning of genome-scale data into clock-subsets...
September 25, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033913/biochemical-function-molecular-structure-and-evolution-of-an-atypical-thioredoxin-reductase-from-desulfovibrio-vulgaris
#12
Odile Valette, Tam T T Tran, Christine Cavazza, Elodie Caudeville, Gaël Brasseur, Alain Dolla, Emmanuel Talla, Laetitia Pieulle
Thioredoxin reductase (TR) regulates the intracellular redox environment by reducing thioredoxin (Trx). In anaerobes, recent findings indicate that the Trx redox network is implicated in the global redox regulation of metabolism but also actively participates in protecting cells against O2. In the anaerobe Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH), there is an intriguing redundancy of the Trx system which includes a classical system using NADPH as electron source, a non-canonical system using NADH and an isolated TR (DvTRi)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031585/exon-based-phylogenomics-strengthens-the-phylogeny-of-neotropical-cichlids-and-identifies-remaining-conflicting-clades-cichliformes-cichlidae-cichlinae
#13
Katriina L Ilves, Dax Torti, Hernán López-Fernández
The phenotypic, geographic, and species diversity of cichlid fishes have made them a group of great interest for studying evolutionary processes. Here we present a targeted-exon next-generation sequencing approach for investigating the evolutionary relationships of cichlid fishes (Cichlidae), with focus on the Neotropical subfamily Cichlinae using a set of 923 primarily single-copy exons designed through mining of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) genome. Sequence capture and assembly were robust, leading to a complete dataset of 415 exons for 139 species (147 terminals) that consisted of 128 Neotropical species, six African taxa, and five Indo-Malagasy cichlids...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029338/to-include-or-not-to-include-the-impact-of-gene-filtering-on-species-tree-estimation-methods
#14
Erin K Molloy, Tandy Warnow
With the increasing availability of whole genome data, many species trees are being constructed from hundreds to thousands of loci. Although concatenation analysis using maximum likelihood is a standard approach for estimating species trees, it does not account for gene tree heterogeneity, which can occur due to many biological processes, such as incomplete lineage sorting. Coalescent species tree estimation methods, many of which are statistically consistent in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting, include Bayesian methods that co-estimate the gene trees and the species tree, summary methods that compute the species tree by combining estimated gene trees, and site-based methods that infer the species tree from site patterns in the alignments of different loci...
September 15, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029241/fragmentary-gene-sequences-negatively-impact-gene-tree-and-species-tree-reconstruction
#15
Erfan Sayyari, James B Whitfield, Siavash Mirarab
Species tree reconstruction from genome-wide data is increasingly being attempted, in most cases using a two-step approach of first estimating individual gene trees and then summarizing them to obtain a species tree. The accuracy of this approach, which promises to account for gene tree discordance, depends on the quality of the inferred gene trees. At the same time, phylogenomic and phylotranscriptomic analyses typically use involved bioinformatics pipelines for data preparation. Errors and shortcomings resulting from these preprocessing steps may impact the species tree analyses at the other end of the pipeline...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029231/analysis-of-phylogenomic-tree-space-resolves-relationships-among-marsupial-families
#16
David A Duchêne, Jason G Bragg, Sebastián Duchêne, Linda E Neaves, Sally Potter, Craig Moritz, Rebecca N Johnson, Simon Y W Ho, Mark D B Eldridge
A fundamental challenge in resolving evolutionary relationships across the Tree of Life is to account for heterogeneity in the evolutionary signal across loci. Studies of marsupial mammals have demonstrated that this heterogeneity can be substantial, leaving considerable uncertainty in the evolutionary timescale and relationships within the group. Using simulations and a new phylogenomic data set comprising nucleotide sequences of 1550 loci from 18 of the 22 extant marsupial families, we demonstrate the power of a method for identifying clusters of loci that support different phylogenetic trees...
September 22, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028004/geobiological-feedbacks-and-the-evolution-of-thermoacidophiles
#17
Daniel R Colman, Saroj Poudel, Trinity L Hamilton, Jeff R Havig, Matthew J Selensky, Everett L Shock, Eric S Boyd
Oxygen-dependent microbial oxidation of sulfur compounds leads to the acidification of natural waters. How acidophiles and their acidic habitats evolved, however, is largely unknown. Using 16S rRNA gene abundance and composition data from 72 hot springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, we show that hyperacidic (pH<3.0) hydrothermal ecosystems are dominated by a limited number of archaeal lineages with an inferred ability to respire O2. Phylogenomic analyses of 584 existing archaeal genomes revealed that hyperacidophiles evolved independently multiple times within the Archaea, each coincident with the emergence of the ability to respire O2, and that these events likely occurred in the recent evolutionary past...
October 13, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026656/phylogenomics-and-comparative-genomics-of-lactobacillus-salivarius-a-mammalian-gut-commensal
#18
Hugh M B Harris, Maxence J B Bourin, Marcus J Claesson, Paul W O'Toole
The genus Lactobacillus is a diverse group with a combined species count of over 200. They are the largest group within the lactic acid bacteria and one of the most important bacterial groups involved in food microbiology and human nutrition because of their fermentative and probiotic properties. Lactobacillus salivarius, a species commonly isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals, has been described as having potential probiotic properties and results of previous studies have revealed considerable functional diversity existing on both the chromosomes and plasmids...
August 2017: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026651/snvphyl-a-single-nucleotide-variant-phylogenomics-pipeline-for-microbial-genomic-epidemiology
#19
Aaron Petkau, Philip Mabon, Cameron Sieffert, Natalie C Knox, Jennifer Cabral, Mariam Iskander, Mark Iskander, Kelly Weedmark, Rahat Zaheer, Lee S Katz, Celine Nadon, Aleisha Reimer, Eduardo Taboada, Robert G Beiko, William Hsiao, Fiona Brinkman, Morag Graham, Gary Van Domselaar
The recent widespread application of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) for microbial disease investigations has spurred the development of new bioinformatics tools, including a notable proliferation of phylogenomics pipelines designed for infectious disease surveillance and outbreak investigation. Transitioning the use of WGS data out of the research laboratory and into the front lines of surveillance and outbreak response requires user-friendly, reproducible and scalable pipelines that have been well validated...
June 30, 2017: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024751/phylogenomics-reveals-habitat-associated-body-shape-divergence-in-oryzias-woworae-species-group-teleostei-adrianichthyidae
#20
Daniel F Mokodongan, Javier Montenegro, Koji Mochida, Shingo Fujimoto, Asano Ishikawa, Ryo Kakioka, Lengxob Yong, Mulis, Renny K Hadiaty, Ixchel F Mandagi, Kawilarang W A Masengi, Nakatada Wachi, Yasuyuki Hashiguchi, Jun Kitano, Kazunori Yamahira
The Oryzias woworae species group, composed of O. asinua, O. wolasi, and O. woworae, is widely distributed in southeastern Sulawesi, an island in the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Deep-elongated body shape divergence is evident among these three species to the extent that it is used as a species-diagnostic character. These fishes inhabit a variety of habitats, ranging from upper streams to ponds, suggesting that the body shape divergence among the three species may reflect adaptation to local environments. First, our geometric morphometrics among eight local populations of this species group revealed that the three species cannot be separated by body shape and that riverine populations had more elongated bodies and longer caudal parts than lacustrine populations...
October 9, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
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