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Bing Han, Louis M Weiss
Microsporidia are obligate intracellular pathogens related to Fungi. These organisms have a unique invasion organelle, the polar tube, which upon appropriate environmental stimulation rapidly discharges out of the spore, pierces a host cell's membrane, and serves as a conduit for sporoplasm passage into the host cell. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that microsporidia are related to the Fungi, being either a basal branch or sister group. Despite the description of microsporidia over 150 years ago, we still lack an understanding of the mechanism of invasion, including the role of various polar tube proteins, spore wall proteins, and host cell proteins in the formation and function of the invasion synapse...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
Ya Yang, Michael J Moore, Samuel F Brockington, Jessica Mikenas, Julia Olivieri, Joseph F Walker, Stephen A Smith
Studies of the macroevolutionary legacy of polyploidy are limited by an incomplete sampling of these events across the tree of life. To better locate and understand these events, we need comprehensive taxonomic sampling as well as homology inference methods that accurately reconstruct the frequency and location of gene duplications. We assembled a data set of transcriptomes and genomes from 168 species in Caryophyllales, of which 43 transcriptomes were newly generated for this study, representing one of the most densely sampled genomic-scale data sets available...
September 25, 2017: New Phytologist
Maria Novosolov, Gordon H Rodda, Alison M Gainsbury, Shai Meiri
(1) Insular species are predicted to broaden their niches, in response to having fewer competitors. They can thus exploit a greater proportion of the resource spectrum. In turn, broader niches are hypothesized to facilitate (or be a consequence of) increased population densities. (2) We tested whether insular lizards have broader dietary niches than mainland species, how it relates to competitor and predator richness, and the nature of the relationship between population density and dietary niche breadth. (3) We collected population density and dietary niche breadth data for 36 insular and 59 mainland lizard species, and estimated competitor and predator richness at the localities where diet data were collected...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
Marcos Pérez-Losada, Miguel Arenas, Eduardo Castro-Nallar
Next-generation sequencing (NGS), also known as high-throughput sequencing, is changing the field of microbial genomics research. NGS allows for a more comprehensive analysis of the diversity, structure and composition of microbial genes and genomes compared to the traditional automated Sanger capillary sequencing at a lower cost. NGS strategies have expanded the versatility of standard and widely used typing approaches based on nucleotide variation in several hundred DNA sequences and a few gene fragments (MLST, MLVA, rMLST and cgMLST)...
September 21, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Christopher A Emerling
Carotenoids have important roles in bird behavior, including pigmentation for sexual signaling and improving color vision via retinal oil droplets. Yellow carotenoids are diet-derived, but red carotenoids (ketocarotenoids) are typically synthesized from yellow precursors via a carotenoid ketolase. Recent research on passerines has provided evidence that a cytochrome p450 enzyme, CYP2J19, is responsible for this reaction, though it is unclear if this function is phylogenetically restricted. Here I provide evidence that CYP2J19 is the carotenoid ketolase common to Aves using the genomes of 65 birds and the retinal transcriptomes of 15 avian taxa...
September 21, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Naoya Maekawa, Satoru Konnai, Michelle M Balbin, Claro N Mingala, Karlo R B Gicana, Francis A E M Bernando, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME), caused by a rickettsial bacterium, Ehrlichia canis, is distributed worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. Transmission of E. canis is primarily mediated by the vector tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and the bacteria then infect and replicate in monocytes and macrophages. Many cases are seen in veterinary hospitals and treated routinely; however, the genetic variation of E. canis strains found in the Philippines has been poorly investigated to date...
September 20, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Derya Carkaci, Katrine Højholt, Xiaohui Chen Nielsen, Rimtas Dargis, Simon Rasmussen, Ole Skovgaard, Kurt Fuursted, Paal Skytt Andersen, Marc Stegger, Jens Jørgen Christensen
Aerococcus sanguinicola and Aerococcus urinae are emerging pathogens in clinical settings mostly being causative agents of urinary tract infections (UTIs), urogenic sepsis and more seldomly complicated infective endocarditis (IE). Limited knowledge exists concerning the pathogenicity of these two species. Eight clinical A. sanguinicola (isolated from 2009 to 2015) and 40 clinical A. urinae (isolated from 1984 to 2015) strains from episodes of UTIs, bacteremia, and IE were whole-genome sequenced (WGS) to analyze genomic diversity and characterization of virulence genes involved in the bacterial pathogenicity...
September 21, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Li Sun, Ming Li, Dongliang Fei, Ying Hu, Mingxiao Ma
The Chinese sacbrood virus (CSBV) was first isolated from Apis cerana in 1972. However, the biological characteristics of the CSBV that naturally infects Apis mellifera, causing larval death, have not been reported yet. In the present study, natural CSBV infection was evaluated using clinical symptoms of A. mellifera larvae, RT-PCR, electron microscopy, agar gel immunodiffusion assays, and virus analysis in inoculated A. cerana larvae. The isolated CSBV strain was named AmCSBV-SDLY-2016. Subsequently, AmCSBV-SDLY-2016 was analyzed by constructing a phylogenetic tree using VP1...
September 21, 2017: Virus Research
Jun-Yeong Lee, Geon Goo Han, Eun Bae Kim, Yun-Jaie Choi
Lactobacillus salivarius is an important member of the animal gut microflora and is a promising probiotic bacterium. However, there is a lack of research on the genomic diversity of L. salivarius species. In this study, we generated 21 L. salivarius draft genomes, and investigated the pan-genome of L. salivarius strains isolated from humans, pigs and chickens using all available genomes, focusing on host adaptation. Phylogenetic clustering showed a distinct categorization of L. salivarius strains depending on their hosts...
December 2017: Microbiological Research
Isabel Blasco-Costa, Sean A Locke
Members of the Diplostomoidea mature in amniotes and employ vertebrates, annelids and molluscs as second intermediate hosts. Diplostomoid life cycles generally follow a three-host pattern typical of digeneans, but novelties have arisen in some species, including obligate four-host life cycles, vertical transmission, and intracellular parasitism. In this review, we summarize the basic biology of diplostomoids with reference to molecular studies, and present challenges, gaps and areas where molecular data could address long-standing questions...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
Abdoulaye J S Bakhoum, Jordi Miquel, Papa I Ndiaye, Jean-Lou Justine, Alessandra Falchi, Cheikh T Bâ, Bernard Marchand, Yann Quilichini
The wide biodiversity and economic importance of digeneans have motivated a great deal of research in the last decade, focussing on their phylogenetic positions. Molecular research was instrumental for our understanding of phylogeny in the Digenea, but spermatological studies have also provided many results, which are potentially useful for phylogeny; however, the complete spermatological data set has never been reviewed in a whole phylogenetic perspective. Spermatological data are now available for more than 100 species, belonging to 15 superfamilies and 46 families...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
Saeed Khan, Maria Zahid, Muhammad Asif Qureshi, Muhammad Nouman Mughal, Ikram Din Ujjan
Worldwide antiretroviral therapy (ART) has reduced the mortality and morbidity rates in individuals with HIV infection. However, the increasing occurrence of drug resistance is limiting treatment options. In recent years, Pakistan has witnessed a concentrated epidemic of HIV. It is very important to identify geographical linkages and mutations that generate selective pressure and drive resistance of HIV in our population. The aim of this work was to identify genetic diversity and drug resistance patterns of HIV in Pakistan, using available sequences and bioinformatics tools, which may help in selecting effective combination of available drugs...
September 23, 2017: Archives of Virology
Peng Chen, Yuqing Han, Chaoying Zhu, Bin Gao, Luzhang Ruan
The complete mitochondrial genome sequences of Porzana fusca and Porzana pusilla were determined. The two avian species share a high degree of homology in terms of mitochondrial genome organization and gene arrangement. Their corresponding mitochondrial genomes are 16,935 and 16,978 bp and consist of 37 genes and a control region. Their PCGs were both 11,365 bp long and have similar structure. Their tRNA gene sequences could be folded into canonical cloverleaf secondary structure, except for tRNA(Ser (AGY)), which lost its "DHU" arm...
September 23, 2017: Genetica
Ellen C R Leonel, Janice M V Vilela, Raísa E G Paiva, José L P R Jivago, Rodrigo S Amaral, Carolina M Lucci
Ovarian tissue transplantation could be a valuable technique for the preservation of endangered animals. The domestic cat affords an adequate experimental model for studies aimed at wild felids due to its phylogenetic similarity. Thus, this pilot study evaluated the efficacy of cat ovarian tissue autotransplantation to a peripheral site. Three adult queens were submitted to ovariohysterectomy. The ovaries were fragmented into eight pieces; two were fixed as a control and six were transplanted to subcutaneous tissue of the dorsal neck...
September 15, 2017: Theriogenology
Yue Chen, Qi Shen, Renan Lin, Zhuangliu Zhao, Chenjia Shen, Chongbo Sun
Artificial control of flowering time is pivotal for the ornamental value of orchids including the genus Dendrobium. Although various flowering pathways have been revealed in model plants, little information is available on the genetic regualtion of flowering in Dendrobium. To identify the critical genes associated with flowering, transcriptomes from four organs (leaf, root, stem and flower) of D. officinale were analyzed in our study. In total, 2645 flower-specific transcripts were identified. Functional annotation and classification suggested that several metabolic pathways, including four sugar-related pathways and two fatty acid-related pathways, were enriched...
September 14, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Erika B Holland, Jared V Goldstone, Isaac N Pessah, Andrew Whitehead, Noah M Reid, Sibel I Karchner, Mark E Hahn, Diane E Nacci, Bryan W Clark, John J Stegeman
Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL PCBs) activate ryanodine receptors (RyR), microsomal Ca(2+) channels of broad significance. Teleost fish may be important models for NDL PCB neurotoxicity, and we used sequencing databases to characterize teleost RyR and FK506 binding protein 12 or 12.6kDa (genes FKBP1A; FKBP1B), which promote NDL PCB-triggered Ca(2+) dysregulation. Particular focus was placed on describing genes in the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) genome and searching available RNA-sequencing datasets for single nucleotide variants (SNV) between PCB tolerant killifish from New Bedford Harbor (NBH) versus sensitive killifish from Scorton Creek (SC), MA...
September 4, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
D M Atopkin, V V Besprozvannykh, A Yu Beloded, H D Ngo, N V Ha, N V Tang
Adult Aphanurus mugilis Tang, 1981 worms were detected in the intestine of Moolgarda engeli in the shallow waters off Cat Ba Island, Vietnam. Tang (1981) first described this species in Mugil cephalus off China. The worms in Vietnamese mullet were identical to Chinese specimens in a number of morphometric characteristics, with the exception of body and ovary size. In the present study, morphological characteristics, and the first molecular data for A. mugilis are provided. Additionally, molecular phylogenetic analysis of the family Hemiuridae was performed...
September 20, 2017: Parasitology International
Natalia V Potekhina, Nikolay P Arbatsky, Alexander S Shashkov, Andrey S Dmitrenok, Sofya N Senchenkova, Lubov V Dorofeeva, Lyudmila I Evtushenko
Novel teichulosonic acid with the repeating unit →6)-β-D-GlcpNAc-(1→8)-α-Kdn-(2→ has been found in the cell walls of two Arthrobacter strains, VKM Ac-2549 and VKM Ac-2550. The teichulosonic acid was revealed in representatives of the genus Arthrobacter for the first time. Two other polymers identified in the above strains were poly(monoglycosyl 1-phosphate) and poly(diglycosyl 1-phosphate) of hitherto unknown structures, i.e., -6)-α-D-GalpNAc-(1-P-, and -6)-β-D-GlcpNAc-(1→3)-α-D-Galp-(1-P-. The structures of all three polymers were established by using chemical, NMR spectroscopic and ESI-MS methods...
September 14, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
Peng Chen, Haiyan Wang, Zexin Tao, Aiqiang Xu, Xiaojuan Lin, Nan Zhou, Pei Wang, Qian Wang
Coxsackievirus A4 (CV-A4) has been reported frequently in association with many infectious diseases and cases of hand, foot, and mouth disease potentially associated with CV-A4 infection are also identified. This study summarized the Shandong CV-A4 strains isolated from 25 years acute flaccid paralysis surveillance, with an emphasis on exploring the phylogenetic analyses and spatiotemporal dynamics of CV-A4 at the global scale. We sampled 43 CV-A4 isolates and utilized VP1 gene to construct phylogenetic trees...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Hai Ming Ni, Da Wei Qi, Hongbo Mu
Converting DNA sequence to image by using chaos game representation (CGR) is an effective genome sequence pretreatment technology, which provides the basis for further analysis between the different genes. In this paper, we have constructed 10 mammal species, 48 hepatitis E virus (HEV), and 10 kinds of bacteria genetic CGR images, respectively, to calculate the mean structural similarity (MSSIM) coefficient between every two CGR images. From our analysis, the MSSIM coefficient of gene CGR images can accurately reflect the similarity degrees between different genomes...
September 20, 2017: Genomics
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