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Amber J Brace, Marc J Lajeunesse, Daniel R Ardia, Dana M Hawley, James S Adelman, Katherine L Buchanan, Jeanne M Fair, Jennifer L Grindstaff, Kevin D Matson, Lynn B Martin
A central assumption in ecological immunology is that immune responses are costly, with costs manifesting directly (e.g., increases in metabolic rate and increased amino acid usage) or as tradeoffs with other life processes (e.g., reduced growth and reproductive success). Across taxa, host longevity, timing of maturity, and reproductive effort affect the organization of immune systems. It is reasonable, therefore, to expect that these and related factors should also affect immune activation costs. Specifically, species that spread their breeding efforts over a long lifetime should experience lower immune costs than those that mature and breed quickly and die comparatively early...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Claudia Doi Antunes, Malson Neilson Lucena, Daniela Pereira Garçon, Francisco Assis Leone, John Campbell McNamara
Fresh caught Clibanarius vittatus [SW, 31‰ salinity (S)] were acclimated to a dilute medium (15‰ S) for 10 days, employing silver staining to locate gill ion transporting tissue, immunofluorescence to localize the Na+/K+-ATPase α-subunit in the lamellae, and electron microscopy to portray ultrastructural changes in the gill epithelia. Na+/K+-ATPase activity was characterized kinetically in a gill microsomal fraction, including synergistic stimulation by NH4+ plus K+. Silver staining revealed that all 26 phyllobranchiate arthro- and pleurobranchiae participate in ion transport...
July 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Jiří Killer, Chahrazed Mekadim, Radko Pechar, Věra Bunešová, Jakub Mrázek, Eva Vlková
An alternative molecular marker with respect to the 16S rRNA gene demonstrating better identification and phylogenetic parameters has not been designed for the whole Bifidobacteriaceae family, which includes the genus Bifidobacterium and scardovial genera. Therefore, the aim of the study was to find such a gene in available genomic sequences, suggest appropriate means and conditions for asmplification and sequencing of the desired region of the selected gene in various strains of the bacterial family and verify the importance in classification and phylogeny...
January 22, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Kingshuk Roy Choudhury, Sean Skwerer
PURPOSE: Many biological objects, including neuronal dendrites, blood vasculature, airways, phylogenetic trees produce tree structured data. Current methods of analysis either ignore the complex structure of trees or use distance based methods which limit the scope of multivariate modelling. METHODS: We propose a branching process model which enables analysis of both the branching structure and associated properties. Our novel parametrization preserves an important aspect of tree structure, namely its branch order...
January 22, 2018: Medical Physics
Federico Morelli, Yanina Benedetti, Anders Pape Møller, Wei Liang, Luis M Carrascal
1.The evolutionary distinctiveness (ED) score is a measure of phylogenetic isolation that quantifies the evolutionary uniqueness of a species. 2.Here, we compared the ED score of parasitic and non-parasitic cuckoo species worldwide, to understand whether parental care or parasitism represent the largest amount of phylogenetic uniqueness. Next, we focused only on 46 cuckoo species characterized by brood parasitism with a known number of host species, we explored the associations among ED score, number of host species and breeding range size for these species...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Amirthalingam Pavithiran, S D N K Bathige, Roopasingam Kugapreethan, Thanthrige Thiunuwan Priyathilaka, Hyerim Yang, Myoung-Jin Kim, Jehee Lee
Akirins, members of the NF-κB signaling pathway, are highly conserved nuclear proteins, which regulate gene expression in many physiological processes, including immunity, myogenesis, carcinogenesis, and embryogenesis. The akirin family in teleost fish consists of two to three genes. In the present study, three akirin genes from Hippocampus abdominalis were identified from a transcriptome database and designated as HaAkirin1, HaAkirin2(1), and HaAkirin2(2). The nuclear localization of HaAkirin1 and HaAkirin2(1) was confirmed by subcellular localization analysis...
January 17, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Jude Juventus Aweya, Wei Wang, Yueling Zhang, Defu Yao, Shengkang Li, Fan Wang
The Pim1 serine/threonine kinase is associated with multiple cellular functions including proliferation, survival, differentiation, apoptosis, tumorigenesis, immune regulation and inflammation in vertebrates. However, little is known about the role of Pim1 in invertebrate immunity. In this study, we identified and characterized for the first time, a Pim1 (LvPim1) gene in Litopenaeus vannamei, with a full-length cDNA of 2352 bp and a 1119 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein of 372 amino acids, which contains a typical serine/threonine kinase domain...
January 17, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Fang Yang, Pan Zhang, Xianli Shi, Kangxin Li, Minwei Wang, Yeqi Fu, Xinxin Yan, Jianxiong Hang, Guoqing Li
Present study was performed to identify the species of ascarids from macaw parrot, Ara chloroptera, in China. Total 6 ascarids (3 males and 3 females) were collected in the feces of 3 macaws at Guangzhou Zoo in Guangdong Province, China. Their morphological characteristics with dimensions were observed under a light microscope, and their genetic characters were analyzed with the partial 18S rDNA, ITS rDNA and nad4 gene sequences, respectively. Results showed that all worms have no interlabia but male worms have two alate spicules, well-developed precloacal sucker and a tail with ventrolateral caudal alae and 11 pairs of papillae...
January 16, 2018: Parasitology International
Stefania Leopardi, Edward C Holmes, Michele Gastaldelli, Luca Tassoni, Pamela Priori, Dino Scaravelli, Gianpiero Zamperin, Paola De Benedictis
Coronaviruses (CoVs) have been documented in almost every species of bat sampled. Bat CoVs exhibit both extensive genetic diversity and a broad geographic range, indicative of a long-standing host association. Despite this, the respective roles of long-term virus-host co-divergence and cross-species transmission (host-jumping) in the evolution of bat coronaviruses are unclear. Using a phylogenetic approach we provide evidence that CoV diversity in bats is shaped by both species richness and their geographical distribution, and that CoVs exhibit clustering at the level of bat genera, with these genus-specific clusters largely associated with distinct CoV species...
January 16, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Rebeca Zanini, Mário Josias Müller, Gilberto Cavalheiro Vieira, Victor Hugo Valiati, Maríndia Deprá, Vera Lúcia da Silva Valente
The willistoni species subgroup has been the subject of several studies since the latter half of the past century and is considered a Neotropical model for evolutionary studies, given the many levels of reproductive isolation and different evolutionary stages occurring within them. Here we present for the first time a phylogenetic reconstruction combining morphological characters and molecular data obtained from 8 gene fragments (COI, COII, Cytb, Adh, Ddc, Hb, kl-3 and per). Some relationships were incongruent when comparing morphological and molecular data...
January 22, 2018: Fly
María Narváez, Roberto Vázquez-Euán, Nigel A Harrison, Germán Nic-Matos, Jean Francois Julia, Jean Luc Dzido, Sandrine Fabre, Michel Dollet, Carlos Oropeza
The present study was carried out to determine if group 16SrIV phytoplasmas, causing lethal yellowing (LY) disease, are present in Haplaxius crudus Van Duzee (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) insects associated with palms in Yucatán, Mexico. Haplaxius crudus feral insects were captured from palm foliage at two locations (Chicxulub Puerto and CICY, Mérida, where LY-type diseases are active) and evaluated individually for the presence of phytoplasma DNA by a group 16SrIV-specific nested PCR assay. The results showed positive detection in H...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
Hye-Rang Beom, Jin Sun Kim, You-Ran Jang, Sun-Hyung Lim, Chang-Kug Kim, Choung Keun Lee, Jong-Yeol Lee
Although many studies on low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) function have been reported, a comprehensive comparison between specific genes and their protein product is still lacking. This study aimed to link the 43 genes isolated from the Korean wheat variety "Jokyoung" in the authors' previous study to their protein products. Proteins were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) and identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) at the gene haplotype level. Using MS/MS analysis of 17 protein spots, two spots were identified in the Glu-A3 locus and the corresponding haplotype was GluA3-13(Glu-A3c)...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
Hitarth B Bhatt, Sangeeta D Gohel, Satya P Singh
This report describes cultivation-dependent diversity, phylogeny and enzymatic potential of the haloalkaliphilic bacteria isolated from the unvegetated desert soil of yet unexplored, saline desert of Little Rann of Kutch (LRK), India. The LRK is a unique ecosystem displaying a combination of Dry Rann and Wet Rann. A total of 25 bacteria were isolated and characterized on the basis of colony morphology, biochemical profile, sugar utilization, secretion of the extracellular enzymes and antibiotic sensitivity...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
Fehmida Bibi, Muhammad Imran Naseer, Ahmed Mohamad Hassan, Muhammad Yasir, Ahmed Abdullah Khalaf Al-Ghamdi, Esam Ibrahim Azhar
The aim of this study was to isolate bacteria from sea grass, Halodule uninervis collected from the coastal area of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and to screen them for antifungal and enzymatic activities. We have isolated 162 rhizo and endophytic bacteria from soil, roots, and leaves of the sea grass. Antifungal screening of isolated bacteria revealed 19 strains (11.7%) capable to inhibit growth of four pathogenic fungi, Pythium ultimum, Phytophthora capsici, pyricularia oryzae, and Rhizoctonia solani in an in vitro assay...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
Lirong Zhao, Weimin Ye, Munawar Maria, Majid Pedram, Jianfeng Gu
Xiphinema japonicum n. sp., isolated in Ningbo, China, from the rhizosphere of Podocarpus macrophyllus (Thunb.) imported from Japan is described. The new species belongs to Xiphinema non-americanum group 7 and is characterized by medium body length (3.0-3.7 mm), total stylet length 190-201 μm, vulva located anteriorly (V = 30.5%-35.3%), two equally developed female genital branches without uterine differentiation (no Z or pseudo-Z organ and/or spines in the uteri), short tail, convex-conoid with subdigitate peg in terminus, and absence of males...
December 2017: Journal of Nematology
Tai-Ying Chiou, Wataru Suda, Kenshiro Oshima, Masahira Hattori, Chiaki Matsuzaki, Kenji Yamamoto, Tomoya Takahashi
A novel Gram-positive, fructophilic, catalase negative, and rod-shaped strain, designated strain 10HT was isolated from kôso, a Japanese sugar-vegetable fermented beverage obtained from a food processing factory in Saku City, Nagano Prefecture, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed strain 10HT to belong to the genus Lactobacillus, with closely related type strains being Lactobacillus kunkeei YH-15T (95.5% sequence similarity), Lactobacillus ozensis Mizu2-1T (95.4% sequence similarity), and Lactobacillus apinorum Fhon13NT (95...
January 20, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Mahsa Mousavi-Derazmahalleh, Philipp E Bayer, Bruno Nevado, Bhavna Hurgobin, Dmitry Filatov, Andrzej Kilian, Lars G Kamphuis, Karam B Singh, Jens D Berger, James K Hane, David Edwards, William Erskine, Matthew N Nelson
This first pan-Mediterranean analysis of genetic diversity in wild narrow-leafed lupin revealed strong East-West genetic differentiation of populations, an historic eastward migration, and signatures of genetic adaptation to climatic variables. Most grain crops suffer from a narrow genetic base, which limits their potential for adapting to new challenges such as increased stresses associated with climate change. Plant breeders are returning to the wild ancestors of crops and their close relatives to broaden the genetic base of their crops...
January 20, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Anastasia Voronova, Galina N Chelomina
Nanophyetiasis is the severe zoonotic disease caused by parasitic worms from the genus Nanophyetus. Humans and carnivorous animals become infected when they ingest raw fish containing metacercariae, especially Pacific salmonids. Nanophyetiasis is detected in limited geographical areas which include the coastal regions of the North Pacific: the United States of America, Russian Federation and Japan. Despite the epidemiological significance, Nanophyetus species have not been well studied genetically. In this research, we for the first time explored genetic diversity of Nanophyetus japonensis from Japan in comparison with those of related species, N...
January 15, 2018: Parasitology International
Mehdi Bamorovat, Iraj Sharifi, Mohammad Ali Mohammadi, Sana Eybpoosh, Saeid Nasibi, Mohammad Reza Aflatoonian, Ahmad Khosravi
The precise identification of the parasite species causing leishmaniasis is essential for selecting proper treatment modality. The present study aims to compare the nucleotide variations of the ITS1, 7SL RNA, and Hsp70 sequences between non-healed and healed anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) patients in major foci in Iran. A case-control study was carried out from September 2015 to October 2016 in the cities of Kerman and Bam, in the southeast of Iran. Randomly selected skin-scraping lesions of 40 patients (20 non-healed and 20 healed) were examined and the organisms were grown in a culture medium...
January 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
M Del R Mora-Ruiz, A Cifuentes, F Font-Verdera, C Pérez-Fernández, M E Farias, B González, A Orfila, R Rosselló-Móra
Microorganisms are globally distributed but new evidence shows that the microbial structure of their communities can vary due to geographical location and environmental parameters. In this study, 50 samples including brines and sediments from Europe, Spanish-Atlantic and South America were analysed by applying the operational phylogenetic unit (OPU) approach in order to understand whether microbial community structures in hypersaline environments exhibited biogeographical patterns. The fine-tuned identification of approximately 1000 OPUs (almost equivalent to "species") using multivariate analysis revealed regionally distinct taxa compositions...
December 21, 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
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