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Pedro H Campello-Nunes, Noemi M Fernandes, Franziska Szokoli, Giulio Petroni, Inácio D da Silva-Neto
Ciliates of the genus Gruberia are poorly studied. Consequently, most species lack detailed morphological descriptions, and all gene sequences in GenBank are not classified at the species level. In this study, a detailed morphological description of a population of G. lanceolata from Brazil is presented, based on live and protargol-stained organisms. We also present the 18S rRNA gene sequence and the phylogenetic position of this species. The primary characteristics of G. lanceolata from the Maricá Lagoon are as follows: an elongate fusiform body 280-870 × 40-160 μm in size; rosy cortical granules; a peristome occupying approximately 1/3-1/2 of body length; an adoral zone comprising 115-330 membranelles; a paroral membrane in 35-50 fragments; and a moniliform macronucleus with 11-16 nodules...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Parisa Noorian, Shuyang Sun, Diane McDougald
Vibrio vulnificus , a ubiquitous inhabitant of coastal marine environments, has been isolated from a variety of sources. It is an opportunistic pathogen of both marine animals and humans. Here, the genome sequence of V. vulnificus Env1, an environmental isolate resistant to predation by the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis , is reported.
May 17, 2018: Genome Announcements
Sara Carpi, Beatrice Polini, Giulio Poli, Gabriela Alcantara Barata, Stefano Fogli, Antonella Romanini, Tiziano Tuccinardi, Graziano Guella, Francesco Paolo Frontini, Paola Nieri, Graziano Di Giuseppe
Cutaneous melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer, so new cytotoxic weapons against novel targets in melanoma are of great interest. Euplotin C (EC), a cytotoxic secondary metabolite of the marine ciliate Euplotes crassus , was evaluated in the present study on human cutaneous melanoma cells to explore its anti-melanoma activity and to gain more insight into its mechanism of action. EC exerted a marked cytotoxic effect against three different human melanoma cell lines (A375, 501Mel and MeWo) with a potency about 30-fold higher than that observed in non-cancer cells (HDFa cells)...
May 16, 2018: Marine Drugs
Leonard Kachienga, Keshri Jitendra, Maggy Momba
Biodegradation of hydrocarbons by indigenous populations of microorganisms found in petroleum-contaminated water sources represents one of the primary mechanisms by which petroleum and other hydrocarbon pollutants are eliminated from the aquatic environment. The identification of these microorganisms, which have capabilities to convert the majority of toxic hydrocarbons into compounds that are less harmful for end-users, is therefore crucial for bioremediation purposes. The aim of this study was to profile the microbial diversity of two South African petroleum-contaminated water aquifer sites and to determine the microbial adaptation to hydrocarbon degradation using a metagenomics approach...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ľubomír Rajter, Peter Vďačný
The class Litostomatea represents a highly diverse but monophyletic group, uniting both free-living and endosymbiotic ciliates. Ribosomal RNA genes and ITS-region sequences helped to recognize and define the main litostomatean lineages, but did not provide enough phylogenetic signal to unambiguously resolve their interrelationships. In this study, we attempted to improve the resolution among main free-living predatory lineages by adding the gene coding for alpha-tubulin. However, our phylogenetic analyses challenged the performance of alpha-tubulin in reconstruction of evolutionary history of free-living litostomateans...
May 12, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Ewa Joachimiak, Maria Jerka-Dziadosz, Łucja Krzemień-Ojak, Ewa Wacławek, Katarzyna Jedynak, Paulina Urbanska, Wojciech Brutkowski, Hanna Sas-Nowosielska, Hanna Fabczak, Jacek Gaertig, Dorota Wloga
The mechanisms that regulate γ-tubulin, including its post-translational modifications, are poorly understood. γ-Tubulin is important for the duplication of centrioles and structurally similar basal bodies (BBs), organelles which contain a ring of nine triplet microtubules. The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila carries hundreds of cilia in a single cell and provides an excellent model to specifically address the role of γ-tubulin in the BBs assembly and maintenance. The genome of Tetrahymena contains a single γ-tubulin gene...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Wei Xia, Duo Zhang, Jing Ouyang, Yan Liang, Huiyu Zhang, Zhen Huang, Guiling Liang, Qian Zhu, Xiaoming Guan, Jian Zhang
BACKGROUND: Pelvic endometriosis (EM) and adenomyosis (AM) have different effects on the fallopian tube. This study aimed to assess the transport capability of the fallopian tube in women with pelvic EM or AM. METHODS: Twenty women with uterine leiomyoma (control group), 20 with adenomyosis without pelvic EM (AM group) and 35 with pelvic EM without AM (EM group) were included. EM cases were further divided into the tubal EM and non-tubal EM subgroups. Ciliary beat frequency (CBF), percentage of ciliated cells, and smooth muscle contraction were measured...
May 12, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Ying Zhi Ning, Ting Ting Wang, Wei Ning Wu, Ling Yun Chen, Guo Zhen DU
In typical alpine meadow of southern Gansu Province, five sampling sites by fertilizer diammonium phosphate (DAP) addition ranging from 0 g·m-2 to 120 g·m-2 were set in order to examine the response of soil ciliate communities to different concentrations of DAP. An investigation on the abundance and species richness of soil ciliates was carried out by non-flooded Petri dish, observation in vivo and three-level ten-fold dilution methods. Soil physicochemical factors including soil water content, pH value, contents of soil total nitrogen, total phosphorus and organic carbon at different sites were also measured...
May 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Evelien Eenjes, Tinne C J Mertens, Marjon J Buscop-van Kempen, Yolanda van Wijck, Christian Taube, Robbert J Rottier, Pieter S Hiemstra
Air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures of mouse tracheal epithelial cells (MTEC) are a well-established model to study airway epithelial cells, but current methods require large numbers of animals which is unwanted in view of the 3R principle and introduces variation. Moreover, stringent breeding schemes are frequently needed to generate sufficient numbers of genetically modified animals. Current protocols do not incorporate expansion of MTEC, and therefore we developed a protocol to expand MTEC while maintaining their differentiation capacity...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shiaulou Yuan, Martina Brueckner
While a ciliated organizer generates vertebrate left-right asymmetry, most invertebrates lack an organizer and instead utilize a myosin-based mechanism. A recent study now reveals that this myosin mechanism is conserved in the vertebrate organizer and functions to regulate cilia.
May 7, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Yuan-Hung Chien, Shyam Srinivasan, Ray Keller, Chris Kintner
The Xenopus left-right organizer (LRO) breaks symmetry along the left-right axis of the early embryo by producing and sensing directed ciliary flow as a patterning cue. To carry out this process, the LRO contains different ciliated cell types that vary in cilia length, whether they are motile or sensory, and how they position their cilia along the anterior-posterior (A-P) planar axis. Here, we show that these different cilia features are specified in the prospective LRO during gastrulation, based on anisotropic mechanical strain that is oriented along the A-P axis, and graded in levels along the medial-lateral axis...
May 7, 2018: Developmental Cell
Jamie Bojko, Paul D Stebbing, Alison M Dunn, Kelly S Bateman, Fraser Clark, Rose C Kerr, Sarah Stewart-Clark, Ása Johannesen, Grant D Stentiford
The green crab Carcinus maenas is an invader on the Atlantic coast of Canada and the USA. In these locations, crab populations have facilitated the development of a legal fishery in which C. maenas is caught and sold, mainly for use as bait to capture economically important crustaceans such as American lobster Homarus americanus. The paucity of knowledge on the symbionts of invasive C. maenas in Canada and their potential for transfer to lobsters poses a potential risk of unintended transmission. We carried out a histological survey for symbionts of C...
May 7, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Inga M Höben, Rim Hjeij, Heike Olbrich, Gerard W Dougherty, Tabea Nöthe-Menchen, Isabella Aprea, Diana Frank, Petra Pennekamp, Bernd Dworniczak, Julia Wallmeier, Johanna Raidt, Kim G Nielsen, Maria C Philipsen, Francesca Santamaria, Laura Venditto, Israel Amirav, Huda Mussaffi, Freerk Prenzel, Kaman Wu, Zeineb Bakey, Miriam Schmidts, Niki T Loges, Heymut Omran
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is characterized by chronic airway disease, male infertility, and randomization of the left/right body axis as a result of defects of motile cilia and sperm flagella. We identified loss-of-function mutations in the open-reading frame C11orf70 in PCD individuals from five distinct families. Transmission electron microscopy analyses and high-resolution immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrate that loss-of-function mutations in C11orf70 cause immotility of respiratory cilia and sperm flagella, respectively, as a result of the loss of axonemal outer (ODAs) and inner dynein arms (IDAs), indicating that C11orf70 is involved in cytoplasmic assembly of dynein arms...
May 3, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
Prajay T Shah, Jo A Stratton, Morgan Gail Stykel, Sepideh Abbasi, Sandeep Sharma, Kyle A Mayr, Kathrin Koblinger, Patrick J Whelan, Jeff Biernaskie
Ependymal cells are multi-ciliated cells that form the brain's ventricular epithelium and a niche for neural stem cells (NSCs) in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ). In addition, ependymal cells are suggested to be latent NSCs with a capacity to acquire neurogenic function. This remains highly controversial due to a lack of prospective in vivo labeling techniques that can effectively distinguish ependymal cells from neighboring V-SVZ NSCs. We describe a transgenic system that allows for targeted labeling of ependymal cells within the V-SVZ...
May 3, 2018: Cell
Vittorio Boscaro, Luciana F Santoferrara, Qianqian Zhang, Eleni Gentekaki, Mitchell J Syberg-Olsen, Javier Del Campo, Patrick J Keeling
High-throughput sequencing (HTS) surveys, among the most common approaches currently used in environmental microbiology, require reliable reference databases to be correctly interpreted. The EukRef Initiative ( is a community effort to manually screen available small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences and produce a public, high-quality, and informative framework of phylogeny-based taxonomic annotations. In the context of EukRef, we present a database for the monophyletic phylum Ciliophora, one of the most complex, diverse, and ubiquitous protist groups...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Jin Hee Ok, Hae Jin Jeong, An Suk Lim, Sung Yeon Lee, So Jin Kim
Heterotrophic nanoflagellates are ubiquitous in natural waters, and most heterotrophic nanoflagellates are known to grow on bacteria. Recently, the heterotrophic nanoflagellate Katablepharis japonica has been reported to be an effective predator of diverse toxic or harmful algal prey. To date, 7 Katablepharis species have been identified, and therefore important questions arise as to whether other Katablepharis species can feed on algal prey, and further whether the types of prey of other Katablepharis species differ from those of K...
April 2018: Harmful Algae
Rohit S Loomba, Abhinav Bhushan, Adeleye J Afolayan
BACKGROUND: Cilia are involved in several physiologic processes, and at least a single primary cilium can be found on nearly every cell in the human body. Various factors, such as pH, temperature, exposure to medications and toxins can impact ciliary function as is manifested by changes in the ciliary beat frequency. Those with ciliary dyskinesia may also have congenital cardiac malformations and may require care in a cardiac intensive care unit. This study investigates the effect on the ciliary beat frequency of medications frequently used in a cardiac intensive care unit...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Guangjian Xu, EunJin Yang, Youngju Lee, Sung-Ho Kang
As an inherent functional trait, body-size spectrum is widely used as an informative indicator to summarize community structures in taxon-free space. The vertical shift in the body-size spectrum of pelagic ciliates and its environmental drivers were explored at eight depth layers from the water surface to a depth of 100 m in western Arctic pelagic ecosystems. A total of 85 samples were collected at 23 sampling stations during the summer sea-ice reduction period from August 5 to August 24, 2016. Based on equivalent spherical diameter (ESD), six body-size ranks were identified, of which ranks S2 (15-25 μm), S3 (26-38 μm), S4 (39-60 μm), and S6 (79-91 μm) were the top four levels in frequency of occurrence and ranks S2 and S3 were the dominant levels in abundance...
May 3, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Nevien K Abdelkhalek, Mohamed A El-Adl, Mohamed F Salama, Bassem Elmishmishy, Mayar O Ali, Ahmed El-Ashram, Mohamed F Hamed, Moustafa A Al-Araby
Trichodinids are peritrichous ciliated protozoa that affect both wild and cultured fishes. Several Trichodina species have low host specificity and are morphologically distinct, facilitating their identification based primarily on the presence of adhesive discs and the number of attached denticles. A trichodinid species named Trichodina compacta was first reported by Van As and Basson (1989) (Protozoa: Ciliophora: Peritrichia). However, in trichodinid infestations, morphological characteristics are insufficient for identifying the infesting species...
May 1, 2018: Parasitology Research
Sofya K Garushyants, Alexandra Y Beliavskaia, Dmitry B Malko, Maria D Logacheva, Maria S Rautian, Mikhail S Gelfand
While most endosymbiotic bacteria are transmitted only vertically, Holospora spp., an alphaproteobacterium from the Rickettsiales order, can desert its host and invade a new one. All bacteria from the genus Holospora are intranuclear symbionts of ciliates Paramecium spp. with strict species and nuclear specificity. Comparative metabolic reconstruction based on the newly sequenced genome of Holospora curviuscula , a macronuclear symbiont of Paramecium bursaria , and known genomes of other Holospora species shows that even though all Holospora spp...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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