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Spinal cord injuries

Sandra Puentes, Hideki Kadone, Shigeki Kubota, Tetsuya Abe, Yukiyo Shimizu, Aiki Marushima, Yoshiyuki Sankai, Masashi Yamazaki, Kenji Suzuki
The Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament (OPLL) is an idiopathic degenerative spinal disease which may cause motor deficit. For patients presenting myelopathy or severe stenosis, surgical decompression is the treatment of choice; however, despite adequate decompression residual motor impairment is found in some cases. After surgery, there is no therapeutic approach available for this population. The Hybrid Assistive Limb® (HAL) robot suit is a unique powered exoskeleton designed to predict, support, and enhance the lower extremities performance of patients using their own bioelectric signals...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Ida K Fox, Christine B Novak, Emily M Krauss, Gwendolyn M Hoben, Craig Zaidman, Rimma Ruvinskaya, Neringa Juknis, Anke C Winter, Susan E Mackinnon
BACKGROUND: Nerve transfer surgery to restore upper extremity (UE) function in cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) is novel and may transform treatment. Determining candidacy even years post-SCI is ill-defined and deserves investigation. OBJECTIVE: To develop a diagnostic algorithm, focusing on electrodiagnostic studies (EDX), to determine eligibility for nerve transfer surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive case series SETTING: Tertiary university-based institution PATIENTS: Individuals with cervical SCI (n = 45) METHODS: The electronic medical records of people referred to the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery UE Surgery in SCI clinic from 2010-2015 were reviewed...
March 15, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Lizhen Chen
Axon regeneration is a fundamental and conserved process that allows the nervous system to repair circuits after trauma. Due to its conserved genome, transparent body, and relatively simple neuroanatomy, C. elegans has become a powerful model organism for studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying axon regeneration. Various studies from different model organisms have found microtubule dynamics to be pivotal to axon regrowth. In this review, we will discuss the latest findings on how microtubule dynamics are regulated during axon regeneration in C...
March 15, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Toscane C Noordhoff, Jan Groen, Jeroen R Scheepe, Bertil F M Blok
CONTEXT: Surgical treatment of anatomic bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) may be indicated in males with neurogenic bladder dysfunction. A bothersome complication after surgery is urinary incontinence. OBJECTIVE: To identify the optimal practice in the surgical treatment of anatomic BOO in males with neurogenic bladder dysfunction, due to multiple sclerosis, Parkinson disease, spinal cord injury (SCI), spina bifida, or cerebrovascular accident (CVA). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement...
March 15, 2018: European Urology Focus
Soufien Chikh, Cyril Garnier, Arnaud Faupin, Antonio Pinti, Samuel Boudet, Fairouz Azaiez, Eric Watelain
Arm-trunk coordination during the initiation of displacement in manual wheelchair is a complex task. The objective of this work is to study the arm-trunk coordination by measuring anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments. Nine healthy subjects participated in the study after being trained in manual wheelchair. They were asked to initiate a displacement in manual wheelchair in three directions (forward vs. left vs. right), with two speeds (spontaneous vs. maximum) and with two initial hand's positions (hands on thighs vs...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Michelle H Chua, Raksmey Hong, Tytim Rydeth, Iv Vycheth, Sam Nang, Din Vuthy, Kee B Park
INTRODUCTION: In recent years, delivery of cost-effective "essential neurosurgery" in resource-limited communities has been recognized as an indispensable part of health care and a global health priority. The purpose of this study was to review outcomes from operative management of spine trauma at a resource limited government hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and to provide an epidemiologic report to guide prevention programs. METHODS: A retrospective review of a prospective neurosurgical database was performed to identify risk factors for spine trauma and severe spinal cord injury (ASIA A or ASIA B) and to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of surgery for patients treated at Preah Kossamak Hospital for subaxial and thoracolumbar spine trauma from 2013 to 2016...
March 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Hsin-Chin Lin, Yu-Lin Tsai, Wen-Chung Tsai
Posttraumatic syringomyelia with an initial presentation of involuntary movement is rare. We describe a 25-year-old patient who sustained complete traumatic spinal cord injury at the thoracic level and presented with rhythmic neck muscle spasms and upper limb muscle myoclonic jerks 1 month after trauma. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed syrinx formation between C3 and T1. Lumbar-peritoneal shunt and decompression were performed. The symptoms completely disappeared after surgery. This report highlights that rhythmic neck muscle spasms and upper limb muscle myoclonic jerks can be the initial and only manifestations of syringomyelia...
March 14, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Moran Gilat, Ana Lígia Silva de Lima, Bastiaan R Bloem, James M Shine, Jorik Nonnekes, Simon J G Lewis
Freezing of gait is a devastating symptom of Parkinson's disease and other forms of parkinsonism. It poses a major burden on both patients and their families, as freezing often leads to falls, fall-related injuries and a loss of independence. Treating freezing of gait is difficult for a variety of reasons: it has a paroxysmal and unpredictable nature; a multifaceted pathophysiology, with an interplay between motor elements (disturbed stepping mechanisms) and non-motor elements (cognitive decline, anxiety); and a complex (and likely heterogeneous) underlying neural substrate, involving multiple failing neural networks...
March 12, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Nazia Karsan, Eric B Gonzales, Gregory Dussor
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are a family of ion channels, consisting of four members; ASIC1 to 4. These channels are sensitive to changes in pH and are expressed throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems-including brain, spinal cord, and sensory ganglia. They have been implicated in a number of neurological conditions such as stroke and cerebral ischemia, traumatic brain injury, and epilepsy, and more recently in migraine. Their expression within areas of interest in the brain in migraine, such as the hypothalamus and PAG, their demonstrated involvement in preclinical models of meningeal afferent signaling, and their role in cortical spreading depression (the electrophysiological correlate of migraine aura), has enhanced research interest into these channels as potential therapeutic targets in migraine...
March 16, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Roberto Schreiber, Cristiane M Souza, Layde R Paim, Guilherme de Rossi, José R Matos-Souza, Anselmo de A Costa E Silva, Fernando R Faria, Eliza R Azevedo, Karina C Alonso, Andrei C Sposito, Alberto Cliquet, José I Gorla, Wilson Nadruz
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and cardiac structure and function with adipocytokines in sedentary (S-SCI) and physically-active (PA-SCI) subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI). DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: Academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-one SCI men (16 S-SCI and 25 PA-SCI) with chronic (>1y) SCI were evaluated. S-SCI subjects did not perform labor that required physical effort, recreational physical activity or sports, while PA-SCI subjects included competing athletes that were regularly performing adapted sports...
March 13, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Christian B Theodotou, George M Ghobrial, Andrew L Middleton, Michael Y Wang, Allan D Levi
BACKGROUND: Cervical facet dislocations are among the most common traumatic spinal injuries. Posterior, anterior, and combined surgical approaches have been described and are widely debated. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate efficacy in anterior-only surgical management for subaxial cervical facet dislocations. METHODS: A consistent surgical algorithm for cervical facet dislocation was applied over a 19-yr period and analyzed retrospectively in adults with acute unilateral or bilateral facet dislocation of the subaxial cervical spine...
March 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
Annie Hartmann, Deb Kegelmeyer, Anne Kloos
: Individuals with concomitant spinal cord injury and traumatic brain injury have cognitive deficits that may limit the ability to learn novel motor tasks necessary for functional independence. Errorless learning has been shown to improve cognitive task performance in persons with brain injury but little is known about its usefulness for improving novel motor task learning. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 44-year-old man with traumatic spinal cord and brain injuries from a motor vehicle accident was admitted to an inpatient rehabilitation hospital...
April 2018: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
Carey L Holleran, Patrick W Hennessey, Abigail L Leddy, Gordhan B Mahtani, Gabrielle Brazg, Brian D Schmit, T George Hornby
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous data suggest that large amounts of high-intensity stepping training in variable contexts (tasks and environments) may improve locomotor function, aerobic capacity, and treadmill gait kinematics in individuals poststroke. Whether similar training strategies are tolerated and efficacious for patients with other acute-onset neurological diagnoses, such as motor incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI), is unknown. Individuals with iSCI potentially have greater bilateral impairments...
April 2018: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
Ming Wu, Janis Kim, Feng Wei
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the integration of dynamic weight shifting into treadmill training would improve the efficacy of treadmill training in humans with spinal cord injury (SCI). DESIGN: Sixteen humans with SCI were randomly assigned to receive robotic or treadmill only training, and underwent 6 weeks of training. A force was applied to the pelvis for facilitating weight shifting and to the legs for assisting with leg swing for participants in the robotic group...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Yimin Wang, Fang Ye, Chanyan Huang, Faling Xue, Yingyuan Li, Shaowei Gao, Zeting Qiu, Si Li, Qinchang Chen, Huaqiang Zhou, Yiyan Song, Wenqi Huang, Wulin Tan, Zhongxing Wang
BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain is one of the common complications after spinal cord injury (SCI), affecting patients' life quality. The molecular mechanism for neuropathic pain after SCI is still unclear. We aimed to discover potential genes and MicroRNAs(miRNAs) related to neuropathic pain by bioinformatics method. METHODS: Microarray data of GSE69901 were obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Peripheral blood samples from patients with or without neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI) were collected...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Journal of Pain
Yad Ram Yadav, Shailendra Ratre, Vijay Parihar, Amitesh Dubey, Mashoo N Dubey
Symptomatic ventral cervical cord compressions have been treated by anterior discectomy with fusion, anterior corpectomy and fusion, discectomy with an artificial disc, and minimally invasive techniques. There are complications associated with the fusion procedure, especially when a long segment fusion is undertaken. Partial removal of the vertebral body without fusion could help in avoiding fusion and its associated complications. We are describing the detailed surgical technique, indications, limitations, and early results of endoscopic partially corpectomy...
March 2018: Neurology India
SeungHwan Lee, Xiang Qun Shi, Anni Fan, Brian West, Ji Zhang
Introduction Neuropathic pain is a debilitating condition. The importance of neuroimmune interactions in neuropathic pain has been evidenced by the involvement of different immune cells in peripheral and central sensitization of pathological pain. Macrophages and microglia are the most abundant immune cells activated in injured nerves and spinal cord, respectively. Several lines of evidence showed that macrophage/microglia survival, activation, proliferation, and differentiation require the involvement of macrophage-colony stimulating factor...
January 2018: Molecular Pain
Andrea J Santamaría, Juan P Solano, Francisco D Benavides, James D Guest
Cell transplant-mediated tissue repair of the damaged spinal cord is being tested in several clinical trials. The current candidates are neural stem cells, stromal cells, and autologous Schwann cells (aSC). Due to their peripheral origin and limited penetration of astrocytic regions, aSC are transplanted intralesionally as compared to neural stem cells that are transplanted into intact spinal cord. Injections into either location can cause iatrogenic injury, and thus technical precision is important in the therapeutic risk-benefit equation...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ying Dai, Caitlin E Hill
Adult Schwann cells (SCs) can provide both a permissive substrate for axonal growth and a source of cells to ensheath and myelinate axons when transplanted into the injured spinal cord. Multiple studies have demonstrated that SC transplants can be used as part of a combinatorial approach to repairing the injured spinal cord. Here, we describe the protocols for collection and transplantation of adult rat primary SCs into the injured spinal cord. Protocols are included for the tissue culture procedures necessary for collection, quantification, and suspension of the cells for transplantation and for the surgical procedures for spinal cord injury at thoracic level nine (T9), reexposure of the injury site for delayed transplantation, and injection of the cells into the spinal cord...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Susana R Cerqueira, Yee-Shuan Lee, Mary Bartlett Bunge
In vitro models using Schwann cell and astrocyte co-cultures have been used to understand the mechanisms underlying the formation of boundaries between these cells in vivo. Schwann cell/astrocyte co-cultures also mimic the in vivo scenario of a transplant in a spinal cord injury site, thereby allowing testing of therapeutic approaches. In this chapter, we describe a triple cell culture system with Schwann cells, astrocytes, and neurons that replicates axon growth from a Schwann cell graft into an astrocyte-rich region...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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