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Spinal cord injuries

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351051/voluntary-ambulation-using-voluntary-upper-limb-muscle-activity-and-hybrid-assistive-limb%C3%A2-hal%C3%A2-in-a-patient-with-complete-paraplegia-due-to-chronic-spinal-cord-injury-a-case-report
#1
Yukiyo Shimizu, Hideki Kadone, Shigeki Kubota, Kenji Suzuki, Kousaku Saotome, Tomoyuki Ueno, Tetsuya Abe, Aiki Marushima, Hiroki Watanabe, Ayumu Endo, Kazue Tsurumi, Ryu Ishimoto, Akira Matsushita, Masao Koda, Akira Matsumura, Yoshiyuki Sankai, Yasushi Hada, Masashi Yamazaki
CONTEXT: We sought to describe our experience with the Hybrid Assistive Limb® (HAL®) for active knee extension and voluntary ambulation with remaining muscle activity in a patient with complete paraplegia after spinal cord injury. FINDINGS: A 30-year-old man with complete paraplegia used the HAL® for 1 month (10 sessions) using his remaining muscle activity, including hip flexor and upper limb activity. Electromyography was used to evaluate muscle activity of the gluteus maximus, tensor fascia lata, quadriceps femoris, and hamstring muscles in synchronization with the Vicon motion capture system...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351050/hidden-medical-devices-in-the-school-setting-what-the-school-nurse-needs-to-know-about-the-safe-use-of-baclofen-pumps
#2
Barbara Obst, Megan Roesler
One of the "hidden" medical devices in the school setting is the baclofen pump, which is used for the treatment of spasticity. The goals of spasticity treatment are to decrease muscle tone, deformity, and pain in order to maximize function and ease of care for both child and caregiver. The use of an intrathecal baclofen pump, often for children with cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury, brain injury, or stroke, has been effective in spasticity treatment. It is important for school nurses to be aware of the safety implications associated with this type of device...
January 1, 2018: NASN School Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350593/the-natural-history-of-complete-spinal-cord-injury-a-pooled-analysis-of-1162-patients-and-a-meta-analysis-of-modern-data
#3
Najib E El Tecle, Nader S Dahdaleh, Mohamad Bydon, Wilson Z Ray, James C Torner, Patrick W Hitchon
OBJECTIVE The natural history of complete spinal cord injury (SCI) is poorly studied. The classically quoted rate of improvement or conversion for patients with American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) grade A (ASIA A) injuries is 15%-20%; however, data supporting this rate are very limited. In this paper, the authors conducted a meta-analysis of modern data reporting on ASIA A patients and evaluated factors affecting the natural history of the disease. METHODS The authors conducted a systematic literature review of all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and observational studies of patients with traumatic SCI...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350007/-the-metabolic-profilings-study-of-serum-and-spinal-cord-from-acute-spinal-cord-injury-rats-%C3%A2-h-nmr-spectroscopy
#4
Hua-Hui Hu, Xiao-Long Huang, Ren-Fu Quan, Zong-Bao Yang, Jing-Jing Xu
OBJECTIVE: To establish the rat model of acute spinal cord injury, followed by aprimary study on this model with ¹H NMR based on metabonomics and to explore the metabonomics and biomarkers of spinal cord injury rat. METHODS: Twenty eight-week-old adult male SD rats of clean grade, with body weight of (200±10) g, were divided into sham operation group and model group in accordance with the law of random numbers, and every group had 10 rats. The rats of sham operation group were operated without damaging the spinal cord, and rats of model group were made an animal model of spinal cord incomplete injury according to the modified Allen's method...
February 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350000/-percutaneous-vertebroplasty-and-open-vertebroplasty-for-metastatic-spinal-tumor
#5
Xi-Jiang Zhao, Xin-Sheng Qi, Zhi-Xiang Mao, Quan-Ming Wang, Xiang-Bin Gao, Xian-Jun Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical application and therapeutic effect of percutaneous vertebroplasty(PVP) and open vertebroplasty for metastatic spinal tumor. METHODS: The clinical data of 126 patients with metastatic spinal tumor underwent surgery and obtained follow-up from January 2012 to March 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. These 126 cases were divided into two groups according to different operative methods. The metastatic tumor of 43 cases encroached vertebral canal oppressing spinal cord and nerve root, they were treated with open operation(open vertebroplasty group);and other 83 cases without obviously spinal cord or nerve root compression, or unfit for open operation, were treated with PVP (percutaneous vertebroplasty group) ...
February 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349970/-total-thigh-musculocutaneous-flap-in-reconstruction-of-refractory-pressure-ulcers-around-hips-in-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Li-Feng Zhai, Li-Feng Shen, Gou-Ping Ma, Qiao-Feng Guo, Chun Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the treatment of life-threatening refractory pressure ulcers around hips in patients with spinal cord injuries(SCI)and evaluate its clinical outcomes. METHODS: From March 2012 to June 2015, eight paraplegic patients with life-threatening refractory pressure ulcers around hips were treated with total thigh musculocutaneous flaps following amputation of proximal femurs or hips, including 7 males and 1 female with an average age of (52.0±2.6) years old ranging from 35 to 68...
March 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349661/pkm2-is-involved-in-neuropathic-pain-by-regulating-erk-and-stat3-activation-in-rat-spinal-cord
#7
Binbin Wang, Siyuan Liu, Bingbing Fan, Xingguo Xu, Yonglin Chen, Rongxiang Lu, Zhongling Xu, Xiaojuan Liu
BACKGROUND: Pyruvate kinase isozymes M2 (PKM2), as a member of pyruvate kinase family, plays a role of glycolytic enzyme in glucose metabolism. It also functions as protein kinase in cell proliferation, signaling, immunity, and gene transcription. In this study, the role of PKM2 in neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) was investigated. METHODS: Rats were randomly grouped to establish CCI models. PKM2, extracellular regulated protein kinases (EKR), p-ERK, signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT3), p-STAT3, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) and p-PI3K/AKT proteins expression in spinal cord was examined by Western blot analysis...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345393/the-protective-effect-of-spinal-cord-stimulation-postconditioning-against-spinal-cord-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rabbits
#8
Huixian Li, Xiuhua Dong, Mu Jin, Weiping Cheng
BACKGROUND: Delayed paraplegia due to spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) remains one of the most severe complications of thoracoabdominal aneurysm surgery, for which effective prevention and treatment is still lacking. OBJECTIVES: The current study investigates whether spinal cord stimulation (SCS) postconditioning has neuroprotective effects against spinal cord IRI. METHOD: Ninety-six New Zealand white male rabbits were randomly divided into four groups as follows: a sham group and three experimental groups (C group, 2 Hz group, and 50 Hz group) n = 24/group...
January 18, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343699/collagen-binding-hepatocyte-growth-factor-hgf-alone-or-with-a-gelatin-furfurylamine-hydrogel-enhances-functional-recovery-in-mice-after-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Kentaro Yamane, Tetsuro Mazaki, Yasuyuki Shiozaki, Aki Yoshida, Kensuke Shinohara, Mariko Nakamura, Yasuhiro Yoshida, Di Zhou, Takashi Kitajima, Masato Tanaka, Yoshihiro Ito, Toshifumi Ozaki, Akihiro Matsukawa
The treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI) is currently a significant challenge. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a multipotent neurotrophic and neuroregenerative factor that can be beneficial for the treatment of SCI. However, immobilized HGF targeted to extracellular matrix may be more effective than diffusible, unmodified HGF. In this study, we evaluated the neurorestorative effects of an engineered HGF with a collagen biding domain (CBD-HGF). CBD-HGF remained in the spinal cord for 7 days after a single administration, while unmodified HGF was barely seen at 1 day...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343130/a-community-based-exercise-program-to-increase-participation-in-physical-activities-among-youth-with-disability-a-feasibility-study
#10
Nora Shields, Roos van den Bos, Kirsty Buhlert-Smith, Luke Prendergast, Nicholas Taylor
PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of a student-mentored community-based exercise program for youth with disability. METHOD: Nineteen youth (nine female; mean age 18 years) with disability (seven cerebral palsy, six Down syndrome, three spina bifida, two autism spectrum disorder, one spinal cord injury) were recruited. Each participant was matched with a student mentor and exercised twice a week for 12 weeks at their local gymnasium. Five domains of feasibility were assessed: demand, implementation, practicality, limited efficacy testing, and acceptability...
January 17, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341457/different-effects-of-dexmedetomidine-and-midazolam-on-the-expression-of-nr2b-and-gabaa-%C3%AE-1-following-peripheral-nerve-injury-in-rats
#11
Jiayu Chen, Hanjun Li, Grewo Lim, Michael F McCabe, Wei Zhao, Yunli Yang, Weiqing Ma, Na Li
Neuropathic pain is a complex, chronic pain condition and the treatment is a major clinical challenge. Recent studies have shown that two FDA approved drugs dexmedetomidine (DEX) and midazolam (MZL), may be useful in treating neuropathic pain, but the mechanism is not fully dementated. Here, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of DEX and MZL treatment in the peripheral nerve injury model. Intramuscular injection with DEX and MZL attenuated the development of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI)...
January 17, 2018: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341019/mri-in-the-study-of-animal-models-of-neurodegenerative-diseases
#12
Nyoman D Kurniawan
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is an important tool to study various animal models of degenerative diseases. This chapter describes routine protocols of T 1-, T 2-, and T 2*-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI for rodent brain and spinal cord. These protocols can be used to measure atrophy, axonal and myelin injury and changes in white matter connectivity.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340936/application-of-color-transformation-techniques-in-pediatric-spinal-cord-mr-images-typically-developing-and-spinal-cord-injury-population
#13
Mahdi Alizadeh, Pallav Shah, Chris J Conklin, Devon M Middleton, Sona Saksena, Adam E Flanders, Laura Krisa, M J Mulcahey, Scott H Faro, Feroze B Mohamed
The purpose of this study was to evaluate an improved and reliable visualization method for pediatric spinal cord MR images in healthy subjects and patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). A total of 15 pediatric volunteers (10 healthy subjects and 5 subjects with cervical SCI) with a mean age of 11.41 years (range 8-16 years) were recruited and scanned using a 3.0T Siemens Verio MR scanner. T2-weighted axial images were acquired covering entire cervical spinal cord level C1 to C7. These gray-scale images were then converted to color images by using five different techniques including hue-saturation-value (HSV), rainbow, red-green-blue (RGB), and two enhanced RGB techniques using automated contrast stretching and intensity inhomogeneity correction...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340899/assessing-sensorimotor-excitability-after-spinal-cord-injury-a-reflex-testing-method-based-on-cycling-with-afferent-stimulation
#14
Stefano Piazza, Diego Torricelli, Julio Gómez-Soriano, Diego Serrano-Muñoz, Gerardo Ávila-Martín, Iriana Galán-Arriero, José Luis Pons, Julian Taylor
Several studies have examined spinal reflex modulation during leg cycling in healthy and spinal cord injury (SCI) subjects. However, the effect of cutaneous plantar afferent input on spinal excitability during leg cycling after SCI has not been characterised. The aim of the study was to test the feasibility of using controlled leg cycling in combination with plantar cutaneous electrical stimulation (ES) cycling to assess lower limb spinal sensorimotor excitability in subjects with motor complete or incomplete SCI...
January 17, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339845/incidence-of-spinal-fractures-in-the-netherlands-1997-2012
#15
J G Ten Brinke, T P Saltzherr, M J M Panneman, M Hogervorst, J C Goslings
: To determine time trends of emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalization rates, spinal cord lesions and characteristics of patients with spinal fractures in the Netherlands. METHODS: In an observational database study we used the Dutch Injury Surveillance System to analyse spinal fracture-related ED visits, hospitalization rates and spinal cord lesions between 1997 and 2012. RESULTS: The total number of ED visits associated with spinal fractures increased from 4,507 in 1997 to 9,690 in 2012 (115% increase)...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339776/the-experience-of-spasticity-after-spinal-cord-injury-perceived-characteristics-and-impact-on-daily-life
#16
William Barry McKay, William Mark Sweatman, Edelle C Field-Fote
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. OBJECTIVES: Determine the impact of motor control characteristics attributed to spasticity, such as spasms, stiffness, and clonus on the daily life of people with spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Nationwide, United States. METHODS: Internet-administered questionnaire, the Patient Reported Impact of Spasticity Measure (PRISM) and items describing characteristics of spasticity including stiffness, spasms, clonus, and pain...
January 16, 2018: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339580/advantages-of-soft-subdural-implants-for-the-delivery-of-electrochemical-neuromodulation-therapies-to-the-spinal-cord
#17
Marco Capogrosso, Jérôme Gandar, Nathan Greiner, Eduardo Martin Moraud, Nikolaus Wenger, Polina Shkorbatova, Pavel E Мusienko, Ivan Minev, Stephanie P Lacour, Gregoire Courtine
We recently developed soft neural interfaces enabling the delivery of electrical and chemical stimulation to the spinal cord. These stimulations restored locomotion in animal models of paralysis. Soft interfaces can be placed either below or above the dura mater. Theoretically, the subdural location combines many advantages, including increased selectivity of electrical stimulation, lower stimulation thresholds, and targeted chemical stimulation through local drug delivery. However, these advantages have not been documented, nor have their functional impact been studied in-silico or in a relevant animal model of neurological disorders using a multimodal neural interface...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339205/agreement-of-musculoskeletal-ultrasound-and-clinical-assessment-of-shoulder-impairment-in-manual-wheelchair-users-with-various-duration-of-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Margaret Finley, David Ebaugh, Thomas Trojian
OBJECTIVE: To determine agreement of musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSK-US) findings of shoulder pathology and related shoulder special test results in individuals with varied duration of manual wheelchair (MWC) use following spinal cord injury (SCI) and determine if shoulder musculoskeletal impairments, per MSK-US and clinical examination, differed in individuals with SCI and varying duration of MWC use. DESIGN: Cross-sectional cohort study SETTING: Laboratory setting PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-three adult volunteers with SCI who used a MWC for community mobility...
January 12, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338912/-surgical-outcomes-of-traumatic-cervical-fractures-in-patients-with-ankylosing-spondylitis
#19
Alberto Isla Guerrero, Beatriz Mansilla Fernández, Borja Hernández Garcia, Álvaro Gómez de la Riva, María Luisa Gandía González, Elena Isla Paredes
OBJECTIVE: Ankylosing spondylitis is an inflammatory rheumatic disease mainly affecting the axial skeleton. The rigid spine may secondarily develop osteoporosis, further increasing the risk of spinal fracture. In this study, we reviewed fractures in patients with ankylosing spondylitis that had been clinically diagnosed to better define the mechanism of injury, associated neurological deficit, predisposing factors, and management strategies. METHODS: Between January 2004 and December 2014, 6 patients with ankylosing spondylitis and neurological complications after injuries were treated...
January 12, 2018: Neurocirugía
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338544/a-direct-comparison-between-norepinephrine-and-phenylephrine-for-augmenting-spinal-cord-perfusion-in-a-porcine-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Femke Streijger, Kitty So, Neda Manouchehri, Ana Gheorghe, Elena B Okon, Ryan M Chan, Benjamin Ng, Katelyn Shortt, Mypinder Singh Sekhon, Donald E Griesdale, Brian K Kwon
Current clinical guidelines recommend elevating the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) to increase spinal cord perfusion in patients with acute spinal cord injury (SCI). This is typically achieved with vasopressors such as norepinephrine (NE) and phenylephrine (PE). These drugs differ in their pharmacologic properties and potentially have different effects on spinal cord blood flow (SCBF), oxygenation (PO2), and downstream metabolism after injury. Using a porcine model of thoracic SCI, we evaluated how these vasopressors influenced intraparenchymal SCBF, PaPO2, hydrostatic pressure, and metabolism within the spinal cord adjacent to the injury site...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
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