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Spinal cord injuries

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350952/future-advances-in-spine-surgery-the-aospine-north-america-perspective
#1
Michael G Fehlings, Christopher S Ahuja, Thomas Mroz, Wellington Hsu, James Harrop
This focus issue highlights state-of-the-art techniques, equipment, and practices in the modern era of spine surgery while providing a glimpse into the next generation of patient care. A broad range of topics are presented to cover the full spectrum of the field. Degenerative diseases are discussed in a series of 3 articles on (1) pathophysiology, management, and surgical approaches to degenerative cervical myelopathy; (2) novel approaches to degenerative thoracolumbar disease (eg, interspinous process spacers, minimally invasive/endoscopic approaches); and (3) animal models and emerging therapeutics in degenerative disk disease...
March 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350947/traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-repair-and-regeneration
#2
Christopher S Ahuja, Satoshi Nori, Lindsay Tetreault, Jefferson Wilson, Brian Kwon, James Harrop, David Choi, Michael G Fehlings
BACKGROUND: Traumatic spinal cord injuries (SCI) have devastating consequences for the physical, financial, and psychosocial well-being of patients and their caregivers. Expediently delivering interventions during the early postinjury period can have a tremendous impact on long-term functional recovery. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY: This is largely due to the unique pathophysiology of SCI where the initial traumatic insult (primary injury) is followed by a progressive secondary injury cascade characterized by ischemia, proapoptotic signaling, and peripheral inflammatory cell infiltration...
March 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346471/effect-of-functional-sympathetic-nervous-system-impairment-of-the-liver-and-abdominal-visceral-adipose-tissue-on-circulating-triglyceride-rich-lipoproteins
#3
Michael F La Fountaine, Christopher M Cirnigliaro, Steven C Kirshblum, Cristin McKenna, William A Bauman
BACKGROUND: Interruption of sympathetic innervation to the liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in animal models has been reported to reduce VAT lipolysis and hepatic secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles. Whether functional impairment of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) innervation to tissues of the abdominal cavity reduce circulating concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and VLDL particles (VLDL-P) was tested in men with spinal cord injury (SCI)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346015/the-role-of-exosomes-derived-from-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-spinal-cord-injury-in-neuron-proliferation-in-vitro
#4
Fan-Long Kong, Xiao-Ping Wang, Ya-Nan Li, Hai-Xu Wang
Exosomes is a key component of cell paracrine secretion and can exert important effects in various disease models. However, the role of exosomes in neuron repair of spinal cord injury (SCI) has rarely been reported. In this study, Exosomes were isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of SCI and normal, and incubated neuron in vitro respectively to research its biological function in cell proliferation. The results demonstrated these exosomes all expressed CD9, CD63, CD81, Alix and Tsg101; however, only exosomes derived from cerebrospinal fluid of SCI could promote proliferation of neuron via ERK signaling pathway, and decrease cell apoptosis...
March 27, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345977/spinal-cord-injuries-overcoming-barriers-to-seamless-care-for-patients
#5
Lorraine Donovan, Lee Francis, Paula Muter, Sheila Nevin, Rebecca Warren
Patients with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) often have complex needs that require multidisciplinary support in specialist centres. Optimal management depends on seamless transitions between service providers. Delays at any point potentially compromise clinical outcomes and efficient resource utilisation. The Spinal Advisory Working Group aims to develop and implement practical initiatives to improve SCI care, initially focusing on admission and discharge. A literature review identified few relevant papers. In addition, the generalisability of the findings of these papers to SCI centres in the UK is unclear...
March 23, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345483/spinal-epidural-stimulation-strategies
#6
Prithvi K Shah, Igor Lavrov
Significant advancements in spinal epidural stimulation (ES) strategies to enable volitional motor control in persons with a complete spinal cord injury (SCI) have generated much excitement in the field of neurorehabilitation. Still, an obvious gap lies in the ability of ES to effectively generate a robust locomotor stepping response after a complete SCI in rodents, but not in humans. In order to reveal potential discrepancies between rodent and human studies that account for this void, in this review, we summarize the findings of studies that have utilized ES strategies to enable successful hindlimb stepping in spinal rats...
March 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345358/-instead-of-popping-pills-perhaps-you-should-add-frog-breathing-experiences-of-glossopharyngeal-insufflation-breathing-for-people-with-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Malin Nygren-Bonnier, Jens Werner, Gabriele Biguet, Sverker Johansson
BACKGROUND: People with cervical spinal cord injury have impaired function of the respiratory muscles, which results in reduced ventilation. Glossopharyngeal insufflation/breathing increases total lung capacity and improves cough function, however, knowledge of the experiences regarding learning and practicing glossopharyngeal insufflation in everyday life is missing. PURPOSE: To describe and explore the experiences of learning and practicing glossopharyngeal insufflation among people with cervical spinal cord injury...
March 27, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344123/effects-of-campylobacter-jejuni-lipopolysaccharide-on-axonal-injury-in-the-spinal-cord-in-rats
#8
Xusheng Li, Haohao Chen, Hongmiao Tao, Ye Hu, Hongqiang Lou
To explore the effects of Campylobacter jejuni lipopolysaccharide (Cj-LPS) on axonal injury in the spinal cord. Wistar rats were divided into the control (NC) group, model group (Cj-LPS), and LPS antibody group (Anti-LPS). Rats in the NC group were injected with a mixture of normal saline and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) while those in Cj-LPS group were injected with Cj-LPS, composed of LPS, CFA, and saline. Rats were sacrificed at 4th week and 6th week after injection, and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining was performed on the spinal cord sections...
March 23, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344072/osteopontin-metallothionen-i-ii-interactions-in-experimental-autoimmunune-encephalomyelitis
#9
Hrvoje Jakovac, Tanja Grubić Kezele, Sandra Šućurović, Biserka Mulac-Jeričević, Biserka Radošević-Stašić
Osteopontin (OPN), an extracellular matrix (ECM) glyco-phosphoprotein, plays an important role in autoimmune-mediated demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). As an integrin and CD44 binding protein it participates in bidirectional communication between the ECM and target cells and affects transduction pathways that maintain neuronal and immune cells homeostasis. Its biological activity is also heavily influenced by microenvironment, which stimulates the cleavage of OPN and changes its functions...
March 23, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343914/falls-and-fear-of-falling-predict-future-falls-and-related-injuries-in-ambulatory-people-with-spinal-cord-injury-a-longitudinal-observational-study
#10
Vivien Jørgensen, Emelie Butler Forslund, Arve Opheim, Erika Franzén, Kerstin Wahman, Claes Hultling, Åke Seiger, Agneta Ståhle, Johan K Stanghelle, Kirsti Skavberg Roaldsen
QUESTION: What is the 1-year incidence of falls and injurious falls in a representative cohort of community-dwelling ambulatory people with chronic spinal cord injury? What are the predictors of recurrent falls (more than two/year) and injurious falls in this population? DESIGN: One-year longitudinal observational multi-centre study. PARTICIPANTS: A representative sample of 68 (of 73 included) community-dwelling ambulatory people with traumatic spinal cord injury attending regular follow-up programs at rehabilitation centres...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343903/-spinal-cord-injuries-resulting-from-diving-accidents-in-the-canary-islands
#11
Enrique Bárbara-Bataller, José Luis Méndez-Suárez, Carolina Alemán-Sánchez, Jesús Sánchez-Enríquez, Manuel Sosa-Henríquez
OBJECTIVE: Diving accidents is one of the leading causes of spinal cord injury after falls and car accidents. The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of these patients in our setting to better prevent these injuries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective, descriptive study of patients who have suffered from a traumatic spinal cord injury after a diving accident in the Canary Islands, Spain from 2000 to 2014...
March 23, 2017: Neurocirugía
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343075/an-update-on-application-of-nanotechnology-and-stem-cells-in-spinal-cord-injury-regeneration
#12
REVIEW
Kazem Nejati-Koshki, Yousef Mortazavi, Younes Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Sumit Sheoran, Nosratollah Zarghami
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is damage to the spinal cord that leads to sudden loss of motor and autonomic function and sensory under the level of the injury. The pathophysiological advancement of SCI is divided into two categories: primary injury and secondary injury. Due to the loss of motor, sensory, or cognitive function, a patient's quality of life is likely reduced and places a great burden on society in order to supply health care costs. Therefore, it is important to develop suitable therapeutic strategies for SCI therapy...
March 23, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342829/effects-of-peer-mentoring-on-self-efficacy-and-hospital-readmission-following-inpatient-rehabilitation-of-individuals-with-spinal-cord-injury-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Julie Gassaway, Michael L Jones, W Mark Sweatman, Minna Hong, Peter Anziano, Karen DeVault
OBJECTIVE: Investigate the effect of intensive peer mentoring on patient reported outcomes of self-efficacy and unplanned hospital readmissions for persons with spinal cord injury/disease (SCI/D) within the first 6 months after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial; SETTING: Non-profit inpatient rehabilitation hospital specializing in care of persons with SCI/D and brain injury PARTICIPANTS: 158 patients admitted to the SCI rehabilitation program whose discharge location was a community setting...
March 22, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341580/efficacy-and-safety-of-sildenafil-in-men-with-sexual-dysfunction-and-spinal-cord-injury
#14
REVIEW
Dana A Ohl, Martin Carlsson, Vera J Stecher, Gregory A Rippon
INTRODUCTION: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is estimated to affect approximately 276,000 individuals in the United States. Since 2010, the mean age of individuals at the time of the SCI has been 42 years, with nearly 80% of cases involving men. This means that individuals with SCI generally are young men who typically place a great deal of importance on normal sexual and reproductive function. AIM: To assess the effect of sildenafil treatment on erectile function and the frequency of ejaculation in men with SCI...
March 21, 2017: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341461/sequential-therapy-of-anti-nogo-a-antibody-treatment-and-treadmill-training-leads-to-cumulative-improvements-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#15
Kinon Chen, Barnaby C Marsh, Matthew Cowan, Yazi D Al'Joboori, Sylvain Gigout, Calvin C Smith, Neil Messenger, Nikita Gamper, Martin E Schwab, Ronaldo M Ichiyama
Intense training is the most clinically successful treatment modality following incomplete spinal cord injuries (SCIs). With the advent of plasticity enhancing treatments, understanding how treatments might interact when delivered in combination becomes critical. Here, we investigated a rational approach to sequentially combine treadmill locomotor training with antibody mediated suppression of the fiber growth inhibitory protein Nogo-A. Following a large but incomplete thoracic lesion, rats were immediately treated with either anti-Nogo-A or control antibody (2weeks) and then either left untrained or step-trained starting 3weeks after injury for 8weeks...
March 21, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340277/immunomodulatory-and-neuroprotective-effect-of-cryopreserved-allogeneic-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#16
I R Rosado, P H Carvalho, E G L Alves, T M Tagushi, J L Carvalho, J F Silva, M S L Lavor, K M Oliveira, R Serakides, A M Goes, E G Melo
This study aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects of allogeneic and cryopreserved mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on spinal cord injury. A total of 120 rats were distributed into the following groups: negative control (NC) - without injury, positive control (PC) - with injury without treatment, and group treated with MSC (GMSC) - with injury and treated. Motor function was evaluated by the BBB test at 24, 48, and 72 h and at 8 and 21 postoperative days. Spinal cords were evaluated by histopathology and immunohistochemistry to determine the expression of CD68, NeuN, and GFAP...
March 22, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340081/retroocular-and-subdural-hemorrhage-or-hemosiderin-deposits-in-pediatric-autopsies
#17
Marc R Del Bigio, Susan M Phillips
The presence of hemosiderin in the optic nerve sheath and/or retina is sometimes used to estimate the timing of injury in infants or children with suspected non-accidental head trauma. To determine the prevalence of hemosiderin in deaths not associated with trauma, we performed a prospective study of retroocular orbital tissue, cranial convexity, and cervical spinal cord dura mater in infants and children <2.5 years age. In 53 cases of non-traumatic death, approximately 70% had blood or hemosiderin within the orbital fat, ocular muscles, and parasagittal cranial and/or cervical spinal subdural compartment...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339391/topical-ketamine-10-for-neuropathic-pain-in-spinal-cord-injury-patients-an-open-label-trial
#18
Joseph Rabi, Joshua Minori, Hasan Abad, Ray Lee, Michelle Gittler
Topical ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist, has been shown to be effective in certain neuropathic pain syndromes. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of topical ketamine in spinal cord injury patients with neuropathic pain. An open label trial enrolled five subjects at an outpatient rehabilitation hospital with traumatic spinal cord injuries who had neuropathic pain at or below the level of injury. Subjects applied topical ketamine 10% three times a day for a two-week duration...
November 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339077/paeoniflorin-attenuates-the-neuroinflammatory-response-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-constriction-injury
#19
Jianyu Zhou, Jingxia Wang, Wei Li, Chenglong Wang, Li Wu, Jianjun Zhang
Neuropathic pain remains the most frequent cause of suffering and disability worldwide. Paeoniflorin (PF), a water‑soluble monoterpene glycoside extracted from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora Pall, has a wide range of pharmacological functions. Although the neuroprotective effect of PF has been reported in animal models of neuropathology, no systematic investigation has reported on the analgesic properties of PF in neuropathic pain. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PF can alleviate neuropathic pain and to examine its possible mechanism...
March 24, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338402/testosterone-plus-finasteride-prevents-bone-loss-without-prostate-growth-in-a-rodent-spinal-cord-injury-model
#20
Joshua F Yarrow, Ean G Phillips, Christine F Conover, Taylor E Bassett, Cong Chen, Tyler Teurlings, Andrea Vasconez, Jonathan Alerte, Hannah M Prock, Jessica M Jiron, Micah Flores, J Ignacio Aguirre, Stephen E Borst, Fan Ye
We have reported that testosterone-enanthate (TE) prevents the musculoskeletal decline occurring acutely after spinal cord injury (SCI), but results in a near doubling of prostate mass. Our purpose was to test the hypothesis that administration of TE plus finasteride (FIN, type II 5α-reductase inhibitor) would prevent the chronic musculoskeletal deficits in our rodent severe contusion SCI model, without inducing prostate enlargement. Forty-three 16-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats received: (1) SHAM surgery (T9 laminectomy), (2) severe (250 kdyne) contusion SCI, (3) SCI+TE (7...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
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