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Spinal cord injuries

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145287/transforaminal-endoscopy-in-lumbar-burst-fracture-a-case-report
#1
Yuanyi Wang, Cong Ning, Liyu Yao, Xiuying Huang, Chengliang Zhao, Bin Chen, Nan Zhang
RATIONALE: Lumbar burst fractures are frequent injury resulting from high-energy trauma, and the patients suffer from pain and the neurologic dysfunction. Although minimally invasive techniques have advanced rapidly, it was the first time to apply transforaminal endoscopic combined with percutaneous pedicle screw fixation to treatment of lumbar burst fractures. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 33-year-old man underwent Magerl type A3.1 burst fracture at L2 and compression fractures at L3 due to falling from a height with severe lower back pain, sensory loss, and atony of the right leg...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145180/misoplegia
#2
Montserrat G Delgado, Julien Bogousslavsky
In 1974, Critchley described misoplegia as the phenomenon in which a hemiplegic patient develops a morbid dislike towards the offending immobile limbs. Patients with misoplegia may employ, but more commonly strike their paretic limbs not recognized as self. The pathophysiological mechanism is not well understood. The handful of cases of misoplegia described in the literature, frequently presented a right hemispheric damage. However, patients with chronic spinal cord injury may also present this symptomatology...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144108/graphical-modeling-a-tool-for-describing-and-understanding-the-functioning-of-people-living-with-a-health-condition
#3
Cristina Ehrmann, Jerome Bickenbach, Gerold Stucki
Rehabilitation aims to optimize people's lived experience of health or functioning. A comprehensive understanding of people's functioning is thus fundamental for rehabilitation clinicians and scientists. Over the past ten years it has been shown that graphical modelling is a promising technique for modelling data on people's functioning. It can contribute to our understanding of the complex associations between domains of functioning and the identification of potential targets for rehabilitation interventions both at the level of the person and the environment...
November 16, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143997/epidermal-neural-crest-stem-cell-derived-glia-enhance-neurotrophic-elements-in-an-ex-vivo-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Sareh Pandamooz, Mohammad Saied Salehi, Mohammad Ismail Zibaii, Abolhassan Ahmadiani, Mohammad Nabiuni, Leila Dargahi
Growing evidence that cell-based therapies can improve recovery outcome in spinal cord injury (SCI) models substantiates their application for treatment of human with SCI. To address the effectiveness of these stem cells, potential candidates should be evaluated in proper SCI platform that allows direct real-time monitoring. In this study, the role of epidermal neural crest stem cells (EPI-NCSCs) was elucidated in an ex vivo model of SCI and valproic acid (VPA) was administered to ameliorate the inhospitable context of injury for grafted EPI-NCSCs...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142811/carotid-artery-stiffness-and-development-of-hypertension-in-people-with-paraplegia-and-no-overt-cardiovascular-disease-a-7-year-follow-up-study
#5
Olga Vriz, Nicole Bertin, Arianna Ius, Emiliana Bizzarini, Eduardo Bossone, Francesco Antonini-Canterin
Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare arterial stiffness between people with paraplegia and able-bodied persons (ABPs) and to assess cardiovascular markers that may be predictive of the development of arterial hypertension in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Setting: This study was conducted at rehabilitation Hospital, Udine (Italy). Methods: Fifty-seven patients with SCI were prospectively enrolled and compared with 88 healthy ABPs...
October 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Echography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142294/administration-of-increasing-doses-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-in-men-with-spinal-cord-injury-to-investigate-dysfunction-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-axis
#6
William A Bauman, Michael F La Fountaine, Christopher M Cirnigliaro, Steven C Kirshblum, Ann M Spungen
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective. OBJECTIVES: To determine the optimum gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) dose to identify dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Metropolitan Area Hospitals, New York and New Jersey, USA. METHODS: SCI men (16 hypogonadal (HG = serum testosterone <12.1 nmol/l) and 14 eugonadal (EG)) and able-bodied (AB) men (27 HG and 11 EG) were studied...
November 15, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142293/neural-pathways-for-colorectal-control-relevance-to-spinal-cord-injury-and-treatment-a-narrative-review
#7
REVIEW
Brid Callaghan, John B Furness, Ruslan V Pustovit
STUDY DESIGN: Narrative review. OBJECTIVES: The purpose is to review the organisation of the nerve pathways that control defecation and to relate this knowledge to the deficits in colorectal function after SCI. METHODS: A literature review was conducted to identify salient features of defecation control pathways and the functional consequences of damage to these pathways in SCI. RESULTS: The control pathways for defecation have separate pontine centres under cortical control that influence defecation...
November 16, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141514/regulatory-effect-of-neuroglobin-in-the-recovery-of-spinal-cord-injury
#8
Ji-Lin Dai, Yun Lin, Yong-Jian Yuan, Shi-Tong Xing, Yi Xu, Qiang-Hua Zhang, Ji-Kang Min
OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of neuroglobin in the recovery of spinal cord injury. METHODS: The male albino Wistar strain rats were used as an experimental model, and adeno associated virus (AAV) was administered in the T12 section of spinal cord ten days prior to the injury. Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale was used to determine the recovery of the hind limb during four weeks post-operation...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141501/transient-hypertension-after-spinal-cord-injury-leads-to-cerebrovascular-endothelial-dysfunction-and-fibrosis
#9
Aaron A Phillips, Nusrat Matin, Mengyao Jia, Jordan W Squair, Aaron Monga, Mei Mu Zi Zheng, Rahul Sachdeva, Andrew Yung, Shea Hocolaski, Stacy L Elliott, Piotr Kozlowski, Anne Dorrance, Ismail Laher, Phil Ainslie, Andrei V Krassioukov
We aimed to create a clinically-relevant preclinical model of transient hypertension, and then evaluate the pathophysiological cerebrovascular processes resulting from this novel stimulus, which has recently been epidemiologically linked to cerebrovascular disease. We first developed a clinically-relevant model of transient hypertension, secondary to induced autonomic dysreflexia after spinal cord injury, and demonstrated that in both patients and rats this stimulus leads to drastic acute cerebral hyper-perfusion...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141498/incidence-and-natural-progression-of-neurogenic-shock-following-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Ian A Ruiz, Jordan W Squair, Aaron A Phillips, Christine D Lukac, Dayan Huang, Patrick Oxciano, Dong Yan, Andrei V Krassioukov
Neurogenic shock, a distributive type of circulatory shock following spinal cord injury (SCI), results in profound hypotension. The consequent hemodynamic instability complicates clinical management, delays surgical intervention, and impacts neurological outcome. Moreover, the reported incidence of this condition varies significantly. Here, we establish the true incidence of neurogenic shock by comparing the most common clinical definitions used to diagnose the condition. Further, we characterize the acute progression and recovery of neurogenic shock...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140923/il-4-mediates-the-analgesia-produced-by-low-intensity-exercise-in-mice-with-neuropathic-pain
#11
Franciane Bobinski, Juliana Maia Teixeira, Kathleen Anne Sluka, Adair Roberto Soares Santos
Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) activates the immune system resulting in increased pro-inflammatory cytokines at the site of injury and in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Exercise modulates the immune system promoting an anti-inflammatory phenotype of macrophages in uninjured muscle, and increases in anti-inflammatory cytokines can promote healing and analgesia. We proposed that PNI will decrease, and treadmill exercise will increase, release of anti-inflammatory cytokines at the site of injury and in the spinal cord...
November 13, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140736/extremely-low-frequency-magnetic-field-protects-injured-spinal-cord-from-the-microglia-and-iron-induced-tissue-damage
#12
Soumil Dey, Samrat Bose, Suneel Kumar, Ravinder Rathore, Rashmi Mathur, Suman Jain
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is insult to the spinal cord, which results in loss of sensory and motor function below the level of injury. SCI results in both immediate mechanical damage and secondary tissue degeneration. Following traumatic insult, activated microglia release proinflammatory cytokines and excess iron due to hemorrhage, initiating oxidative stress that contributes to secondary degeneration. Literature suggests that benefits are visible with the reduction in concentration of iron and activated microglia in SCI...
November 15, 2017: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140616/comparisons-of-agricultural-seating-for-paraplegia
#13
Carla Sue Wilhite, William E Field, Mark Jaramillo, Kevin Sullivan
People with spinal cord injury/paraplegia are operating agricultural machinery despite the lack of research evidence to support seating interventions. These operators represent a vulnerable population in the agricultural workforce, and information to support their health in the workplace is urgently warranted. This research compared a group of subjects with paraplegia on different intervention cushion conditions during a simulated tractor driving task. Numerical data acquired from a pressure-mapping instrument were explored for statistical relationships within a small cohort of people with paraplegia participating in a feasibility study that was previously reported for clinical results...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138827/gambogic-acid-inhibits-spinal-cord-injury-and-inflammation-through-suppressing-the-p38-and-akt-signaling-pathways
#14
Qiao Fu, Chaojian Li, Lehua Yu
Gamboge is the dry resin secreted by Garcinia hanburyi Hook.f, with the function of promoting blood circulation, detoxification, hemostasis and killing insects, used for the treatment of cancer, brain edema and other diseases. Gambogic acid is the main effective constituent of Gamboge. The present study investigated the protective effects of gambogic acid on spinal cord injury (SCI) and its anti‑inflammatory mechanism in an SCI model in vivo. Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) testing was used to detect the protective effects of gambogic acid on nerve function of SCI rats...
November 10, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138697/following-spinal-cord-injury-transected-reticulospinal-tract-axons-develop-new-collateral-inputs-to-spinal-interneurons-in-parallel-with-locomotor-recovery
#15
Zacnicte May, Keith K Fenrich, Julia Dahlby, Nicholas J Batty, Abel Torres-Espín, Karim Fouad
The reticulospinal tract (RtST) descends from the reticular formation and terminates in the spinal cord. The RtST drives the initiation of locomotion and postural control. RtST axons form new contacts with propriospinal interneurons (PrINs) after incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI); however, it is unclear if injured or uninjured axons make these connections. We completely transected all traced RtST axons in rats using a staggered model, where a hemisection SCI at vertebra T10 is followed by a contralateral hemisection at vertebra T7...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138652/trauma-a-major-cause-of-death-among-surgical-inpatients-of-a-nigerian-tertiary-hospital
#16
Onyeanunam Ngozi Ekeke, Kelechi Emmanuel Okonta
Introduction: Trauma presents a significant global health burden. Death resulting from trauma remains high in low income countries despite a steady decrease in developed countries. Analysis of the pattern of death will enable intervention to reduce these deaths from trauma in developing countries. This study aims to present the pattern of trauma-related deaths in the surgical wards of University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH). Methods: This was a retrospective study of all patients who died from trauma during admission into the surgical wards of UPTH from 2007 to 2012...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138486/the-impact-of-a-specialized-spinal-cord-injury-center-as-compared-with-non-specialized-centers-on-the-acute-respiratory-management-of-patients-with-complete-tetraplegia-an-observational-study
#17
Andréane Richard-Denis, Debbie Feldman, Cynthia Thompson, Martin Albert, Jean-Marc Mac-Thiong
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVES: To compare the proportion of tracheostomy placement and duration of mechanical ventilation (MV) in patients with a complete cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) that were managed early or lately in a specialized acute SCI-center. The second objective was to determine the impact of the timing of admission to the SCI-center on the MV support duration. SETTING: A single Level-1 trauma center specialized in SCI care in Quebec (Canada)...
November 15, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138092/abnormal-cortical-neuroplasticity-induced-by-paired-associative-stimulation-after-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-a-preliminary-study
#18
Viviana Versace, Patrick B Langthaler, Yvonne Höller, Vanessa N Frey, Francesco Brigo, Luca Sebastianelli, Leopold Saltuari, Raffaele Nardone
We aimed at assessing in this pilot study whether patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) show alterations of sensorimotor plasticity within the primary motor cortex (M1). Since learning in human M1 occurs through LTP-like mechanisms, we employed the paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocol by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which is able to induce LTP-like effects in M1, in subjects with chronic SCI. We found that PAS protocol significantly increased corticospinal excitability as long as 30minutes in healthy subjects and in SCI patients with good motor recovery, while it was followed by a non-significant increase of MEP amplitude in the SCI patients with poor functional recovery...
November 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138091/longitudinal-electrophysiological-changes-after-cervical-hemi-contusion-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#19
Zucheng Huang, Rong Li, Junhao Liu, Zhiping Huang, Yong Hu, Xiaoliang Wu, Qingan Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the longitudinal somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) characterization from acute to chronic injury following the cervical hemi-contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats, and correlate the MEPs & SEPs to the behavioral outcomes. METHODS: Fifteen adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to the hemi-contusion spinal cord injury at C5. Forelimb MEPs & SEPs were applied to 5 animals before injury and 3h, 1d, 3d, 1w, 2w, 4w and 8w after injury respectively...
November 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138069/traumatic-fractures-of-the-cervical-spine-analysis-of-changes-in-incidence-etiology-concurrent-injuries-and-complications-among-488-262-patients-from-2005-2013
#20
Peter G Passias, Gregory W Poorman, Frank A Segreto, Cyrus M Jalai, Samantha R Horn, Cole A Bortz, Dennis Vasquez-Montes, Bassel G Diebo, Shaleen Vira, Olivia J Bono, Rafael De La Garza-Ramos, John Y Moon, Charles Wang, Brandon P Hirsch, Peter L Zhou, Michael Gerling, Heiko Koller, Virginie Lafage
OBJECTIVE: The etiologies and epidemiology of traumatic cervical spine fracture have not been described with sufficient power or recency. Our goal is to describe demographics, incidence, etiology, spinal cord injuries (SCIs), concurrent injuries, treatments, and complications of traumatic cervical spine fractures. METHODS: Retrospective review of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. ICD-9 E-Codes identified trauma cases from 2005-2013. Patients with cervical fracture were isolated...
November 11, 2017: World Neurosurgery
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