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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233688/a-preliminary-investigation-of-the-toxic-effects-of-benzylpenicilloic-acid
#1
Cheng Cui, Huijun Lu, Qi Hui, Shiying Lu, Yan Liu, Waqas Ahmad, Yang Wang, Pan Hu, Xilin Liu, Yan Cai, Lingjiu Liu, Xiang Zhang, Ke Zhao, Yansong Li, Honglin Ren, Ningyi Jin, Zengshan Liu
Benzylpenicilloic acid (BPNLA) is a major cleavage product of benzylpenicillin G (BP) generated after heating treatment. It is found in animal derived products from the unstable residual penicillin. Previous studies have only reported the allergic reaction caused by BPNLA, but not described its toxicity. In this study, the toxicity of BPNLA was evaluated to report the potential public health risk posed by animal derived products using in vivo and in vitro models, including the acute toxicity assays, cytotoxicity assays, apoptosis assays and cell cycle progression assay...
December 9, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231153/antibiotic-susceptibility-pattern-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-strains-isolated-from-five-cities-in-india-during-2013-2016
#2
Sangeeta V Kulkarni, Manju Bala, Syeeda A Muqeeth, G Sasikala, Amit P Nirmalkar, R Thorat, H Kambli, Jyoti Sawant, Arun Risbud, Raman R Gangakhedkar, Sheela V Godbole
PURPOSE: Emergence of multidrug resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, an STI of public health significance is the biggest challenge to gonorrhoea control. Monitoring for antimicrobial resistance is essential for the early detection of emergent drug resistance patterns. METHODOLOGY: One hundred and twenty four N. gonorrhoeae strains were isolated between September 2013-August 2016 [82-New Delhi, 3-Pune, 3-Mumbai, 20-Secunderabad and 16-Hyderabad] to determine antimicrobial susceptibility and to compare the CLSI disc diffusion method with Etest for these strains...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230891/linking-individual-level-data-on-diagnoses-and-dispensing-for-research-on-antibiotic-use-evaluation-of-a-novel-data-source-from-english-secondary-care
#3
Patrick Rockenschaub, David Ansell, Laura Shallcross
PURPOSE: There has been a focus on stewardship programmes to curb inappropriate antibiotic prescribing and reduce antimicrobial resistance. In-hospital, patient-level prescribing linked to indication is needed to support surveillance, evaluation of stewardship initiatives, as well as other antibiotic research. We evaluated whether a novel dataset linking hospital pharmacy records to Hospital Episode Statistics data can be used for antibiotic research. METHODS: Using the Hospital Treatment Insights (HTI) database, which links Hospital Episode Statistics to pharmacy records from 43 out of 153 hospital trusts in England, we estimated the proportion of missed linkage and identified characteristics associated with missing data...
December 12, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229280/antibiotic-susceptibility-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-in-vientiane-lao-pdr
#4
Savandalath Phouangsouvanh, Mayfong Mayxay, Valy Keoluangkhot, Manivanh Vongsouvath, Viengmon Davong, David A B Dance
OBJECTIVES: To determine the antibiotic susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos). METHODS: We obtained 158 gonococcal isolates from 12,281 genital samples routinely submitted to a diagnostic laboratory in Vientiane, Laos between 2011 and 2015 and determined their susceptibility to five antibiotics by a standard disk diffusion method. RESULTS: The rates of resistance to penicillin (by beta-lactamase production), tetracycline and ciprofloxacin were 89...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228168/glutamate-residues-at-positions-162nd-and-164th-influence-the-beta-lactamase-activity-of-shv-14-obtained-from-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#5
Gaurav Kumar, Sarmistha Biswal, Soshina Nathan, Anindya S Ghosh
Extensive production of SHV-14 beta-lactamase makes Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to beta-lactams. The presence of omega-loop has been reported to influence the beta-lactamase activity, which is also present in SHV-14. Its omega-loop has three glutamates in nearly alternating positions, 162, 164 and 167 but their concise role on the behaviour of SHV-14 is unknown. To uncover the influence of each glutamate on SHV-14, we replaced glutamates with alanine and estimated the effect of each mutation by assessing the change in beta-lactam sensitivities in the surrogate Escherichia coli cells and catalytic efficiencies for hydrolysis with the purified proteins...
December 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227464/antibiotic-resistance-of-potential-otopathogens-isolated-from-nasopharyngeal-flora-of-children-with-acute-otitis-media-before-during-and-after-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-implementation
#6
Alexis Rybak, Corinne Levy, Stéphane Bonacorsi, Stéphane Béchet, François Vié le Sage, Annie Elbez, Emmanuelle Varon, Robert Cohen
BACKGROUNDL: To re-evaluate antibiotic strategies for acute otitis media (AOM) in young children, we analyzed the trends of nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp), Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mc) isolated from young children with AOM during a 16-year period. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed from 2001 to 2016, the nasopharyngeal carriage of Sp, Hi and Mc of young children with AOM...
December 8, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226171/antimicrobial-resistance-of-sterile-site-infections-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review
#7
Meklit Workneh, Morgan J Katz, Mohammed Lamorde, Sara E Cosgrove, Yukari C Manabe
Sparse data exist from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). A prior review of antimicrobial resistance in SSA from 1990 to 2013 showed a high prevalence of AMR to commonly used antibiotics in this setting. We reviewed the literature published since 2013. Four databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, and African Journals Online) were searched for articles between February 2013 and March 2016 with a focus on sterile site infections (bacteremia, urinary tract infections [UTIs], and meningitis)...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225977/double-morphology-tertiary-syphilis-and-acquired-immunodeficiency-syndrome-a-rare-association
#8
R M Ngwanya, B Kakande, N P Khumalo
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Treponema pallidum coinfection is relatively common and accounts for about 25% of primary and secondary syphilis. Tertiary syphilis in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected patients is vanishingly rare. This is most likely due to early treatment of cases of primary and secondary syphilis. There is rapid progression to tertiary syphilis in HIV-infected patients. Case Presentation: A 49-year-old woman diagnosed with HIV Type 1 infection and cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) count of 482 presented with a four-week history of multiple crusted plaques, nodules, and ulcers on her face, arms, and abdomen...
2017: Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222589/production-optimization-for-concentration-and-volume-limited-fed-batch-reactors-in-biochemical-processes
#9
Ping Liu, Xinggao Liu, Zeyin Zhang, Yalin Wang, Chunhua Yang, Weihua Gui
Since a very slight violation of constraint could cause process safety and product quality problems in biochemical processes, an adaptive approach of fed-batch reactor production optimization that can strictly satisfy constraints over the entire operating time is presented. In this approach, an improved smooth function is proposed such that the inequality constraints can be transformed into smooth constraints. Based on this, only an auxiliary state is needed to monitor violations in the augmented performance index...
December 8, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218467/antibiotic-prescription-and-clinical-management-of-common-infections-among-general-practitioners-in-latvia-lithuania-and-sweden-a-pilot-survey-with-a-simple-protocol
#10
Uga Dumpis, Annika Hahlin, Sonata Varvuolyte, Stephan Stenmark, Sarmīte Veide, Rolanda Valinteliene, Asta Jurkeviciene, Johan Struwe
Comparative information on diagnosis-related antibiotic prescribing patterns are scarce from primary care within and between countries. To describe and compare antibiotic prescription and routine management of infections in primary care in Latvia (LV), Lithuania (LT) and two study sites in Sweden (SE), a cross-sectional observational study on patients who consulted due to sypmtoms compatible with infection was undetraken. Infection and treatment was detected and recorded by physicians only. Data was collected from altogether 8786 consecutive patients with infections in the three countries...
December 7, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217934/the-prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistant-diarrhogenic-bacterial-species-in-surface-waters-south-eastern-nigeria
#11
Stanley C Onuoha
Background: This study assessed the bacteriological qualities of surface waters in Afikpo, between April and September 2016. Methods: Surface water samples were collected from three streams for bacteriological analysis. Bacteria species were isolated using standard microbiological and biochemical techniques. Antibiotic susceptibility study was carried out using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: The result of the mean heterotrophic bacteria count from the streams showed that Okpu stream had 209...
July 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215169/stimulation-of-pgda-dependent-peptidoglycan-n-deacetylation-by-gpsb-pbp-a1-in-listeria-monocytogenes
#12
Jeanine Rismondo, Sabrina Wamp, Christine Aldridge, Waldemar Vollmer, Sven Halbedel
Listeria monocytogenes and other pathogenic bacteria modify their peptidoglycan to protect it against enzymatic attack through the host innate immune system, such as the cell wall hydrolase lysozyme. During our studies on GpsB, a late cell division protein that controls activity of the bi-functional penicillin binding protein PBP A1, we discovered that GpsB influences lysozyme resistance of L. monocytogenes. Mutant strains lacking gpsB were prone to spontaneous autolysis but showed an increased lysozyme resistance...
December 7, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214760/prevalence-of-blaz-gene-and-performance-of-phenotypic-tests-to-detect-penicillinase-in-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-japan
#13
Yoshiko Takayama, Takashi Tanaka, Koko Oikawa, Naoki Fukano, Mieko Goto, Takashi Takahashi
Guidelines recommend that clinical laboratories perform phenotypic tests (nitrocefin-based test and penicillin 10-U [P10] or 1-U [P1] zone edge tests) to detect penicillinase in Staphylococcus aureus isolates. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of blaZ encoding penicillinase and perform various phenotypic tests in S. aureus isolates from Japan. We prospectively collected 200 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates from June 2015 to January 2016 and performed six phenotypic tests (nitrocefin-based test, P10 zone edge test/P10 diffusion test, penicillin 2-U [P2] zone edge test/P2 diffusion test, and cloverleaf test) on each sample...
March 2018: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214016/genotypic-characterization-of-gentamicin-and-cephalosporin-resistant-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-blood-cultures-in-a-norwegian-university-hospital-2011-2015
#14
Øyvind Andreas Fladberg, Silje Bakken Jørgensen, Hege Vangstein Aamot
Background: Cephalosporin resistance in clinical E. coli isolates is increasing internationally. The increase has been caused by virulent and often multidrug-resistant clones, especially the extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing E. coli clone O25b-ST131. Methods: In Norway, recommended empirical treatment of sepsis consists of gentamicin and penicillin combined, or a broad-spectrum cephalosporin. To investigate if increased gentamicin and cephalosporins resistance rates in our hospital could be caused by specific clones, we conducted a retrospective study on E...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210147/drug-exposure-and-the-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Heather Y Yong, Kyla A McKay, Cole G J Daley, Helen Tremlett
BACKGROUND: Several environmental and lifestyle factors have been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) risk, including some pharmacological treatments. We systematically reviewed the literature on prescription drug exposure and MS risk. METHODS: Six databases were searched for original observational studies reporting drug exposure and MS risk published before 2017. RESULTS: Thirteen articles fulfilled inclusion criteria. Exposure to neither amiloride nor valproic acid was associated with MS (adjusted hazard ratio (adj...
December 6, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209675/serotype-prevalence-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-patterns-of-pneumococcal-isolates-in-zunyi-city-china
#16
Meijing Shen, Run Yao, Huan Yue, Jingzhi Zhang, Min Chen, Weiwei Zhang, Daishun Liu, Kaifeng Wu
OBJECTIVES: To assess the serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of pneumococci isolated from inpatients of all ages suspected of having bacterial infections. METHODS: In this retrospective study, pneumococcal isolates were consecutively collected  from the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University, in Zunyi city, China, between January 2014 and December 2016. Pneumococci were identified using routine microbiological assays. We performed antimicrobial susceptibility analyses using the bacteria identification/susceptibility system VITEK2 and E-tests...
December 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209290/enterotoxigenicity-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-retail-food-in-china
#17
Wei Wang, Zulqarnain Baloch, Tao Jiang, Cunshan Zhang, Zixin Peng, Fengqin Li, Séamus Fanning, Aiguo Ma, Jin Xu
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of zoonotic agent in the world, which are attributable to the contamination of food with enterotoxins. In this study, a total of 1,150 S. aureus isolates were cultured from 27,000 retail foods items from 203 cities of 24 provinces in China in 2015 and were test for antimicrobial susceptibility. Additionally, the role of the genes responsible for the staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEA to SEE), methicillin resistance (mecA) and the toxigenic capabilities were also assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209214/fatal-and-near-fatal-non-allergic-reactions-in-patients-with-underlying-cardiac-disease-receiving-benzathine-penicillin-g-in-israel-and-switzerland
#18
Matitiahu Berkovitch, Liat Ashkenazi-Hoffnung, Ilan Youngster, Dotan Shaniv, Dorit Dil-Nahlieli, Einat Gorelik, Martina Schäublin, Rudolf Stoller, Nour Karra, Eyal Schwartzberg
Benzathine Penicillin G (BPG) is commonly used for treatment of penicillin-susceptible infections and secondary prevention of rheumatic fever. Death following administration of BPG is extremely rare-only a handful of cases have been described in the literature since the 1950's. In this case series from Israel and Switzerland, we describe nine cases of serious adverse reactions-six fatal reactions and three near-fatalities-occurring within minutes of receiving intramuscular BPG. Allergic reactions or faulty administration were not implicated in any of the cases; however, all patients had cardiac risk factors...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206010/regulation-circulation-and-distribution-of-penicillin-in-portugal-1944-1954
#19
Victoria Bell, João Rui Pita, Ana Leonor Pereira
Portugal did not participate in World War II but was one of the first countries in the world to receive penicillin for civilian use. The Portuguese Red Cross began to import the antibiotic from the United States of America in 1944 and appointed a controlling committee to oversee its distribution, due to the small amount available. In 1945, as world production increased, penicillin began to be distributed through the normal channels. An important role in its regulation was played by the official department responsible for controlling pharmaceutical and chemical products in Portugal, the Comissão Reguladora dos Produtos Químicos e Farmacêuticos (Regulatory Committee for Chemical and Pharmaceutical Products)...
2017: Dynamis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205142/necrotizing-fasciitis-associated-with-primary-cutaneous-b-cell-lymphoma-a-case-report
#20
K G Spiridakis, D S Intzepogazoglou, M E Flamourakis, E E Sfakianakis, A V Daskalaki, E K Vakonaki, E Rahmanis, G E Kostakis, M S Christodoulakis
Necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly progressive and life-threatening infection of the deeper skin layers and subcutaneous tissues that moves along the facial planes. OBJECTIVES: We present the rare case of a patient with necrotizing fasciitis associated with high malignancy b-cell lymphoma. Our purpose is to investigate the probable connection between the two pathologies and evaluate the importance of early surgical intervention. CASE REPORT: 51-year old Caucasian woman presented at the E...
May 2017: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
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