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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474268/twenty-five-years-of-lamivudine-current-and-future-use-for-the-treatment-of-hiv-1-infection
#1
Romina Quercia, Carlo-Federico Perno, Justin Koteff, Katy Moore, Cynthia McCoig, Marty St Clair, Daniel Kuritzkes
Innovation in medicine is a dynamic, complex, and continuous process that cannot be isolated to a single moment in time. Anniversaries offer opportunities to commemorate crucial discoveries of modern medicine, such as penicillin (1928), polio vaccination (inactivated, 1955; oral, 1961), the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus (1967), monoclonal antibodies (1975), and the first HIV antiretroviral drugs (zidovudine, 1987). The advent of antiretroviral drugs has had a profound effect on the progress of the epidemiology of HIV infection, transforming a terminal, irreversible disease that caused a global health crisis into a treatable but chronic disease...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474258/etiology-of-acute-otitis-media-and-characterization-of-pneumococcal-isolates-after-introduction-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-japanese-children
#2
Kimiko Ubukata, Miyuki Morozumi, Megumi Sakuma, Misako Takata, Eriko Mokuno, Takeshi Tajima, Satoshi Iwata
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and antibiotic prescriptions. We examined etiologic changes in AOM after introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine as routine immunization for Japanese children in 2014. Serotypes, resistance genotypes, antibiotic susceptibilities, and multilocus sequence typing of pneumococcal isolates were also characterized. METHODS: Otolaryngologists prospectively collected middle ear fluid from 582 children by tympanocentesis or sampling through a spontaneously ruptured tympanic membrane between June 2016 and January 2017...
February 22, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473820/transcriptional-profiling-of-the-clpx-mutant-in-bacillus-anthracis-reveals-regulatory-connection-with-the-lrgab-operon
#3
Kevin M Claunch, Madeline Bush, Christopher R Evans, Jacob A Malmquist, Matthew C Hale, Shauna M McGillivray
ClpX functions as either an independent chaperone or a component of the ClpXP protease, a conserved intracellular protease that acts as a global regulator in the bacterial cell by degrading regulatory proteins, stress response proteins and rate-limiting enzymes. Previously, we found that loss of clpX in Bacillus anthracis Sterne leads to increased susceptibility to antimicrobial agents that target the cell envelope. The aim of this study was to identify genes within the regulatory network of clpX that contribute to antimicrobial resistance...
February 23, 2018: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473792/new-mutations-of-penicillin-binding-proteins-in-streptococcus-agalactiae-isolates-from-cattle-with-decreased-susceptibility-to-penicillin
#4
Yun Hu, Yunchao Kan, Zhengtian Zhang, Zhanning Lu, Yanqiu Li, Chaoliang Leng, Jun Ji, Shiyang Song, Hongfei Shi
Streptococcus agalactiae is a causal agent of bovine mastitis and is treated by β-lactam antibiotics (BLAs). Compared to penicillin-resistant S. agalactiae from humans, resistant strains in bovine are rarely reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate BLA resistance and mutations in penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) of S. agalactiae in central and northeast China. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 129 penicillin-resistant S. agalactiae isolates from cows with mastitis were determined, and the related PBP genes were detected and sequenced...
February 23, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473099/the-filamentous-fungal-pellet-relationship-between-morphology-and-productivity
#5
REVIEW
Lukas Veiter, Vignesh Rajamanickam, Christoph Herwig
Filamentous fungi are used for the production of a multitude of highly relevant biotechnological products like citric acid and penicillin. In submerged culture, fungi can either grow in dispersed form or as spherical pellets consisting of aggregated hyphal structures. Pellet morphology, process control and productivity are highly interlinked. On the one hand, process control in a bioreactor usually demands for compact and small pellets due to rheological issues. On the other hand, optimal productivity might be associated with less dense and larger morphology...
February 22, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468052/prevalence-of-staphylococcus-spp-nasal-colonization-among-doctors-of-podiatric-medicine-and-associated-risk-factors-in-spain
#6
Sheila de Benito, Luis Alou, Ricardo Becerro-de-Bengoa-Vallejo, Marta Elena Losa-Iglesias, María Luisa Gómez-Lus, Luis Collado, David Sevillano
Background: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) nasopharyngeal carriage among Doctors of Podiatric Medicine (Podiatrists) and to determine the potential risk factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2016-2017 among 239 podiatrists in Spain. The presence of MSSA, MRSA, and MRSE was determined by microbiological analysis of nasal exudate and antimicrobial susceptibility was determined...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466408/the-clinical-characteristics-of-adults-with-rheumatic-heart-disease-in-yangon-myanmar-an-observational-study
#7
Nan Phyu Sin Toe Myint, Ne Myo Aung, Myint Soe Win, Thu Ya Htut, Anna P Ralph, David A Cooper, Myo Lwin Nyein, Mar Mar Kyi, Josh Hanson
BACKGROUND: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a major cause of premature death in low and middle-income countries. The greatest barrier to RHD control is neglect of the disease in national health policies and a lack of prevalence data that might inform control efforts. Myanmar is making remarkable progress against many infectious diseases, but there are almost no data to define the clinical burden of RHD in the country. This prospective audit was performed in an adult medical ward of a tertiary-referral hospital in Yangon, to gain an insight into the prevalence of RHD in Myanmar...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465687/molecular-characterization-of-markers-associated-with-antimicrobial-resistance-in-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-identified-from-residual-clinical-samples
#8
Johan H Melendez, Justin Hardick, Mathilda Barnes, Perry Barnes, Christopher D Geddes, Charlotte A Gaydos
BACKGROUND: The emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) is a major public health concern. In the era of nucleic acid amplifications tests (NAATs), rapid and accurate molecular approaches are needed to help increase surveillance, guide antimicrobial stewardship, and prevent outbreaks. METHODS: Residual urethral swabs, collected prospectively in the Baltimore City Health Department during a six-month period, were analyzed by real-time PCR assays for NG DNA and AMR determinants to fluoroquinolones, penicillin, and extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs)...
November 7, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465219/continuous-supply-of-plasmodium-vivax-sporozoites-from-colonized-anopheles-darlingi-in-the-peruvian-amazon
#9
Marta Moreno, Carlos Tong-Rios, Pamela Orjuela-Sanchez, Gabriel Carrasco-Escobar, Brice Campo, Dionicia Gamboa, Elizabeth A Winzeler, Joseph M Vinetz
In vitro culture of Plasmodium vivax liver stages underlies key understandings of the fundamental biology of this parasite, particularly the latent, hyponozoite stage, towards drug and vaccine development. Here we report systematic production of P. vivax sporozoites in colonized Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes in the Peruvian Amazon. Human subject-derived P. vivax-infected blood was fed to A. darlingi females using standard membrane feedings assays. Optimizing A. darlingi infection and sporozoite production included replacement of infected patient donor serum with naïve donor serum, comparing anticoagulants in processing blood samples, addition of penicillin-streptomycin and ATP to infectious blood meals...
February 21, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463540/pharmacokinetics-of-penicillin-g-in-preterm-and-term-neonates
#10
Helgi Padari, Tuuli Metsvaht, Eva Germovsek, Charlotte I Barker, Karin Kipper, Koit Herodes, Joseph F Standing, Kersti Oselin, Tõnis Tasa, Hiie Soeorg, Irja Lutsar
Group B streptococci are common causative agents of early-onset neonatal sepsis (EOS). Pharmacokinetic (PK) data for penicillin G have been described for extremely preterm neonates but poorly for late-preterm and term neonates. Thus, evidence-based dosing recommendations are lacking. We described PK of penicillin G in neonates with gestational age (GA) ≥32 weeks and postnatal age <72 h. Penicillin G was administered intravenously at a dose of 25,000 or 50,000 IU/kg/q12h. At steady state, PK blood samples were collected prior to and at 5 min, 1 h, 3 h, 8 h, 12 h after injection...
February 20, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463465/secondary-pulmonary-syphilis-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#11
H Kassem Youssef, A Blind, F Chouta Ngaha, B Drenou, H Nojavan, C Michel
INTRODUCTION: Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease that can affect numerous organs in its secondary or tertiary stages. We describe a case of secondary syphilis with pulmonary involvement and we present a literature review. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 69-year-old male patient was admitted to hospital for dyspnoea and extended papular exanthema with palmoplantar involvement. The serological test for syphilis was positive. Ocular examination showed bilateral papillitis and retinal haemorrhage...
February 17, 2018: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461916/outpatient-management-of-fever-and-neutropenia-in-adults-treated-for-malignancy-american-society-of-clinical-oncology-and-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-clinical-practice-guideline-update
#12
Randy A Taplitz, Erin B Kennedy, Eric J Bow, Jennie Crews, Charise Gleason, Douglas K Hawley, Amelia A Langston, Loretta J Nastoupil, Michelle Rajotte, Kenneth Rolston, Lynne Strasfeld, Christopher R Flowers
Purpose To provide an updated joint ASCO/Infectious Diseases Society of American (IDSA) guideline on outpatient management of fever and neutropenia in patients with cancer. Methods ASCO and IDSA convened an Update Expert Panel and conducted a systematic review of relevant studies. The guideline recommendations were based on the review of evidence by the Expert Panel. Results Six new or updated meta-analyses and six new primary studies were added to the updated systematic review. Recommendations Clinical judgment is recommended when determining which patients are candidates for outpatient management, using clinical criteria or a validated tool such as the Multinational Association of Support Care in Cancer risk index...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461794/a-new-generation-of-surface-active-carbon-textiles-as-reactive-adsorbents-of-indoor-formaldehyde
#13
Giacomo de Falco, Mariusz Barczak, Fabio Montagnaro, Teresa J Bandosz
Highly porous carbon textiles were modified by impregnation with either Urea, Thiourea, Dicyandiamide or Penicillin G followed by heat treatment at 800 oC. This resulted in an incorporation of nitrogen or nitrogen and sulfur heteroatoms in various configurations to the carbon surface. The volume of pores, and especially ultramicropores, was also affected to various extents. The modified textiles were then used as adsorbents of formaldehyde (1 ppmv) in dynamic conditions. The modifications applied significantly improved the adsorptive performance...
February 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460732/emergence-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-12f-after-sequential-introduction-of-7-and-13-valent-vaccines-israel
#14
Assaf Rokney, Shalom Ben-Shimol, Zinaida Korenman, Nurith Porat, Zeev Gorodnitzky, Noga Givon-Lavi, Merav Ron, Vered Agmon, Ron Dagan, Lea Valinsky
Israel implemented use of 7- and 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine in 2009 and 2010, respectively. We describe results of prospective, population-based, nationwide active surveillance of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 12F (Sp12F) invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) dynamics in the 7 years after vaccine introduction. Of 4,573 IPD episodes during July 2009-June 2016, a total of 434 (9.5%) were caused by Sp12F. Sp12F IPD rates (cases/100,000 population) increased in children <5 years of age, from 1.44 in 2009-2010 to >3...
March 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460460/phosphoric-acid-catalyzed-asymmetric-2-2-cyclization-penicillin-penillonic-acid-rearrangement
#15
Ming Zhang, Changjun Yu, Junqiu Xie, Xudong Xun, Wangsheng Sun, Liang Hong, Rui Wang
The first example of asymmetric penicillin-penillonic acid (PPA) rearrangement was reported that is based on the first [2+2] cyclization followed by acid-catalyzed asymmetric rearrangement. In the presence of a phosphoric acid catalyst, the reaction of azlactones with β-carbolines generates α-amino-β-lactams, which undergo PPA rearrangement with high selectivities. This process represents the first [2+2] cyclization of azlactones with imines and the first PPA rearrangement, which are linked together by the phosphoric acid catalyst...
February 19, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457285/vaginal-isolation-of-beta-haemolytic-streptococcus-from-bitches-with-and-without-neonatal-deaths-in-the-litters
#16
A E Guerrero, M C Stornelli, S B Jurado, G Giacoboni, G H Sguazza, R L de la Sota, M A Stornelli
The aim of the study was to identify beta-haemolytic streptococci in the vagina of bitches who had delivered healthy litters and bitches who had delivered litters in which neonatal deaths occurred. Fifty-one bitches divided into two groups were used. Group 1 (G1) included 28 bitches that had delivered healthy litters and group 2 (G2) included 23 bitches that had delivered puppies who died in the neonatal period. Two vaginal samples were taken, one in proestrus and the other at the end of gestation (EG). Beta-haemolytic Streptococcus (BS) was isolated from 16 bitches (57%) in G1 and from 21 bitches (91%) in G2...
February 18, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456081/lysozyme-counteracts-%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotics-by-promoting-the-emergence-of-l-form-bacteria
#17
Yoshikazu Kawai, Katarzyna Mickiewicz, Jeff Errington
β-lactam antibiotics inhibit bacterial cell wall assembly and, under classical microbiological culture conditions that are generally hypotonic, induce explosive cell death. Here, we show that under more physiological, osmoprotective conditions, for various Gram-positive bacteria, lysis is delayed or abolished, apparently because inhibition of class A penicillin-binding protein leads to a block in autolytic activity. Although these cells still then die by other mechanisms, exogenous lytic enzymes, such as lysozyme, can rescue viability by enabling the escape of cell wall-deficient "L-form" bacteria...
January 31, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454049/emergence-of-vancomycin-intermediate-and-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-among-methicillin-resistant-s-aureus-isolated-from-clinical-specimens-in-the-northwest-of-iran
#18
Maryam Ghahremani, Nima Hosseini Jazani, Yaeghob Sharifi
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the frequency, the, phenotypic and molecular characteristics of methicillin- resistant, Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA), from clinical specimens at three university teaching hospitals in Urmia-North West of Iran (2012- 2015). METHODS: After identification of the isolates, the antibiotic, susceptibility, the presence of mecA, vanA, pvl genes and staphylococcal, cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing were evaluated...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453055/enhanced-electrosynthesis-performance-of-moorella-thermoautotrophica-by-improving-cell-permeability
#19
Shanshan Chen, Yanlun Fang, Xianyue Jing, Hailin Luo, Jing Chen, Shungui Zhou
Microbial electrosynthesis systems (MES) are promising devices in which microbes obtain electrons from electrodes to produce extracellular multicarbon compounds. This study investigates whether improvement in cell permeability can enhance electrosynthesis performance of Gram-positive Moorella thermoautotrophica in MES. Results showed that when ≤30mg/L penicillin was added, the cell permeability was doubled, and the electron uptake per biomass (including both cathode-associated biomass and suspended biomass) was 1...
February 8, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448094/the-prevalence-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-listeria-spp-in-raw-milk-and-traditional-dairy-products-delivered-in-yazd-central-iran-2016
#20
Fateme Akrami-Mohajeri, Zahra Derakhshan, Margherita Ferrantee, Negar Hamidiyan, Meysam Soleymani, Gea Oliveri Conti
Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen which its data in Iranian dairy products is limited. A total of 545 samples of traditional dairy products (raw milk, traditional cheese, traditional butter, traditional curd, and traditional ice cream) were collected from traditional dairy shops located in Yazd, Iran. L. monocytogenes was isolated, and positive samples were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Antibiotic sensitivity test was conducted to determine the antibiotic resistance. Listeria species were isolated from 11...
February 12, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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