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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635967/social-behaviour-involving-drug-resistance-the-role-of-initial-density-initial-frequency-and-population-structure-in-shaping-the-effect-of-antibiotic-resistance-as-a-public-good
#1
I L Domingues, J A Gama, L M Carvalho, F Dionisio
Bacteria sometimes cooperate with co-inhabiting cells. Pathogenic bacteria, for example, often produce and excrete virulence factors, eventually benefitting both producer and non-producer cells. The role of social interactions involving antibiotic resistance, however, has been more elusive. Enzymes that inactivate β-lactam antibiotics such as ampicillin or penicillin (β-lactamases) are good candidates as public goods. Nonetheless, it has been claimed that bacteria harbouring plasmids of natural origin coding for β-lactamase almost do not protect sensitive bacteria...
June 21, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635638/antibiotic-concentrations-decrease-during-wastewater-treatment-but-persist-at-low-levels-in-reclaimed-water
#2
Prachi Kulkarni, Nathan D Olson, Greg A Raspanti, Rachel E Rosenberg Goldstein, Shawn G Gibbs, Amir Sapkota, Amy R Sapkota
Reclaimed water has emerged as a potential irrigation solution to freshwater shortages. However, limited data exist on the persistence of antibiotics in reclaimed water used for irrigation. Therefore, we examined the fate of nine commonly-used antibiotics (ampicillin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, linezolid, oxacillin, oxolinic acid, penicillin G, pipemidic acid, and tetracycline) in differentially treated wastewater and reclaimed water from two U.S. regions. We collected 72 samples from two Mid-Atlantic and two Midwest treatment plants, as well as one Mid-Atlantic spray irrigation site...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633709/primary-pulmonary-actinomycosis-a-retrospective-analysis-of-145-cases-in-mainland-china
#3
M Zhang, X-Y Zhang, Y-B Chen
OBJECTIVE: To improve our understanding of pulmonary actinomycosis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 145 cases in mainland China was conducted. RESULTS: The male:female ratio was 2.7:1. Mean age at diagnosis was 48 years (± 12). Main symptoms were cough (87.6%), expectoration (40%), blood-stained sputum (37.2%), fever (26.9%), chest pain (24.8%) and haemoptysis (16.6%). Eighty-eight (60.7%) patients had no underlying disease. Only five patients received a correct initial diagnosis; 60 patients were misdiagnosed with lung cancer, followed by pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and lung abscess...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632991/uncovering-the-repertoire-of-fungal-secondary-metabolites-from-fleming-s-lab-to-the-international-space-station
#4
Tomasz Boruta
Fungi produce a variety of secondary metabolites (SMs), low-molecular weight compounds associated with many potentially useful biological activities. The examples of biotechnologically relevant fungal metabolites include penicillin, a beta-lactam antibiotic, and lovastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug. The discovery of pharmaceutical lead compounds within the microbial metabolic pools relies on the selection and biochemical characterization of promising strains. Not all SMs are produced under standard cultivation conditions, hence the uncovering of chemical potential of investigated strains often requires the use of induction strategies to awake the associated biosynthetic genes...
June 20, 2017: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631307/interventions-for-the-prevention-of-recurrent-erysipelas-and-cellulitis
#5
REVIEW
Adam Dalal, Marina Eskin-Schwartz, Daniel Mimouni, Sujoy Ray, Walford Days, Emmilia Hodak, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul
BACKGROUND: Erysipelas and cellulitis (hereafter referred to as 'cellulitis') are common bacterial skin infections usually affecting the lower extremities. Despite their burden of morbidity, the evidence for different prevention strategies is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and adverse effects of antibiotic prophylaxis or other prophylactic interventions for the prevention of recurrent episodes of cellulitis in adults aged over 16. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases up to June 2016: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS...
June 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630198/genome-evolution-to-penicillin-resistance-in-serotype-3-streptococcus-pneumoniae-by-capsular-switching
#6
Naoko Chiba, Somay Y Murayama, Miyuki Morozumi, Satoshi Iwata, Kimiko Ubukata
Streptococcus pneumoniae of serotype 3 was collected from cases of invasive pneumococcal disease (n = 124) throughout Japan from April 2010 to March 2013. A penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP) isolate from an adult patient, KK0981 of serotype 3, was identified among these strains. Whole-genome analysis characterized this PRSP as a recombinant strain derived from PRSP of serotype 23F with the cps-locus (20.3 kb) replaced by that of a penicillin-susceptible strain of serotype 3.
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630190/%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotics-with-a-high-affinity-for-pbp2-act-synergistically-with-the-ftsz-targeting-agent-txa707-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#7
Edgar Ferrer-González, Malvika Kaul, Ajit K Parhi, Edmond J LaVoie, Daniel S Pilch
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a multi-drug resistant pathogen that poses a significant risk to global health today. We have developed a promising new FtsZ-targeting agent (TXA707) with potent activity against MRSA isolates resistant to current standard-of-care antibiotics. Here we present results that demonstrate differing extents of synergy between TXA707 and a broad range of β-lactam antibiotics (including six cephalosporins, two penicillins, and two carbapenems) against MRSA. To explore whether there is a correlation between the extent of synergy and the preferential antibacterial target of each β-lactam, we determined the binding affinities of the β-lactam antibiotics for each of the four native penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) of S...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627700/isolation-of-rat-schwann-cells-based-on-cell-sorting
#8
Mi Shen, Wei Tang, Zheng Cao, Xuemin Cao, Fei Ding
The present study presented a protocol that can be used to obtain rapidly a high purity of proliferating rat Schwann cells from freshly dissociated rat peripheral nerves. The sciatic nerves of newborn rats (1‑3 day old) were dissociated, and the Schwann cells (SCs) were purified using fluorescence‑activated cell sorting (FACS) based on the SC membrane‑specific expression of the low‑affinity nerve growth factor receptor, p75NGFR and oligodendrocyte marker 4. Following sorting, the cells were plated on poly‑l‑lysine‑coated dishes in SC culture medium containing DMEM with 10% FBS, 1% penicillin/streptomycin, 2 µM forskolin and 10 ng/ml HRG...
June 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627373/development-and-application-of-a-population-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model-for-penicillin-g-in-swine-and-cattle-for-food-safety-assessment
#9
Miao Li, Ronette Gehring, Jim E Riviere, Zhoumeng Lin
Penicillin G is a widely used antimicrobial in food-producing animals, and one of the most predominant drug residues in animal-derived food products. Due to reduced sensitivity of bacteria to penicillin, extralabel use of penicillin G is common, which may lead to violative residues in edible tissues and cause adverse reactions in consumers. This study aimed to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict drug residues in edible tissues and estimate extended withdrawal intervals for penicillin G in swine and cattle...
June 13, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626738/streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-prevalence-and-antibiotic-resistance-among-young-children-with-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-south-india
#10
Savitha Nagaraj, Bhuvanesh Sukhlal Kalal, Anand Manoharan, Anita Shet
INTRODUCTION: We performed a study to describe the clinical profile, antimicrobial susceptibility and prevalent serotypes of pneumococcal isolates from children with suspected invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) admitted to a tertiary care hospital in South India. METHODS: Hospitalized children, ≤ 5 years with fever (>38 °C); increased respiratory rate or neurological symptoms were recruited, (as part of the Alliance for Surveillance of Invasive Pneumococci - ASIP - project) from January 2011 to March 2013...
June 2017: Germs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625768/screening-and-characterization-of-lactic-acid-bacterial-strains-that-produce-fermented-milk-and-reduce-cholesterol-levels
#11
Xuefang Guan, Qingxian Xu, Yi Zheng, Lei Qian, Bin Lin
OBJECTIVE: To screen for and characterize lactic acid bacteria strains with the ability to produce fermented milk and reduce cholesterol levels. METHODS: The strains were isolated from traditional fermented milk in China. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of cholesterol-reduction were used to identify and verify strains of interest. Characteristics were analyzed using spectrophotometry and plate counting assays. RESULTS: The isolate HLX37 consistently produced fermented milk with strong cholesterol-reducing properties was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (accession number: KR105940) and was thus selected for further study...
June 2, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625021/antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-elective-hysterectomy
#12
REVIEW
Reuben Olugbenga Ayeleke, Selma Mourad, Jane Marjoribanks, Karim A Calis, Vanessa Jordan
BACKGROUND: Elective hysterectomy is commonly performed for benign gynaecological conditions. Hysterectomy can be performed abdominally, laparoscopically, or vaginally, with or without laparoscopic assistance. Antibiotic prophylaxis consists of administration of antibiotics to reduce the rate of postoperative infection, which otherwise affects 40%-50% of women after vaginal hysterectomy, and more than 20% after abdominal hysterectomy. No Cochrane review has systematically assessed evidence on this topic...
June 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624904/the-effect-of-light-on-bacterial-activity-in-a-seaweed-holobiont
#13
Sergio A Coelho-Souza, Stuart R Jenkins, Antonio Casarin, Maria Helena Baeta-Neves, Leonardo T Salgado, Jean R D Guimaraes, Ricardo Coutinho
Holobionts are characterized by the relationship between host and their associated organisms such as the biofilm associated with macroalgae. Considering that light is essential to macroalgae survival, the aim of this study was to verify the effect of light on the heterotrophic activity in biofilms of the brown macroalgae Sargassum furcatum during its growth cycle. Measurements of heterotrophic activity were done under natural light levels at different times during a daily cycle and under an artificial extinction of natural light during the afternoon...
June 17, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623109/serotype-distribution-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolated-from-adult-respiratory-tract-infections-in-nationwide-japanese-surveillances-from-2006-to-2014
#14
Hisashi Shoji, Masayuki Maeda, Takahiro Takuma, Yoshihito Niki
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Reports on the efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been received from many countries. However, in countries where the 7-valent PCV (PCV7) and 13-valent PCV (PCV13) were introduced, overall coverage of the serotypes by the vaccine gradually decreased due to pneumococcal serotype replacement. The aim of this study is to assess the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes and to also provide basic data on adult respiratory infection in Japan. METHODS: We analyzed 1086 Streptococcus pneumoniae strains that had been isolated from respiratory tract infection specimens in adult patients from 2006 to 2014...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620369/characterization-of-bile-salt-hydrolase-from-lactobacillus-gasseri-fr4-and-demonstration-of-its-substrate-specificity-and-inhibitory-mechanism-using-molecular-docking-analysis
#15
Rizwana Parveen Rani, Marimuthu Anandharaj, Abraham David Ravindran
Probiotic bacteria are beneficial to the health of poultry animals, thus are used as alternative candidates for antibiotics used as growth promoters (AGPs). However, they also reduce the body weight gain due to innate bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity. Hence, the addition of a suitable BSH inhibitor along with the probiotic feed can decrease the BSH activity. In this study, a BSH gene (981 bp) encoding 326-amino acids was identified from the genome of Lactobacillus gasseri FR4 (LgBSH). The LgBSH-encoding gene was cloned and purified using an Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) expression system, and its molecular weight (37 kDa) was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and a Western blot analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620316/incidence-and-antimicrobial-sensitivity-profiles-of-normal-conjunctiva-bacterial-flora-in-the-central-area-of-china-a-hospital-based-study
#16
Hua Tao, Juan Wang, Lei Li, Hui-Zhi Zhang, Meng-Ping Chen, Le Li
Objective: To study the distribution and patterns of resistance to antimicrobial agents of normal conjunctival bacteria. Materials and Methods: Conjunctival specimens were collected from 8,224 patients and then cultured, which underwent antimicrobial susceptibility test following standard methods. Patients with infectious symptoms such as erythema or oedema and those using systemic or topical antibiotics within 1 month were excluded. Results: In this study, the incidence of isolated bacteria was 24.2%. The middle aged group of 41-65 years presented the lowest rate of bacterial isolation which was 19...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620262/prevalence-of-multiple-drug-resistant-streptococcus-suis-in-and-around-guwahati-india
#17
Mrinalee Devi, Jyoti B Dutta, Swaraj Rajkhowa, Dhireswar Kalita, Girindra Kumar Saikia, Bipin Chandra Das, Razibuddin Ahmed Hazarika, Gauranga Mahato
AIM: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis and their resistance patterns isolated from both clinically healthy carriers and diseased pigs in and around Guwahati, Assam, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 497 samples were collected during October, 2012, to April, 2014, from clinically healthy (n=67) and diseased (n=230) pigs of varying age and either sex maintained under organized and unorganized farming systems...
May 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619802/draft-genome-sequences-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-morganella-morganii-strains-aa1-and-av1-isolated-from-a-freshwater-lake-and-eicchorniacrassipes-roots
#18
Pushpa Lata, Subramaniam S Govindarajan, Feng Qi, Jian-Liang Li, Santosh K Maurya, Malaya K Sahoo
Two strains of Morganella morganii, AA1 and AV1, were isolated from freshwater and Eicchornia crassipes roots, respectively. Here, we report their draft genome sequences, which are ~3.6 Mb and have 51% G+C content. The predicted coding sequences (3,259 for strain AA1 and 3,345 for strain AV1) encode beta-lactamases, transpeptidases, and penicillin-binding proteins.
June 15, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617789/adequate-adherence-to-benzathine-penicillin-secondary-prophylaxis-following-the-diagnosis-of-rheumatic-heart-disease-by-echocardiographic-screening
#19
Nicola Culliford-Semmens, Elizabeth Tilton, Rachel Webb, Diana Lennon, Belinda Paku, John Malcolm, Sandi French, Nikki Blair, Nigel Wilson
AIMS: The primary aim of this study was to determine adherence to benzathine penicillin (BPG) for individuals diagnosed with rheumatic heart disease (RHD) by echocardiographic screening between 2007-2012. METHODS: BPG records were obtained for 57 patients, median age 12 at time of diagnosis. A 'days at risk' analysis was undertaken. Annual adherence was calculated for each individual. A comparison with the Wellington region's Rheumatic Fever 2013 adherence data was undertaken...
June 16, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617524/high-prevalence-of-methicillin-resistant-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-isolated-from-a-university-environment-in-thailand
#20
Rathanin Seng, Udomluk Leungtongkam, Rapee Thummeepak, Wassana Chatdumrong, Sutthirat Sitthisak
The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize the molecular epidemiology of the methicillin-resistant staphylococci in the general university environment, where all five locations; the library, restrooms, canteens, computer rooms and outdoor surfaces, are in common use by a large population of students. We used Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) supplemented with 4 μg/ml of oxacillin to screen the methicillin-resistant staphylococci. The species level was identified by PCR of rdr (Staphylococcus epidermidis), groESL (Staphylococcus haemolyticus) and nuc (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus warneri) genes and DNA sequencing of tuf and dnaJ genes...
June 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
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