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Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090315/chronic-mucocutaneous-candidiasis-disease-associated-with-inborn-errors-of-il-17-immunity
#1
REVIEW
Satoshi Okada, Anne Puel, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Masao Kobayashi
Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is characterized by recurrent or persistent infections affecting the nails, skin and oral and genital mucosae caused by Candida spp., mainly Candida albicans. CMC is an infectious phenotype in patients with inherited or acquired T-cell deficiency. Patients with autosomal-dominant (AD) hyper IgE syndrome (HIES), AD signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) gain-of-function, autosomal-recessive (AR) deficiencies in interleukin (IL)-12 receptor β1 (IL-12Rβ1), IL-12p40, caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9) or retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γT (RORγT) or AR autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) develop CMC as a major infectious phenotype that is categorized as Syndromic CMC...
December 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065965/lessons-from-a-seven-year-experience-of-paediatric-hiv-in-pakistan-a-single-centre-experience
#2
Ejaz Ahmed Khan
OBJECTIVE: To describe demographic, clinical and immunologic features of children with human immunodeficiency virus. METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted at the Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from 2005 to 2011, and comprised children with human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Patients with detailed physical examination and appropriate investigations and those eligible for therapy were included. SPSS 21 was used for data analysis...
January 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057195/the-persistent-problem-of-late-hiv-diagnosis-in-people-with-aids-a-population-based-study-in-italy-1999-2013
#3
M Taborelli, S Virdone, L Camoni, V Regine, A Zucchetto, L Frova, E Grande, S Boros, L Dal Maso, P De Paoli, D Serraino, B Suligoi
OBJECTIVES: Despite the wide accessibility to free human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing and combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), late HIV diagnosis remains common with severe consequences at individual and population level. This study aimed to describe trends of late HIV testing and to identify their determinants in the late cART era in Italy. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a population-based, nationwide analysis of the Italian National AIDS Registry data (AIDS - acquired immune deficiency syndrome) for the years 1999-2013...
January 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051020/impact-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-the-spread-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-in-chaoyang-district-beijing-china-using-the-asian-epidemic-model
#4
Li-Li Tao, Min Liu, Shu-Ming Li, Jue Liu, Shu-Lin Jiang, Li-Juan Wang, Feng-Ji Luo, Ning Wang
BACKGROUND: Successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing the infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We conducted a study to predict the potential effect of ART on the spread of HIV in Chaoyang District, Beijing, China, using the Asian Epidemic Model (AEM). METHODS: The AEM baseline workbook was used to determine the current infection status and to project the future spread of HIV under current conditions. We changed the input on the ART coverage from 2014 to 2025 and also modified the treatment eligibility in the AEM intervention workbook, in order to allow for analysis of the projected downstream impact of ART...
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050367/evaluation-of-baseline-cd4-t-cell-counts-and-art-requirement-in-newly-diagnosed-hiv-seropositive-individuals-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-northern-india
#5
Sonali Bhattar, Bhanu Mehra, Preena Bhalla, Deepti Rawat
INTRODUCTION: Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) has changed the outlook of Human Immune-deficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients worldwide. AIM: To analyse the trends in baseline CD4+ T cell counts and ART requirements in newly diagnosed HIV seropositive individuals in a Tertiary care hospital of Northern India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Out of 1263 HIV seropositive clients identified from January 2012 to June 2014, the baseline CD4+ T cell counts of only those 470 clients were analysed, who registered at the linked ART centre...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050264/therapy-of-hiv-infection-current-approaches-and-prospects
#6
M M Prokofjeva, S N Kochetkov, V S Prassolov
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the causative agent of one of the most dangerous human diseases - the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Over the past 30 years since the discovery of HIV-1, a number of antiviral drugs have been developed to suppress various stages of the HIV-1 life cycle. This approach has enables the suppression of virus replication in the body, which significantly prolongs the life of HIV patients. The main downside of the method is the development of viral resistance to many anti-HIV drugs, which requires the creation of new drugs effective against drug-resistant viral forms...
October 2016: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029131/assessment-of-a-culturally-tailored-sexual-health-education-program-for-african-american-youth
#7
Tiffany Zellner Lawrence, Tabia Henry Akintobi, Assia Miller, Elaine Archie-Booker, Tarita Johnson, Donoria Evans
African American youth are affected disproportionately by sexually transmitted infections (STIs), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and teenage pregnancy when compared to other racial groups. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the To Help Young People Establish (2 HYPE) Abstinence Club, a behavioral intervention designed to promote delayed sexual activity among African American youth ages 12-18 in Atlanta, Georgia. The intervention included 20 h of curriculum and creative arts instruction...
December 24, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018927/meningococcal-disease-in-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-a-review-of-cases-reported-through-active-surveillance-in-the-united-states-2000-2008
#8
Christine M Harris, Henry M Wu, Jianmin Li, H Irene Hall, Adria Lee, Elizabeth Zell, Lee H Harrison, Susan Petit, Monica M Farley, Ruth Lynfield, Lisa Miller, Megin Nichols, Arthur Reingold, William Schaffner, Ann Thomas, Jessica R MacNeil, Thomas A Clark, Amanda C Cohn
BACKGROUND: Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is an established risk factor for several bacterial infections, the association between HIV infection and meningococcal disease remains unclear. METHODS: Expanded chart reviews were completed on persons with meningococcal disease and HIV infection reported from 2000 through 2008 from 9 US sites participating in an active population-based surveillance system for meningococcal disease. The incidence of meningococcal disease among patients meeting Centers for Disease Control and Prevention acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) surveillance criteria was estimated using data from the National HIV Surveillance System for the participating sites...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981421/identification-of-binding-mode-and-prospective-structural-features-of-novel-nef-protein-inhibitors-as-potential-anti-hiv-drugs
#9
Suri Moonsamy, Soumendranath Bhakat, Muthusamy Ramesh, Mahmoud E S Soliman
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative factor (Nef) protein is an accessory pathogenic factor, which plays a significant role in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Nef deficient HIV virus took a longer time to progress into AIDS. Therefore, targeting Nef protein is considered as a key strategy towards HIV/AIDS treatment. Up-to-date, only few compounds were reported as Nef inhibitors. This has prompted us to provide a first account of an integrated computational framework in order to identify more potential Nef inhibitors...
December 16, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938826/can-the-success-of-hiv-scale-up-advance-the-global-chronic-ncd-agenda
#10
REVIEW
Anton M Palma, Miriam Rabkin, Harriet Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Pido Bongomin, Nomthandazo Lukhele, Xolisile Dlamini, Altaye Kidane, Wafaa M El-Sadr
Noncommunicable diseases (NCD) are the leading causes of death and disability worldwide but have received suboptimal attention and funding from the global health community. Although the first United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) for NCD in 2011 aimed to stimulate donor funding and political action, only 1.3% of official development assistance for health was allocated to NCD in 2015, even less than in 2011. In stark contrast, the UNGASS on human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in 2001 sparked billions of dollars in funding for HIV and enabled millions of HIV-infected individuals to access antiretroviral treatment...
December 2016: Global Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931306/idiopathic-cd4-lymphocytopenia
#11
Joel P Brooks, Gisoo Ghaffari
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia (ICL) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology. Diagnostic criteria include a persistent CD4 T-cell lymphopenia with no underlying primary or secondary immune deficiencies and a CD4 T-cell count of 300 cells/mL or 20% total lymphocyte on multiple occasions. OBJECTIVE: To increase awareness of ICL and to provide a review of the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and management of this disease process. Presently, many of these patients receive prophylactic treatment similar to other T-cell deficient conditions, most notably patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; however, the same indications may not necessarily apply to this patient population because the T cells are not affected by a virus as in HIV...
November 2016: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931277/american-academy-of-allergy-asthma-immunology-membership-experience-with-allergen-immunotherapy-safety-in-patients-with-specific-medical-conditions
#12
Dsire E S Larenas-Linnemann, David W Hauswirth, Christopher W Calabria, Lawrence D Sher, Matthew A Rank
BACKGROUND: Little data in the literature exist concerning patients with certain underlying medical conditions who receive allergen subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). OBJECTIVE: To survey allergists' experience with SCIT in patients with medical conditions considered to impose an elevated risk for untoward outcomes. METHODS: A Web-based survey was conducted among members of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma Immunology to query about their experience with SCIT in patients with certain medical conditions...
September 2016: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926931/microbial-translocation-and-inflammation-occur-in-hyperacute-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-and-compromise-host-control-of-virus-replication
#13
Adam J Ericsen, Michael Lauck, Mariel S Mohns, Sarah R DiNapoli, James P Mutschler, Justin M Greene, Jason T Weinfurter, Gabrielle Lehrer-Brey, Trent M Prall, Samantha M Gieger, Connor R Buechler, Kristin A Crosno, Eric J Peterson, Matthew R Reynolds, Roger W Wiseman, Benjamin J Burwitz, Jacob D Estes, Jonah B Sacha, Thomas C Friedrich, Jason M Brenchley, David H O'Connor
Within the first three weeks of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, virus replication peaks in peripheral blood. Despite the critical, causal role of virus replication in determining transmissibility and kinetics of progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), there is limited understanding of the conditions required to transform the small localized transmitted founder virus population into a large and heterogeneous systemic infection. Here we show that during the hyperacute "pre-peak" phase of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in macaques, high levels of microbial DNA transiently translocate into peripheral blood...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914221/prevalence-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-hiv-coinfection-in-southern-brazil
#14
Dulce Stauffert, Mariangela Freitas da Silveira, Marília Arndt Mesenburg, Adriane Brod Manta, Alessandra da Silva Dutra, Guilherme Lucas de Oliveira Bicca, Marcos Marreiro Villela
Chagas disease reactivation has been a defining condition for acquired immune deficiency syndrome in Brazil for individuals coinfected with Trypanosoma cruzi and HIV since 2004. Although the first coinfection case was reported in the 1980s, its prevalence has not been firmly established. In order to know coinfection prevalence, a cross-sectional study of 200 HIV patients was performed between January and July 2013 in the city of Pelotas, in southern Rio Grande do Sul, an endemic area for Chagas disease. Ten subjects were found positive for T...
November 30, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904599/elimination-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-syphilis-in-cuba-a-stepping-stone-toward-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome-free-generation
#15
Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890948/study-of-infections-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-acquired-immunodeficiency-syndrome-patients-in-shadan-hospital-telangana-india
#16
Sukumar Gajjala Reddy, Syed Yousuf Ali, Azheel Khalidi
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemicity is a major concern today as it causes greater loss of productivity than any other disease. HIV infection leads to profound immune deficiency and patients become highly susceptible to opportunistic infections (OIs). HIV epidemic in India is heterogeneous in nature, both in terms of routes of transmission as well as geographical spread. AIMS: (1) Determine prevalence of OIs among HIV-seropositive patients and their relation to CD4 count and to focus on the routes of transmission...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876685/efficacy-of-mobile-serious-games-in-increasing-hiv-risk-perception-in-swaziland-a-randomized-control-trial-sgprev-trial-research-protocol
#17
Bhekumusa Wellington Lukhele, Patou Musumari, Christina El-Saaidi, Teeranee Techasrivichien, S Pilar Suguimoto, Masako Ono Kihara, Masahiro Kihara
BACKGROUND: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) continue to be a major public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), particularly in Swaziland, which has the highest HIV prevalence in this region. A wide range of strategies and interventions have been used to promote behavior change, though almost all such interventions have involved mass media. Therefore, innovative behavior change strategies beyond mass media communication are urgently needed...
November 22, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872774/pulmonary-kaposi-sarcoma-an-uncommon-cause-of-respiratory-failure-in-the-era-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Stanley M Nwabudike, Stefan Hemmings, Yonette Paul, Yordanis Habtegebriel, Octavius Polk, Alem Mehari
Kaposi Sarcoma (KS) is the most common malignancy associated with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and is caused by Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV 8) or Kaposi Sarcoma Herpesvirus (KSHV). In about 90% of cases Kaposi Sarcoma is associated with cutaneous lesions; however visceral disease can occur in the absence of cutaneous involvement. In the era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), the incidence of KS has declined. Clinical features of pulmonary KS might be difficult to distinguish from pneumonia in the immunocompromised patients and could lead to diagnostic challenges...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869733/antiviral-therapy-by-hiv-1-broadly-neutralizing-and-inhibitory-antibodies
#19
REVIEW
Zhiqing Zhang, Shaowei Li, Ying Gu, Ningshao Xia
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), a global epidemic for more than three decades. HIV-1 replication is primarily controlled through antiretroviral therapy (ART) but this treatment does not cure HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, there is increasing viral resistance to ART, and side effects associated with long-term therapy. Consequently, there is a need of alternative candidates for HIV-1 prevention and therapy. Recent advances have discovered multiple broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867916/impact-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-in-the-pathogenesis-and-outcome-of-patients-with-glioblastoma-multiforme
#20
Winward Choy, Carlito Lagman, Seung J Lee, Timothy T Bui, Michael Safaee, Isaac Yang
BACKGROUND: Improvement in antiviral therapies have been accompanied by an increased frequency of non-Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) defining malignancies, such as glioblastoma multiforme. Here, we investigated all reported cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients with glioblastoma and evaluated their clinical outcomes. A comprehensive review of the molecular pathogenetic mechanisms underlying glioblastoma development in the setting of HIV/AIDS is provided...
October 2016: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
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