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Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439674/establishing-a-clinical-phenotype-for-cachexia-in-end-stage-kidney-disease-study-protocol
#1
Joanne Reid, Helen R Noble, Gary Adamson, Andrew Davenport, Ken Farrington, Denis Fouque, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, John Mallett, C McKeaveney, S Porter, David S Seres, Joanne Shields, Adrian Slee, Miles D Witham, Alexander P Maxwell
BACKGROUND: Surveys using traditional measures of nutritional status indicate that muscle wasting is common among persons with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Up to 75% of adults undergoing maintenance dialysis show some evidence of muscle wasting. ESKD is associated with an increase in inflammatory cytokines and can result in cachexia, with the loss of muscle and fat stores. At present, only limited data are available on the classification of wasting experienced by persons with ESKD...
February 13, 2018: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438790/cervical-spinal-fusion-16-year-trends-in-epidemiology-indications-and-in-hospital-outcomes-by-surgical-approach
#2
Stephan N Salzmann, Peter B Derman, Lukas P Lampe, Janina Kueper, Ting Jung Pan, Jingyan Yang, Jennifer Shue, Federico P Girardi, Stephen Lyman, Alexander P Hughes
BACKGROUND: The rate of cervical spinal fusion has been increasing significantly. However, there is paucity of literature describing trends based on surgical approach using complete population databases. We investigated the approach-based trends in epidemiology, indications and in-hospital outcomes of cervical spinal fusion. METHODS: New York's Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database was queried to identify patients who underwent primary subaxial cervical fusion from 1997-2012...
February 10, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432596/high-turnover-of-tissue-macrophages-contributes-to-tuberculosis-reactivation-in-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-rhesus-macaques
#3
Marcelo J Kuroda, Chie Sugimoto, Yanhui Cai, Kristen M Merino, Smriti Mehra, Mariluz Araínga, Chad J Roy, Cecily C Midkiff, Xavier Alvarez, Elizabeth S Didier, Deepak Kaushal
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) profoundly affect the immune system and synergistically accelerate disease progression. It is believed that CD4+ T-cell depletion by HIV is the major cause of immunodeficiency and reactivation of latent TB. Previous studies demonstrated that blood monocyte turnover concurrent with tissue macrophage death from virus infection better predicted AIDS onset than CD4+ T-cell depletion in macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431588/aptamers-in-hiv-research-diagnosis-and-therapy
#4
Jyoti Bala, Srinivasan Chinnapaiyan, Rajib Kumar Dutta, Hoshang Unwalla
Aptamers are high affinity single-stranded nucleic acid or protein ligands which exhibit specificity and avidity comparable to, or exceeding that of antibodies and can be generated against most targets. The functionality of aptamers is based on their unique tertiary structure, complexity and their ability to attain unique binding pockets by folding. Aptamers are selected in vitro by a process called Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment (SELEX). The Kd values for the selected aptamer are often in the picomolar to low nanomolar range...
February 12, 2018: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426734/inclusion-body-myositis-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-a-new-case-report-and-literature-review
#5
Priscille Couture, Edoardo Malfatti, Geneviève Morau, Alexis Mathian, Fleur Cohen-Aubart, Hubert Nielly, Zahir Amoura, Patrick Cherin
Prevalence of muscle disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is less than 1% of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM) is observed in a few cases of patients infected by retroviruses such as HIV-1. A Caucasian man was diagnosed with HIV when he was 30 years old. The viral load was undetectable and CD4 cell count was 600/mm3 when the diagnosis of inclusion body myositis was confirmed. Histological findings were typical of IBM. The treatment consisted of immunoglobulin therapy for three years without effect...
January 10, 2018: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421957/neurologic-involvement-in-primary-immunodeficiency-disorders
#6
Mirac Yildirim, Deniz Cagdas Ayvaz, Bahadir Konuskan, Rahsan Gocmen, Ilhan Tezcan, Meral Topcu, Haluk Topaloglu, Banu Anlar
The nervous system may be affected in primary immune deficiency (PID) syndromes through infectious, autoimmune, neoplastic mechanisms, or as a primary feature of the syndrome. However certain neurologic problems do not conform to these etiopathogenetic groups. We retrospectively examined PID patients seen in neurology consultation between 2014 and 2017 in order to determine the spectrum of nervous system involvement. Among patients with confirmed neurologic problems (n = 35), common manifestations were encephalopathy and global developmental/cognitive delay...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420696/sensitivity-analyses-for-misclassification-of-cause-of-death-in-the-parametric-g-formula
#7
Jessie K Edwards, Stephen R Cole, Richard D Moore, W Christopher Mathews, Mari Kitahata, Joseph J Eron
Cause-specific mortality is an important outcome in studies of interventions to improve survival, yet causes of death can be misclassified. Here, we present an approach to perform sensitivity analyses for misclassification of cause of death in the parametric g-formula. The g-formula is useful method to estimate effects of interventions in epidemiologic research because it appropriately accounts for time-varying confounding affected by prior treatment and can estimate risk under dynamic treatment plans. We illustrate our approach using an example comparing acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related mortality under immediate and delayed treatment strategies in a cohort of therapy-naïve adults entering care for human immunodeficiency virus in the United States...
February 6, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411528/alterations-in-the-gut-microbiota-of-patients-with-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome
#8
Youlian Zhou, Zhitao Ou, Xiaoping Tang, Yongjian Zhou, Haoming Xu, Xianfei Wang, Kang Li, Jie He, Yanlei Du, Hong Wang, Ye Chen, Yuqiang Nie
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is associated with gastrointestinal disease, systemic immune activation and changes in the gut microbiota. Here, we aim to investigate the gut microbiota patterns of HIV-infected individuals and HIV-uninfected individuals in populations from South China. We enrolled 33 patients with HIV (14 participants treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy [HAART] for more than 3 months; the remaining 19 individuals had not received treatment) and 35 healthy controls (HC) for a cross-sectional comparison of gut microbiota using stool samples...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409392/hiv-aids-and-older-adults-in-cameroon-emerging-issues-and-implications-for-caregiving-and-policy-making
#9
Perpetua Lum Tanyi, André Pelser, Joseph Okeibunor
The burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) on the elderly population in three divisions within the Northwest Region of Cameroon was examined. Data for this paper were extracted from a larger study which had been conducted concerning the burden of HIV infection and AIDS on the older adults in the Northwest Region of Cameroon. Using in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs), data were collected from 36 participants who were purposively selected from the three divisions which had been chosen randomly...
December 2018: SAHARA J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402983/prediction-of-hiv-1-and-hiv-2-proteins-by-using-chou-s-pseudo-amino-acid-compositions-and-different-classifiers
#10
Juan Mei, Ji Zhao
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the retroviral agent that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The number of HIV caused deaths was about 4 million in 2016 alone; it was estimated that about 33 million to 46 million people worldwide living with HIV. The HIV disease is especially harmful because the progressive destruction of the immune system prevents the ability of forming specific antibodies and to maintain an efficacious killer T cell activity. Successful prediction of HIV protein has important significance for the biological and pharmacological functions...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398759/tubercular-mycobacterial-spindle-cell-pseudotumour-a-case-report
#11
Deba Prasad Dhibar, Kamal Kant Sahu, Surjit Singh, Amanjit Bal, Abhijit Chougale, Varun Dhir
Pseudotumour is a benign inflammatory lesion. Mycobacterial spindle cell pseudotumour (MSP) is a rare pseudotumour. It is a benign proliferation of spindle-shaped histiocytes containing acid-fast mycobacterium, commonly reported in immunocompromised patients. MSP is usually associated with mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Here, we present the case of a 38-year-old gentleman with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) who presented with low-grade fever for 1-month duration. Clinically, he had generalised lymphadenopathy...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394411/changing-epidemiology-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-northeastern-brazil-a-25-year-follow-up-of-an-urban-outbreak
#12
Ádila L M Lima, Iraci D de Lima, José F V Coutinho, Úrsula P S T de Sousa, Marcos A G Rodrigues, Mary E Wilson, Richard D Pearson, José W Queiroz, Selma M B Jerônimo
Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) continues to be a deadly parasitic disease in Brazil but the epidemiology has changed. The objective of this study was to assess the evolution of urban VL in the city of Natal, Brazil, over the past 25 y. Methods: A retrospective study of human VL was performed, considering reported cases over the past 25 y in Natal. Analyses considered the spatial distribution of VL cases, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) co-infection, Leishmania infantum infection in dogs, density of the insect vector (Lutzomyia longipalpis) and socio-economic factors...
January 31, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367431/evaluating-mismatch-repair-deficiency-in-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-challenges-and-recommendations
#13
Zishuo I Hu, Jinru Shia, Zsofia K Stadler, Anna M Varghese, Marinela Capanu, Erin Salo-Mullen, Maeve A Lowery, Luis A Diaz, Diana Mandelker, Kenneth H Yu, Alice Zervoudakis, David P Kelsen, Christine A Iacobuzio-Donahue, David S Klimstra, Leonard Saltz, Ibrahim H Sahin, Eileen M O'Reilly
PURPOSE: Immune checkpoint inhibition has been shown to generate profound and durable responses in MMR-D solid tumors and has elicited interest in detection tools and strategies to guide therapeutic decision-making. Herein we address questions on the appropriate screening, detection methods, patient selection, and initiation of therapy for MMR-D PDAC and assess the utility of NGS in providing additional prognostic and predictive information for MMR-D PDAC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Archival and prospectively acquired samples and matched normal DNA from N= 833 PDAC cases were analyzed using a hybridization capture based, NGS assay designed to perform targeted deep sequencing of all exons and selected introns of 341- 468 cancer-associated genes...
January 24, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363631/human-immunodeficiency-virus-seroprevalence-in-patients-with-invasive-cervical-cancer-in-zaria-north-western-nigeria
#14
Adamu Abdullahi, Muhammad Inuwa Mustapha, Dawotola Ayorinde David, Olasinde Tajudeen Ayodeji
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the commonest gynecological malignancy in our environment and is an Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-associated malignancy. Documented data on the Human Immune-deficiency Virus (HIV) seroprevalence among patients with cervical cancer in our environment are scarce. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of HIV infection in women with cancer of the cervix. STUDY DESIGN: The work is a descriptive survey by design, concentrating in frequency of occurrences of prevalence of the dissease in either cases for a number of years retrospectively carried out at the Radiotherapy and Oncology Centre of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH) Zaria...
January 2018: Annals of African Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361927/incidence-of-endophthalmitis-after-23-gauge-pars-plana-vitrectomy
#15
Zhong Lin, Xiaofen Feng, Liya Zheng, Nived Moonasar, Lijun Shen, Ronghan Wu, Feng Chen
BACKGROUND: Endophthalmitis is a rare but severe complication following PPV. The incidence of endophthalmitis varies between 20-gauge, 23-gauge, and 25-gauge incisions. The incidence and clinical features of endophthalmitis after 23-gauge PPV in an eye hospital in China was reported in this study. METHODS: Data of the eyes that underwent 23-gauge PPV from January 2011 to December 2014 at the Eye Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University was retrospectively collected...
January 23, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357939/inherited-thrombotic-thrombocytopenic-purpura-mimicking-immune-thrombocytopenic-purpura-during-pregnancy-a-case-report
#16
Valter Romão de Souza, Ana Beatriz Cavalcante de Oliveira, Ana Maria Vanderlei, Amanda Queiroz da Mota Silveira Aroucha, Bruna Pontes Duarte, Aureli Nunes Machado, Lívia Netto Chaer, Cláudia Wanderley de Barros Correia, Maria da Conceição de Barros Correia, Manuela Freire Hazin Costa
BACKGROUND: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is a very rare hereditary blood deficiency disorder of ADAMTS13 (von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease) and a life-threatening thrombotic microangiopathy characterized by thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. The deficiency in ADAMTS13 metalloprotease, which cleaves the von Willebrand factor, may be congenital or acquired. The congenital form is caused by inherited mutations in the ADAMTS13 gene. The diagnosis is challenging due to the nonspecific signs and symptoms, as well as the rarity of the disease...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344434/rare-multidrug-resistant-pulmonary-nocardiosis-in-aids
#17
Cherry O Onaiwu, Manasa Velagapudi, Luay Sarsam, Lindsay Utley, Lauren Bricker, Venkata Sunil Bendi, Renuga Vivekanandan
Nocardiosis is an opportunistic infection in patients with depressed cell-mediated immunity. Inhalation is the primary route for exposure via dust particles. Patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are at increased risk of disseminated disease. A challenge in the diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis is that it can mimic other pulmonary diseases. Nocardia farcinica tends to be a more virulent, multidrug-resistant strain with an increased tendency to disseminate. This report describes a 64-year-old man with AIDS found to have pulmonary nocardiosis that did not respond to standard antibiotic therapy...
November 11, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334178/factors-associated-with-perceived-accuracy-of-the-undetectable%C3%A2-%C3%A2-untransmittable-slogan-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-implications-for-messaging-scale-up-and-implementation
#18
H Jonathon Rendina, Jeffrey T Parsons
INTRODUCTION: Recent research has shown high efficacy of HIV treatment for reducing the risk of HIV transmission to sexual partners. As the efficacy of treatment as prevention (TasP) has proliferated, a new messaging campaign, Undetectable = Untransmittable, has been gaining popularity. The purpose of this paper was to assess factors associated with the perceived accuracy of this TasP messaging strategy among a large and diverse sample of gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) in order to inform subsequent efforts at large-scale and implementation of the HIV prevention message...
January 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327375/impact-of-hiv-aids-epidemic-on-human-capital-development-in-west-africa
#19
Rasaki Stephen Dauda
West Africa occupies the third position with respect to the burden of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) globally, after Southern and East Africa. About 5 million adults and children are infected with the disease in the subregion, while HIV prevalence in the general population hovers around 2% and 5%. This paper attempts to investigate the impact of HIV/AIDS epidemic on human capital development in 11 West African countries over the period 1990 to 2011. The study used a dynamic panel data modeling approach, using first difference, difference generalized methods of moment, and system generalized methods of moment estimating techniques...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299894/human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-and-hepatitis-virus-coinfection-among-hiv-infected-korean-patients-the-korea-hiv-aids-cohort-study
#20
Yong Chan Kim, Jin Young Ahn, June Myung Kim, Youn Jeong Kim, Dae Won Park, Young Kyung Yoon, Joon Young Song, Shin Woo Kim, Jin Soo Lee, Bo Youl Choi, Yun Su Choi, Ju Yeon Choi, Myung Guk Han, Chun Kang, Jun Yong Choi
BACKGROUND: Despite declines in mortality and morbidity rates of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection as the result of highly active antiretroviral therapy, liver diseases due to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are a leading cause of death among HIV-infected patients. However, HIV and HBV or HCV coinfection is still poorly documented, and more information is needed to better understand the characteristics of HIV-infected patients in Korea...
December 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
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