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Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203325/inherited-thrombocytopenia-with-a-different-type-of-gene-mutation-a-brief-literature-review-and-two-case-studies
#1
Mohammad Taghi Arzanian
Hereditary thrombocytopenias are rare bleeding disorders, which cause a deficiency of platelets in early infancy. This group of disorders is sometimes associated with abnormal phenotypes, like absence of radius. Diagnosis of this type of thrombocytopenia is usually difficult; other causes of thrombocytopenia, such as immune disorders and infections, must be ruled out. The symptoms of hereditary thrombocytopenia also vary from seldom and mild to severe bleeding and occasionally may first occur in late childhood...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198390/hiv-cause-specific-deaths-mortality-risk-factors-and-the-combined-influence-of-haart-and-late-diagnosis-in-zhejiang-china-2006-2013
#2
Lin Chen, Xiaohong Pan, Qiaoqin Ma, Jiezhe Yang, Yun Xu, Jinlei Zheng, Hui Wang, Xin Zhou, Tingting Jiang, Jun Jiang, Lin He, Jianmin Jiang
To examine patterns of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cause-specific deaths, risk factors, and the effect of interactions on mortality, we conducted a retrospective cohort study in Zhejiang, China, from 2006 to 2013. All data were downloaded from the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) Prevention and Control Information System. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess predictors of cause-specific death. The relative excess risk due to interaction and ratio of hazard ratios (RHR) were calculated for correlations between HAART, late diagnosis, and age...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193741/coinfection-of-leishmania-guyanensis-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome-report-of-a-case-of-disseminated-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-ecuador
#3
Manuel Calvopina, Cristina Aguirre, William Cevallos, Alberto Castillo, Ibrahim Abbasi, Alon Warburg
Reported herein is the first case of Leishmania-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection in Ecuador. In Ecuador, HIV infections overlap endemic areas of leishmaniasis. Immunosuppression is a well-established risk factor for developing severe disease. This is a severe case of a 32-year-old man presenting with disseminated pleomorphic ulcers, papules, and cutaneous plaque-like lesions over his whole body. Numerous amastigotes were observed in both skin scrapings and biopsies. The sequence of the cytochrome b gene confirmed the presence of Leishmania guyanensis The patient was treated but failed to respond to meglumine antimoniate and amphotericin B...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188493/serious-fungal-infections-in-chile
#4
E Alvarez Duarte, D W Denning
The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Chile are unknown. Here, we have estimated the burden of serious fungal diseases from data obtained from clinical reports, WHO reports, Chilean census, OECD reports and comprehensive literature search available on PubMed and SciELO, among other scientific resources. Due the lack of official data about fungal diseases, frequencies were calculated based on the specific populations at risk. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (>4 episodes/year) is estimated to occur in 3108/100,000...
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188492/serious-fungal-infections-in-portugal
#5
R Sabino, C Verissímo, J Brandão, C Martins, D Alves, C Pais, D W Denning
There is a lack of knowledge on the epidemiology of fungal infections worldwide because there are no reporting obligations. The aim of this study was to estimate the burden of fungal disease in Portugal as part of a global fungal burden project. Most published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates from Portugal were identified. Where no data existed, specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in those populations were used in order to estimate national incidence or prevalence, depending on the condition...
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173857/understanding-the-strategies-employed-to-cope-with-increased-numbers-of-aids-orphaned-children-in-families-in-rural-settings-a-case-of-mbeya-rural-district-tanzania
#6
Nelsensius Klau Fauk, Silivano Edson Mwakinyali, Sukma Putra, Lillian Mwanri
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to understand the strategies employed by families that adopt Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-orphaned children (Adoptive families) for coping with and mitigating the impact of AIDS in Mbeya Rural District, Tanzania. High numbers of AIDS-orphaned children aged below 18 years in Mbeya Region have led to increasing the burden of families caring for them. Understanding the coping strategies and impact mitigation activities employed by adoptive families is important in order to develop programmes to help them...
February 7, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168134/ocular-inflammatory-disease-as-a-predictor-for-in-hospital-mortality-in-patients-hospitalized-with-disseminated-tuberculosis
#7
Salil Mehta
AIM: To ascertain whether the presence of ocular inflammatory disease is a predictor for death in patients hospitalized with disseminated tuberculosis. METHODS: This is an IRB-approved retrospective study of patients admitted with a diagnosis of disseminated tuberculosis within a seven-year period (2002-2009). The following data was collected from each record: age, sex, details of previous surgeries or therapy, the findings of anterior segment examination, the findings of dilated indirect ophthalmoscopy, systemic findings, investigations done, treatment rendered, and final status (died or discharged)...
January 5, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161740/serious-fungal-infections-in-ecuador
#8
J Zurita, D W Denning, A Paz-Y-Miño, M B Solís, L M Arias
There is a dearth of data from Ecuador on the burden of life-threatening fungal disease entities; therefore, we estimated the burden of serious fungal infections in Ecuador based on the populations at risk and available epidemiological databases and publications. A full literature search was done to identify all epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates. WHO, ONU-AIDS, Index Mundi, Global Asthma Report, Globocan, and national data [Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC), Ministerio de Salud Pública (MSP), Sociedad de Lucha Contra el Cáncer (SOLCA), Instituto Nacional de Donación y Trasplante de Órganos, Tejidos y Células (INDOT)] were reviewed...
February 4, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155640/prediction-of-hiv-1-protease-cleavage-site-using-a-combination-of-sequence-structural-and-physicochemical-features
#9
Onkar Singh, Emily Chia-Yu Su
BACKGROUND: The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) aspartic protease is an important enzyme owing to its imperative part in viral development and a causative agent of deadliest disease known as acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Development of HIV-1 protease inhibitors can help understand the specificity of substrates which can restrain the replication of HIV-1, thus antagonize AIDS. However, experimental methods in identification of HIV-1 protease cleavage sites are generally time-consuming and labor-intensive...
December 23, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151066/-i-don-t-want-to-be-that-guy-walking-in-the-feminine-product-aisle-a-photovoice-exploration-of-college-men-s-perceptions-of-safer-sex-responsibility
#10
Jean M Breny, Deirdre C Lombardi
Incidence and prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continue to increase among young heterosexual men and women in the United States. Although research studies examine the reasons why these young people are not engaging in safe sex behavior, many have not explored factors beyond individual behaviors. Much of the current research focuses on young women, for the most part leaving men out of the equation. In this study, a Photovoice methodology was used to examine social norms, media messaging and perceptions of responsibility surrounding safe sex practices, specifically condom use, among male heterosexual undergraduate students...
January 1, 2017: Global Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146047/similarities-and-differences-matter-considering-the-influence-of-gender-on-hiv-prevention-programs-for-young-adults-in-an-urban-hbcu
#11
Ian Lindong, Lorece Edwards, Sabriya Dennis, Olaoluwa Fajobi
Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) disproportionately burdens African American youth and young adults. In studies conducted in Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) settings, African American youth generally perceive themselves as having a low risk of contracting HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) despite having higher rates of unprotected sexual encounters, multiple sex partners, and particularly low rates of HIV testing and awareness of HIV status...
January 29, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137224/sulfated-glycans-in-hiv-infection-and-therapy
#12
Vitor H Pomin, Francisco F Bezerra, Paulo A G Soares
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the infectious agent causative of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The number of HIV-infected people in the globe is incredibly large. Contrary to the big contamination rates, the incidence recently reported to AIDS-related deaths are fairly lower, less than 5 % of the total infected population. The reduced rates of the AIDS-associated deaths rely primarily on the growing availability, variety and efficiency of the antiretroviral treatments. During the initial molecular events of the HIV infectivity, the glycoprotein gp120 on the HIV envelop must interact with CD4 and heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans on the surface of the host cells in order to enable HIV attachment, fusion and entry into these cells...
January 27, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123964/evaluation-of-the-integrated-clinic-model-for-hiv-aids-services-in-ho-chi-minh-city-viet-nam-2013-2014
#13
V Hung, S T Nguyen, V T T Tieu, T T T Nguyen, T H Duong, S Lyss, J E Oeltmann
Setting: Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Viet Nam. Objective: To evaluate a new integrated service model for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) care. Design: In HCMC, co-located services, including voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT), HIV treatment at out-patient clinics (OPC), and methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) for persons who inject drugs, have operated under different administrative structures. In the context of decreasing international financial support, integration of these services into one administrative structure with reduced staff occurred in seven districts in HCMC between October 2013 and June 2014...
December 21, 2016: Public Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123241/a-cross-sectional-study-of-liver-function-tests-in-hiv-infected-persons-in-western-india
#14
Sunny Pathania, Navjyot Kaur, Sandeep Kumar, V K Sashindran, Pankaj Puri
BACKGROUND: Derangement of liver function tests (LFTs) is common in people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (PLHA). The cause is multifactorial. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the commonest cause and others being alcohol abuse and concomitant viral hepatitis. The aim of the research was to study the prevalence of LFT abnormalities in PLHA. METHODS: The study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital. Evaluation included a detailed history, thorough clinical examination and investigations including a haemogram, serum biochemistry, serology for hepatitis, and CD4 cell count...
January 2017: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105364/disseminated-penicillium-marneffei-infection-recurrence-in-a-non-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome-patient-a-case-report
#15
Zhixue Zhang, Fangxu Tao, Yining Li, Yudong Xiao, Zhishu Zhang, Jun Liu
Penicillium marneffei is a rare deep tissue fungal infection causing an endemic in Southeast Asia. This infection causes penicilliosis disease and is more common in patients who are immunocompromised. To date, no cases of P. marneffei infection relapse following treatment have been reported. A 36-year-old patient attended our hospital as a result of intermittent fever, cough, shortness of breath and multiple soft lesions located on the face, arms, neck and trunk. The medical radiological examination of the lung revealed multiple patchy exudative shadows, thick-walled hollow inner part of the visible lesions, bilateral pleural and pericardial effusion...
December 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100903/rhodoccocus-equi-pneumonia-and-paradoxical-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome-aids
#16
Ritika Zijoo, Ahmed Dirweesh, Nigahus Karabulut
BACKGROUND Pulmonary infections are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and can progress rapidly to respiratory failure and death without appropriate therapy. Herein, we present a rare case of an advanced HIV infection and Rhodoccocus equi (R. equi) pneumonia in a young male who had severe paradoxical immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). CASE REPORT A 47-year-old nonsmoking Hispanic man with advanced HIV infection presented with severe acute necrotizing pneumonia secondary to R...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090315/chronic-mucocutaneous-candidiasis-disease-associated-with-inborn-errors-of-il-17-immunity
#17
REVIEW
Satoshi Okada, Anne Puel, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Masao Kobayashi
Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is characterized by recurrent or persistent infections affecting the nails, skin and oral and genital mucosae caused by Candida spp., mainly Candida albicans. CMC is an infectious phenotype in patients with inherited or acquired T-cell deficiency. Patients with autosomal-dominant (AD) hyper IgE syndrome (HIES), AD signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) gain-of-function, autosomal-recessive (AR) deficiencies in interleukin (IL)-12 receptor β1 (IL-12Rβ1), IL-12p40, caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9) or retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γT (RORγT) or AR autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) develop CMC as a major infectious phenotype that is categorized as Syndromic CMC...
December 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065965/lessons-from-a-seven-year-experience-of-paediatric-hiv-in-pakistan-a-single-centre-experience
#18
Ejaz Ahmed Khan
OBJECTIVE: To describe demographic, clinical and immunologic features of children with human immunodeficiency virus. METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted at the Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from 2005 to 2011, and comprised children with human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Patients with detailed physical examination and appropriate investigations and those eligible for therapy were included. SPSS 21 was used for data analysis...
January 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057195/the-persistent-problem-of-late-hiv-diagnosis-in-people-with-aids-a-population-based-study-in-italy-1999-2013
#19
M Taborelli, S Virdone, L Camoni, V Regine, A Zucchetto, L Frova, E Grande, S Boros, L Dal Maso, P De Paoli, D Serraino, B Suligoi
OBJECTIVES: Despite the wide accessibility to free human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing and combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), late HIV diagnosis remains common with severe consequences at individual and population level. This study aimed to describe trends of late HIV testing and to identify their determinants in the late cART era in Italy. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a population-based, nationwide analysis of the Italian National AIDS Registry data (AIDS - acquired immune deficiency syndrome) for the years 1999-2013...
January 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051020/impact-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-the-spread-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-in-chaoyang-district-beijing-china-using-the-asian-epidemic-model
#20
Li-Li Tao, Min Liu, Shu-Ming Li, Jue Liu, Shu-Lin Jiang, Li-Juan Wang, Feng-Ji Luo, Ning Wang
BACKGROUND: Successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing the infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We conducted a study to predict the potential effect of ART on the spread of HIV in Chaoyang District, Beijing, China, using the Asian Epidemic Model (AEM). METHODS: The AEM baseline workbook was used to determine the current infection status and to project the future spread of HIV under current conditions. We changed the input on the ART coverage from 2014 to 2025 and also modified the treatment eligibility in the AEM intervention workbook, in order to allow for analysis of the projected downstream impact of ART...
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
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