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Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803049/modeling-aging-in-hiv-infection-in-nonhuman-primates-to-address-an-emerging-challenge-of-the-post-art-era
#1
REVIEW
Tianyu He, Elizabeth Falwell, Egidio Brocca-Cofano, Ivona Pandrea
The advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically improved both quality and length of life for subjects infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), delaying or preventing progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, the virus induces aging-related changes to the immune system which confound treatment. Additionally, the normal physiologic events that occur during aging lead to deficiencies in immunity which not only exacerbate HIV pathogenesis but also trigger a variety of comorbidities...
August 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791686/the-role-of-dna-polymerase-chain-reaction-culture-and-histopathology-in-the-diagnosis-of-cutaneous-tuberculosis
#2
Puneet Agarwal, Elangbam Nelson Singh, Uma Shankar Agarwal, Ramsingh Meena, Saroj Purohit, Surendra Kumar
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous tuberculosis (TB) is re-emerging as a significant problem in India due to increased incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), other immunosuppressive states/factors like drugs, and emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR-TB). Proper diagnosis is warranted as there is varied clinical presentation and similarity with many other diseases. OBJECTIVE: To assess the sensitivities of DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR), culture, and histopathology for the diagnosis of cutaneous TB in clinically suspected skin lesions...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789710/transplanted-human-fecal-microbiota-enhanced-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-autoantibody-responses-after-campylobacter-jejuni-infection-in-c57bl-6-mice
#3
Phillip T Brooks, Kelsey A Brakel, Julia A Bell, Christopher E Bejcek, Trey Gilpin, Jean M Brudvig, Linda S Mansfield
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter jejuni is the leading antecedent infection to the autoimmune neuropathy Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), which is accompanied by an autoimmune anti-ganglioside antibody attack on peripheral nerves. Previously, we showed that contrasting immune responses mediate C. jejuni induced colitis and autoimmunity in interleukin-10 (IL-10)-deficient mice, dependent upon the infecting strain. Strains from colitis patients elicited T helper 1 (TH1)-dependent inflammatory responses while strains from GBS patients elicited TH2-dependent autoantibody production...
August 8, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771116/traditional-health-practitioners-management-of-hiv-aids-in-rural-south-africa-in-the-era-of-widespread-antiretroviral-therapy
#4
Thembelihle Zuma, Daniel Wight, Tamsen Rochat, Mosa Moshabela
BACKGROUND: Traditional health practitioners (THPs) have been identified as a key local resource in the fight against human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in South Africa. However, their approaches to the treatment of people living with HIV (PLHIV) have been met with scepticism by some biomedical practitioners amid increasing access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). OBJECTIVE: In light of this ambivalence, this study aims to document and identify treatment approaches of THPs to the management of illness among PLHIV in the current era of widespread access to ART...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768471/unsuspected-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-presenting-as-immunoglobulin-g4-related-lymphadenopathy-a-case-report
#5
Hsing-Tse Yu, Chen-Hsiang Lee, Shun-Chen Huang, Shan-Fu Yu
Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an immune-mediated condition characterized by infiltration of the involved organs by IgG4-bearing plasma cells. The prevalence of autoimmune diseases, associated with or occurring in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, has been increasing. We describe a 58-year-old man with an undiagnosed HIV infection, which presented as chronic cervical lymphadenopathy with an elevated serum IgG4 and a very high IgE. Histologically, lymph nodes showed expanded sinusoids and burnt-out germinal centers with increased plasmacytic infiltration and collagen fiber deposition...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760729/using-digital-technologies-in-clinical-hiv-research-real-world-applications-and-considerations-for-future-work
#6
Jessica Andriesen, Sheana Bull, Janan Dietrich, Jessica E Haberer, Barbara Van Der Pol, Yegor Voronin, Kristin M Wall, Christopher Whalen, Frances Priddy
BACKGROUND: Digital technologies, especially if used in novel ways, provide a number of potential advantages to clinical research in trials related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and may greatly facilitate operations as well as data collection and analysis. These technologies may even allow answering questions that are not answerable with older technologies. However, they come with a variety of potential concerns for both the participants and the trial sponsors...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756985/concomitant-epstein-barr-virus-associated-smooth-muscle-tumor-and-granulomatous-inflammation-of-the-liver
#7
Nhu Thuy Can, James P Grenert, Poonam Vohra
Epstein-Barr Virus-associated smooth muscle tumor (EBV-SMT) is a rare mesenchymal tumor typically seen in immunocompromised patients. Here, we report a case of EBV-SMT and associated granulomatous inflammation in the liver of a 32-year-old man with history of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). To our knowledge, an association of these two lesions has not been previously reported. We review the literature and discuss pathogenesis, differential diagnosis and immunohistochemical (IHC) stains helpful for the diagnosis of this rare entity...
July 13, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749757/paracoccidioidomycosis-epidemiological-and-clinical-aspects-in-546-cases-studied-in-the-state-of-esp%C3%A3-rito-santo-brazil
#8
Paulo Mendes Peçanha, Mayara Elisa Batista Ferreira, Maria Angélica Massaroni Peçanha, Edilaine Brandão Schmidt, Mariceli Lamas de Araújo, Raphael Lubiana Zanotti, Felipe Fonseca Potratz, Nilo Eduardo Delboni Nunes, Carlos Urbano Gonçalves Ferreira, Délio Delmaestro, Aloísio Falqueto
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is an endemic disease in the southeast region of Brazil, which includes the state of Espírito Santo (ES). This historic case series analyses 546 patients treated in this state from 1978 to 2012. Patients aged from 7 to 83 years, 509 males and 37 females, yielding a ratio of 13.7:1. Most of the patients (81.4%) originated from rural areas in ES, 71.0% being farmers. A higher concentration of cases was observed in municipalities located along the western range of the state. Sixty patients (11...
July 24, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748197/incidence-long-term-outcomes-and-healthcare-utilization-of-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome-and-disseminated-mycobacterium-avium-complex-from-1992-2015
#9
Lauren F Collins, Meredith E Clement, Jason E Stout
BACKGROUND: Despite the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continue to develop late-stage complications including acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (DMAC), and death. METHODS: We performed an observational retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected adults who developed DMAC in the Duke University Health System from 1992 to 2015 to determine the incidence, long-term outcomes, and healthcare utilization of this population at high risk for poor outcomes...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730446/intracellular-reassociation-of-rna-dna-hybrids-that-activates-rnai-in-hiv-infected-cells
#10
Angelica N Martins, Weina Ke, Vaishnavi Jawahar, Morriah Striplin, Caryn Striplin, Eric O Freed, Kirill A Afonin
Human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 (HIV-1) is the major cause of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). In 2014, it was estimated that 1.2 million people died from AIDS-related illnesses. RNA interference-based therapy to block HIV replication is a field that, as of now, is without any FDA-approved drugs available for clinical use. In this chapter we describe a protocol for testing and utilizing a new approach that relies on reassociation of RNA-DNA hybrids activating RNAi and blocking HIV replication in human cells...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719316/high-mortality-and-coinfection-in-a-prospective-cohort-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome-patients-with-histoplasmosis-in-guatemala
#11
Blanca Samayoa, Monika Roy, Angela Ahlquist Cleveland, Narda Medina, Dalia Lau-Bonilla, Christina M Scheel, Beatriz L Gomez, Tom Chiller, Eduardo Arathoon
Histoplasmosis is one of the most common and deadly opportunistic infections among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome in Latin America, but due to limited diagnostic capacity in this region, few data on the burden and clinical characteristics of this disease exist. Between 2005 and 2009, we enrolled patients ≥ 18 years of age with suspected histoplasmosis at a hospital-based HIV clinic in Guatemala City. A case of suspected histoplasmosis was defined as a person presenting with at least three of five clinical or radiologic criteria...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713804/facilitating-and-inhibiting-factors-of-sexual-behavior-among-migrants-in-transition-from-mexico-to-the-united-states
#12
Jesús Alejandro Guerra-Ordoñez, Raquel A Benavides-Torres, Rogelio Zapata-Garibay, Dora Julia Onofre-Rodríguez, María Aracely Márquez-Vega, Gabriela Zamora-Carmona
INTRODUCTION: Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the border region of Mexico due to the flow of migrants under desperate conditions, encouraging casual and unprotected sex. Since this has become a binational public health problem, it is important to understand the factors that predict these sexual behaviors. The aim of the current study was to investigate the facilitators and inhibitors of transition in the sexual behavior of migrants from two border regions on the Mexico-United States (US) border...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709077/phytonanotherapy-for-management-of-diabetes-using-green-synthesis-nanoparticles
#13
K Anand, C Tiloke, Pragalathan Naidoo, A A Chuturgoon
The world has a rich diversity of indigenous medicinal plants. The World Health Organization (WHO) gives high priority to eco-friendly, non-hazardous and cost effective healthcare such as the use of medicinal plants to treat various illnesses, including Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), tuberculosis (TB), diabetes mellitus (DM), malaria, and cancer. In developing countries, a high proportion of the population tends to use complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) together with conventional prescription drugs...
August 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663742/hiv-progression-depends-on-codon-and-amino-acid-usage-profile-of-envelope-protein-and-associated-host-genetic-influence
#14
Ayan Roy, Rachana Banerjee, Surajit Basak
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Two types of HIV have been characterized: HIV-1 and HIV-2. The present study investigated whether evolutionary selection pressure differs between rapid progressor (RP), slow progressor (SP), and long-term non-progressor (LTNP) of HIV-I infected individuals. An unexpected association between the evolutionary rate of substitution in envelope (env) gene and disease progression is observed...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658836/upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding-due-to-idiopathic-oesophageal-ulceration-in-the-era-of-haart-a-vanishing-yet-pernicious-aetiology
#15
Sofia Nigar, Tagore Sunkara, Mel A Ona, Vinaya Gaduputi, Madhavi Reddy
Oesophageal ulcers are a rare cause of upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding (GIB). In patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), oesophageal diseases including oesophageal ulcers are very common. Idiopathic Oesophageal Ulcers (IOU) comprises a subgroup of oesophageal ulcers with no identifiable cause. IOU mainly present as odynophagia, retrosternal chest pain, decreased oral intake, and weight loss. Upper GIB is a rare presentation. In the era of Highly Active Anti Retroviral Therapy (HAART), with improvement in CD4 count, this entity is almost forgotten...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656926/structural-echocardiographic-abnormalities-seen-in-hiv-aids-patients-are-independent-of-cd4-count
#16
J A Ogunmodede, P M Kolo, I A Katibi, A K Salami, Abo Omotoso
INTRODUCTION: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains one of the most daunting public health challenges today. Cardiac involvement in HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is frequent and has been recognized on autopsy since the emergence of the pandemic. The objective of the study was to assess the pattern of structural echocardiographic (echo) findings in HIV/AIDS patients and compare this to the echo findings in apparently healthy HIV-negative controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and fifty HIV-positive patients were recruited consecutively from the HIV patients attending the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, North Central, Nigeria...
June 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634152/ensuring-inclusion-of-adolescent-key-populations-at-higher-risk-of-hiv-exposure-recommendations-for-conducting-biological-behavioral-surveillance-surveys
#17
Lisa Grazina Johnston, Justine Sass, Jeffry Acaba, Wing-Sie Cheng, Shirley Mark Prabhu
Ending acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) depends on greater efforts to reduce new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and prevent AIDS-related deaths among key populations at highest HIV risk, including males who have sex with males, sex workers, and people who inject drugs. Although adolescent key populations (AKP) are disproportionately affected by HIV, they have been largely ignored in HIV biological behavioral surveillance survey (BBSS) activities to date. This paper reviews current ethical and sampling challenges and provides suggestions to ensure AKP are included in surveillance activities, with the aim being to enhance evidence-informed, strategic, and targeted funding allocations and programs toward ending AIDS among AKP...
June 20, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628149/-present-situation-of-awareness-of-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome-aids-knowledge-and-aids-related-behaviors-among-youth-students-in-gay-dating-sites
#18
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the awareness of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) knowledge and AIDS-related behaviors among youth students in gay dating sites, and to provide evidences for AIDS prevention education through the internet. METHODS: The students in gay dating sites, selected by a snowball sampling, were interviewed by questionnaires. Chi-square tests were used to analyze the awareness of AIDS knowledge among the students of different characteristics...
June 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628148/-changes-of-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome-related-knowledge-attitudes-behaviors-and-their-influencing-factors-among-college-students-in-beijing
#19
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: To compare acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and their influencing factors among college students in different years in Beijing, and to provide evidence for targeted health education among college students in future. METHODS: College students were selected by the stratified cluster sampling method, and a questionnaire survey was conducted among college students in year 2006 and 2016 in Beijing. The sample sizes were 1 800 and 3 001 college students, respectively...
June 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626409/hiv-associated-cerebellar-dysfunction-and-improvement-with-aminopyridine-therapy-a-case-report
#20
Carolin Hoyer, Angelika Alonso, Beate Schlotter-Weigel, Michael Platten, Marc Fatar
Apart from infectious causes and cerebellar dysfunction associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome dementia or HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, cerebellar dysfunction in HIV-positive individuals has been ascribed to granule cell neuronopathy as well as primary cerebellar atrophy without identifiable etiology. We report the case of a patient with progressive cerebellar dysfunction as the primary manifestation of HIV infection. No symptom improvement was seen under combination antiretroviral therapy, which had been established upon diagnosis, but the patient improved rapidly under 4-aminopyridine treatment, which was recommended 1 year later...
May 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
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