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Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606908/molecular-cytogenetic-analysis-of-one-african-and-five-asian-macaque-species-reveals-identical-karyotypes-as-in-mandrill
#1
Wiwat Sangpakdee, Alongkoad Tanomtong, Arunrat Chaveerach, Krit Pinthong, Vladimir Trifonov, Kristina Loth, Christiana Hensel, Thomas Liehr, Anja Weise, Xiaobo Fan
Background: The question how evolution and speciation work is one of the major interests of biology. Especially, genetic including karyotypic evolution within primates is of special interest due to the close phylogenetic position of Macaca and Homo sapiens and the role as in vivo models in medical research, neuroscience, behavior, pharmacology, reproduction and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Materials & Methods: Karyotypes of five macaque species from South East Asia and of one macaque species as well as mandrill from Africa were analyzed by high resolution molecular cytogenetics to obtain new insights into karyotypic evolution of old world monkeys...
April 2018: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604984/neuropharmacology
#2
Alan Winston, Hadi Manji
With virologically suppressive antiretroviral therapy, immune system recovery is now achievable for persons living with HIV (PLWH). This immune recovery is associated with dramatic reductions in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) defining illnesses including HIV dementia. However, milder form of cognitive disturbances are widely reported in PLWH despite effective antiretroviral therapy. The underlying pathogenic mechanisms of these cognitive disturbances remain elusive, with many potential pathogenic mechanisms including residual brain damage prior to the initiation of antiretroviral therapy and neuroinflammation and ongoing immune system disturbances despite antiretroviral therapy...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604983/animal-models-of-hiv-associated-disease-of-the-central-nervous-system
#3
Jaclyn Mallard, Kenneth C Williams
It is difficult to study the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) in living patients because central nervous system (CNS) tissues are only available post mortem. Rodent and nonhuman primate (NHP) models of HAND allow for longitudinal analysis of HIV-associated CNS pathology and efficacy studies of novel therapeutics. Rodent models of HAND allow for studies with large sample sizes, short duration, and relatively low cost. These models include humanized mice used to study HIV-associated neuropathogenesis and transgenic mice used to study neurotoxic effects of viral proteins without infection...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604976/hiv-infection-and-stroke
#4
Laura Benjamin, Saye Khoo
The landscape of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is changing with the increasing coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Patients are living longer but continually exposed to a virologically suppressed HIV infection. This has resulted in a decrease in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related complications such as opportunistic infections, and an increase in non-AIDS complications such as stroke. In this era, stroke is perhaps the most important neurologic complication of HIV infection...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604975/primary-cns-lymphoma-in-hiv-infection
#5
Dieta Brandsma, Jacoline E C Bromberg
Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) has been designated an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining disease since 1983 and accounts for up to 15% of non-Hodgkin lymphomas in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. The majority of HIV patients are Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related. The most likely etiology is ineffective immunoregulation of EBV, inducing oncogenic protein expression, and subsequent loss of apoptosis and increased proliferation of lymphocytes. PCNSL generally presents with supratentorial, single or multiple, contrast-enhancing lesions...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597315/strategies-on-nanodiagnostics-and-nanotherapies-of-the-three-common-cancers
#6
REVIEW
Fan Leng, Fang Liu, Yongtao Yang, Yu Wu, Weiqun Tian
The emergence of nanomedicine has enriched the knowledge and strategies of treating diseases, and especially some incurable diseases, such as cancers, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and neurodegenerative diseases. The application of nanoparticles in medicine is in the core of nanomedicine. Nanoparticles can be used in drug delivery for improving the uptake of poorly soluble drugs, targeted delivery to a specific site, and drug bioavailability. Early diagnosis of and targeted therapies for cancers can significantly improve patients' quality of life and extend patients' lives...
March 28, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573311/secular-trends-in-opportunistic-infections-cancers-and-mortality-in-patients-with-aids-during-the-era-of-modern-combination-antiretroviral-therapy
#7
E Sezgin, M L Van Natta, J E Thorne, M A Puhan, D A Jabs
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to estimate the incidence of, determine risk factors for, and investigate the consequences of opportunistic infections (OIs) and malignancies among patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the era of modern combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). METHODS: Three enrolment periods (1998-2002, 2003-2005 and 2006-2012), corresponding to changes in predominant cART regimens, were compared among 1889 participants enrolled in a prospective cohort study, the Longitudinal Study of Ocular Complications of AIDS (LSOCA)...
March 24, 2018: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568646/risky-sexual-behaviour-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-and-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome-aids-among-healthcare-workers
#8
Natasha Khamisa, Maboe Mokgobi
Background: South Africa is known to have one of the highest prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) globally, with one in seven healthcare workers being HIV-positive. An HIV-positive healthcare workforce is less equipped to respond to the increasing spread of the epidemic. Objectives: Assessment of the factors contributing to high HIV prevalence rates among healthcare workers is important in planning the development of human resources...
2018: Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563671/human-immunodeficiency-virus-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome-a-survey-on-the-knowledge-attitude-and-practice-among-medical-professionals-at-a-tertiary-health-care-institution-in-uttarakhand-india
#9
Ananya Doda, Gita Negi, Dushyant Singh Gaur, Meena Harsh
INTRODUCTION: Health-care professionals are trained health-care providers who occupy a potential vanguard position in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention programs and the management of AIDS patients. This study was performed to assess HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) and perceptions among health-care professionals at a tertiary health-care institution in Uttarakhand, India, and to identify the target group where more education on HIV is needed...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562920/the-safety-of-live-attenuated-vaccines-in-patients-using-il-1-or-il-6-blockade-an-international-survey
#10
Jerold Jeyaratnam, Nienke M Ter Haar, Helen J Lachmann, Ozgur Kasapcopur, Amanda K Ombrello, Donato Rigante, Fatma Dedeoglu, Ezgi H Baris, Sebastiaan J Vastert, Nico M Wulffraat, Joost Frenkel
BACKGROUND: Withholding live-attenuated vaccines in patients using interleukin (IL)-1 or IL-6 blocking agents is recommended by guidelines for both pediatric and adult rheumatic diseases, since there is a risk of infection in an immune suppressed host. However, this has never been studied. This retrospective, multicenter survey aimed to evaluate the safety of live-attenuated vaccines in patients using IL-1 or IL-6 blockade. METHODS: We contacted physicians involved in the treatment of autoinflammatory diseases to investigate potential cases...
March 21, 2018: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562909/bibliometric-analysis-of-peer-reviewed-literature-in-transgender-health-1900-2017
#11
Waleed M Sweileh
BACKGROUND: Transgender community is marginalized and under-researched. Analysis of peer-reviewed literature in transgender health is needed to better understand health needs and human rights of transgender people. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze global research activity in transgender health published in peer-reviewed journals. METHODS: Peer-reviewed documents in transgender health were retrieved using Scopus database. VOSviewer was used to map frequently encountered author keywords while ArcGIS 10...
March 21, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531417/medicine-procurement-and-the-use-of-flexibilities-in-the-agreement-on-trade-related-aspects-of-intellectual-property-rights-2001-2016
#12
Ellen Fm 't Hoen, Jacquelyn Veraldi, Brigit Toebes, Hans V Hogerzeil
Millions of people, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, lack access to effective pharmaceuticals, often because they are unaffordable. The 2001 Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO) adopted the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS (Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) Agreement and Public Health. The declaration recognized the implications of intellectual property rights for both new medicine development and the price of medicines. The declaration outlined measures, known as TRIPS flexibilities, that WTO Members can take to ensure access to medicines for all...
March 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524887/lc-ms-ms-determination-of-antiretroviral-drugs-in-influents-and-effluents-from-wastewater-treatment-plants-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#13
Ovokeroye A Abafe, Jana Sp├Ąth, Jerker Fick, Stina Jansson, Chris Buckley, Annegret Stark, Bjoern Pietruschka, Bice S Martincigh
South Africa has the largest occurrence of the human immune deficiency virus (HIV) in the world but has also implemented the largest antiretroviral (ARV) treatment programme. It was therefore of interest to determine the presence and concentrations of commonly used antiretroviral drugs (ARVDs) and, also, to determine the capabilities of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for removing ARVDs. To this end, a surrogate standard based LC-MS/MS method was optimized and applied for the detection of thirteen ARVDs used in the treatment and management of HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in two major and one modular WWTP in the eThekwini Municipality in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa...
February 20, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520099/comparative-proteomic-profiling-and-biomarker-identification-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-based-hiv-aids-syndromes
#14
Li Wen, Ye-Fang Liu, Cen Jiang, Shao-Qian Zeng, Yue Su, Wen-Jun Wu, Xi-Yang Liu, Jian Wang, Ying Liu, Chen Su, Bai-Xue Li, Quan-Sheng Feng
Given the challenges in exploring lifelong therapy with little side effect for human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) cases, there is increasing interest in developing traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatments based on specific TCM syndrome. However, there are few objective and biological evidences for classification and diagnosis of HIV/AIDS TCM syndromes to date. In this study, iTRAQ-2DLC-MS/MS coupled with bioinformatics were firstly employed for comparative proteomic profiling of top popular TCM syndromes of HIV/AIDS: accumulation of heat-toxicity (AHT) and Yang deficiency of spleen and kidney (YDSK)...
March 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506614/socio-economic-status-and-risk-of-tuberculosis-a-case-control-study-of-hiv-infected-patients-in-asia
#15
A Jiamsakul, M-P Lee, K V Nguyen, T P Merati, D D Cuong, R Ditangco, E Yunihastuti, S Ponnampalavanar, F Zhang, S Kiertiburanakul, A Avihingasanon, O T Ng, B L H Sim, W-W Wong, J Ross, M Law
SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related opportunistic infection and cause of acquired immune-deficiency syndrome related death. TB often affects those from a low socio-economic background. OBJECTIVE: To assess the socio-economic determinants of TB in HIV-infected patients in Asia. DESIGN: This was a matched case-control study. HIV-positive, TB-positive cases were matched to HIV-positive, TB-negative controls according to age, sex and CD4 cell count...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491564/molecular-diagnosis-of-microsporidia-strains-in-slaughtered-cows-of-southwest-of-iran
#16
Elham Kord-Sarkachi, Mehdi Tavalla, Moluok Beiromvand
Microsporidia is often considered as an opportunistic infection in patients with impaired immune systems such as patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, transplant recipients, children and old people. Due to the ability of the parasite to transmit from animals to human as well as the increasing prevalence of parasitic infections and immune deficiency diseases; therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate molecular diagnosis of microsporidia strains in slaughtered cows of southwest of Iran. Initially, 256 stool samples of cows were collected from 5 regions of Khuzestan province, southwest of Iran and stained by modified trichrome (weber)...
March 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466877/behavior-and-health-beliefs-as-predictors-of-hiv-testing-among-women-a-prospective-study-of-observed-hiv-testing
#17
Hao Fan, Kenneth H Fife, Dena Cox, Anthony D Cox, Gregory D Zimet
Much of the research examining predictors of HIV testing has used retrospective self-report to assess HIV testing. FINDINGS: therefore, may be subject to recall bias and to difficulties determining the direction of associations. In this prospective study, we administered surveys to women in community clinics to identify predictors of subsequent observed HIV testing, overcoming these limitations. Eighty-three percent were tested. In the adjusted multivariable model, being born in the U...
February 22, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456700/effects-of-hiv-on-metabolic-and-biological-pathways-of-cd4-t-lymphocytes
#18
Yanli Ma, Wenge Zhao, Changhe Shi, Ning Wang, Tianli Fan
The effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on the metabolic and biological pathways of cluster of differentiation (CD)4+ T lymphocytes were investigated. A total of 150 patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and 50 healthy individuals who were admitted to hospital for physical examination during the period of June 2016 to January 2017, were selected as subjects in the present study. According to the virus load, 150 AIDS patients were divided into three groups: i) Viral load >106 copies/ml (group A, n=39), ii) 104 copies/ml < viral load <105 copies/ml (group B, n=76), and iii) viral load <104 copies/ml (group C, n=35)...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439674/establishing-a-clinical-phenotype-for-cachexia-in-end-stage-kidney-disease-study-protocol
#19
Joanne Reid, Helen R Noble, Gary Adamson, Andrew Davenport, Ken Farrington, Denis Fouque, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, John Mallett, C McKeaveney, S Porter, David S Seres, Joanne Shields, Adrian Slee, Miles D Witham, Alexander P Maxwell
BACKGROUND: Surveys using traditional measures of nutritional status indicate that muscle wasting is common among persons with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Up to 75% of adults undergoing maintenance dialysis show some evidence of muscle wasting. ESKD is associated with an increase in inflammatory cytokines and can result in cachexia, with the loss of muscle and fat stores. At present, only limited data are available on the classification of wasting experienced by persons with ESKD...
February 13, 2018: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438790/cervical-spinal-fusion-16-year-trends-in-epidemiology-indications-and-in-hospital-outcomes-by-surgical-approach
#20
Stephan N Salzmann, Peter B Derman, Lukas P Lampe, Janina Kueper, Ting Jung Pan, Jingyan Yang, Jennifer Shue, Federico P Girardi, Stephen Lyman, Alexander P Hughes
BACKGROUND: The rate of cervical spinal fusion has been increasing significantly. However, there is paucity of literature describing trends based on surgical approach using complete population databases. We investigated the approach-based trends in epidemiology, indications and in-hospital outcomes of cervical spinal fusion. METHODS: New York's Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database was queried to identify patients who underwent primary subaxial cervical fusion from 1997-2012...
February 10, 2018: World Neurosurgery
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