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Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

David Thomas Evans, Mark Dukes
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was first labelled as a new illness in 1981; it took two more years to discover a causative virus, which was named human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 1985. Nurses who practised during those times may recall the fear, panic, stigma, ethical dilemmas and refusals to care that were associated with the pandemic. Four decades later, HIV can be considered a long-term condition rather than a life-limiting disease, as a result of developments in treatment. However, the UK has the highest number of people living with the virus since the pandemic was first identified, and there remains a need to challenge stigma and prejudice in relation to HIV and AIDS, to ensure that people receive timely access to HIV testing, treatment and preventive measures...
June 20, 2018: Nursing Standard
Guangye He, Yunsong Chen, Buwei Chen, Hao Wang, Li Shen, Liu Liu, Deji Suolang, Boyang Zhang, Guodong Ju, Liangliang Zhang, Sijia Du, Xiangxue Jiang, Yu Pan, Zuntao Min
Based on a panel of 30 provinces and a timeframe from January 2009 to December 2013, we estimate the association between monthly human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) incidence and the relevant Internet search query volumes in Baidu, the most widely used search engine among the Chinese. The pooled mean group (PMG) model show that the Baidu search index (BSI) positively predicts the increase in HIV/AIDS incidence, with a 1% increase in BSI associated with a 2.1% increase in HIV/AIDS incidence on average...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sahil Aggarwal, Luke Yu, Bima Hasjim, Debora H Lee, Esther Kim, Jonathan B Lee, Katrina Lee, Christina Tse, Alexander Anshus, Allen R Yu, Michael Louthan, Thomas Keown, Christopher Gabriel, Catherine Diamond
Background: Young people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (PLWA) are at risk for HIV stigma. Methods: The HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument for PLWA was administered to 36 young PLWA across six clinics in Bandung, Indonesia, to assess the fear of contagion (FC), verbal abuse (VA), social isolation (SI), workplace stigma (WS), health care neglect (HCN) and negative self-perception (NSP). Results: The median scores for FC, VA, SI, WS and HCN were all 0 while the median score for NSP was 4...
June 12, 2018: International Health
Harutaka Katano
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, human herpesvirus 8, or HHV-8) was firstly discovered in Kaposi's sarcoma tissue derived from patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. KSHV infection is associated with malignancies and certain inflammatory conditions. In addition to Kaposi's sarcoma, KSHV has been detected in primary effusion lymphoma, KSHV-associated lymphoma, and some cases of multicentric Castleman disease (MCD). Recently, KSHV inflammatory cytokine syndrome (KICS) was also defined as a KSHV-associated disease...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Bharat Singh Negi, Sunil Kumar Joshi, Minato Nakazawa, Tomohiro Kotaki, Anup Bastola, Masanori Kameoka
INTRODUCTION: The April 2015 Nepal earthquake resulted in more than 8,700 deaths and 22,000 casualties including damage to health facilities. The impact of this situation on chronic conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) may become a long-lasting public health threat. Therefore, the objectives of this study were i) to assess the association of antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence with mental health problems, and social behaviors, ii) to examine factors affecting treatment failure, and iii) to investigate changes in ART adherence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among people living with HIV 6 and 12 months after the disaster...
2018: PloS One
Azam Bolhassani
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the most serious stage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The combinatorial anti-retroviral therapy (cART) is widely used in suppressing HIV-1 infection and enhancing life span of infected patients to a significant level. However, delivery of therapeutic molecules is still a major challenge in vivo. The studies showed that the anti-HIV drugs delivered via nano-carriers could be selectively accumulated in infected cells accompanied by low side effects...
June 8, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Yongbo Kang, Yue Cai
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection progressively destroys CD4+ mononuclear cells leading to profound cellular immune deficiency that manifests as life threatening opportunistic infections and malignancies, i.e., the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Gut microbiota play key roles in the modulation of host metabolism and gene expression, maintenance of epithelial integrity, and mediation of inflammatory and immunity. Hence, the normal intestinal microbiota plays a major role in the maintenance of health and disease prevention...
June 7, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Annika Röcker, Nadia R Roan, Jay Kant Yadav, Marcus Fändrich, Jan Münch
Amyloid fibrils are linear polypeptide aggregates with a cross-β structure. These fibrils are best known for their association with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's, but they may also be used by living organisms as functional units, e.g. in the synthesis of melanin or in the formation of bacterial biofilms. About a decade ago, in a search for semen factors that modulate infection by HIV-1 (a sexually transmitted virus and the causative agent of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)), it was demonstrated that semen harbors amyloid fibrils capable of markedly increasing HIV infection rates...
June 6, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Alex Marzel, Katharina Kusejko, Rainer Weber, Philip Bruggmann, Andri Rauch, Jan A Roth, Enos Bernasconi, Alexandra Calmy, Matthias Cavassini, Matthias Hoffmann, Jürg Böni, Sabine Yerly, Thomas Klimkait, Matthieu Perreau, Huldrych F Günthard, Roger D Kouyos
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission among injecting drug users (IDUs) is increasing in the United States due to the recent opioid epidemic and is the leading mode of transmission in Eastern Europe. Methods: To evaluate the overall impact of HIV harm reduction, we combined (1) data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and public sources with (2) a mathematical model expressed as a system of ordinary differential equations. The model reconstructs the national epidemic from the first case in 1980 until 2015...
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Atem Bethel Ajong, Philip Nana Njotang, Ngholapeh Emmanuel Nghoniji, Marie José Essi, Martin Ndinakie Yakum, Valirie Ndip Agbor, Bruno Kenfack
BACKGROUND: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus /Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is not just a medical problem but its social impact is increasingly affecting its effective management. The fear of HIV-stigma constitutes a major barrier to HIV testing, prevention, uptake and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We aimed to quantify HIV-related stigma, and identify the factors associated with high HIV-related stigma among persons living with HIV and AIDS (PLHIVA) and on ART...
June 5, 2018: Globalization and Health
M G Jacobs, D M Pelissari, V L Pinto
SETTING: The selection and transmission of drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis (TB) hamper disease control. OBJECTIVE: To identify health conditions, demographic and socio-economic factors, as well as individual factors associated with the incidence of drug-resistant TB (DR-TB), in Brazil at the municipal level. DESIGN: This was an ecological study covering Brazilian municipalities that had reported DR-TB cases in 2014. Associations were evaluated in a multilevel analysis using negative binomial regression...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Hung-Chin Tsai, I-Tzu Chen, Kuan-Sheng Wu, Yu-Ting Tseng, Cheng-Len Sy, Jui-Kuang Chen, Shin-Jung Susan Lee, Yao-Shen Chen
The use of antiretroviral therapy has reduced rates of mortality and morbidity in patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome(HIV/AIDS). However, transmission of drug-resistant strains poses a challenge to control the spread of HIV-1. Primary resistance to integrase strand-transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) is rare despite their increased use. The prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) to INSTIs was 0.9% in northern Taiwan. This study was to analyse the prevalence and risk factors of TDR to INSTIs in southern Taiwan...
May 18, 2018: Oncotarget
X Wang, R Y Ma, Z Yu, J Li, H F Zhang, H Yu
A 46-year-old male presented with left ear hearing loss,vertigo,tinnitus and left eye blurred vision. Pure tone audiometry showed left ear had been total deafness. Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay was reactive. The serum rapid plasma regain (RPR) was 1∶16. Human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) 1/2 antibody immunoassay was positive,and the CD4 cell count was low at 100 cells/μl. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) TPPA was positive,with a white blood cell count of 53×10 ⁶ /L and protein level of 1...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Janet R Gilsdorf, Paul Spearman, Janet A Englund, Tina Q Tan, Kristina A Bryant
Pediatric infectious diseases physicians are dedicated to the diagnosis, prevention, and management of infections in children. As such, we play large, and important, roles in the clinical care of children from birth to late adolescence and in infection prevention, antimicrobial stewardship, research pertaining to infections, public health, international and global health, and advocacy for children's health. Furthermore, we are critical to the education of future physicians (in general), pediatricians, and infectious diseases doctors...
May 19, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Margaret Williams, Dalena R M Van Rooyen, Esmeralda J Ricks
BACKGROUND:  The human immunodeficiency virus and/or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) pandemic continues to increase in prevalence worldwide, particularly in South Africa, and includes the often overlooked paediatric population. The provision of paediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART) is as essential for children as for adults, and has numerous obstacles, not least of which is lack of decentralisation of facilities to provide essential treatment. Optimising ART, care and support for HIV-positive children, and their caregivers, at public sector primary health care (PHC) clinics is crucial to improve morbidity and mortality rates in children...
March 12, 2018: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
Mohammad Gholami, Mehrdad Ravanshad, Kazem Baesi, Siamak M. Samiee, Negin Hosseini Rozbahani, Minoo Mohraz
BAckground: The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is an infectious viral agent that gradually extinguishes the immune system, resulting in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The aim of this study was to construct an RNA-positive control based on armored (AR) RNA technology, using HIV-1 RNA as a model. Methods: The MS2 maturase, a coat protein gene (at positions 1765 to 1787) and HIV-1 pol gene were cloned into pET-32a plasmid. The prepared plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli strain BL2 (DE3), and the expression of the construct was induced by 1 mM of isopropyl-L-thio-D-galactopyranoside (IPTG) at 37 °C for 16 h to obtain the fabricated AR RNA...
May 19, 2018: Iranian Biomedical Journal
Catherine Yuk-Ping Lo
BACKGROUND: China has experienced unprecedented economic growth since the 1980s. Despite this impressive economic development, this growth exists side by side with the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) crises and the persisting deficiencies in public health provision in China. Acknowledging the prevailing health problems, the Chinese government has encouraged the development of health non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to respond to the health challenges and address the gaps in public health provision of the government...
May 16, 2018: Globalization and Health
José Adalberto Leal, Maria Arlene Fausto, Mariângela Carneiro, Unaí Tubinambás
INTRODUCTION: Hypoalbuminemia may predict progression of disease and mortality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). This study was conducted to investigate the risk factors associated with hypoalbuminemia in outpatients with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 196 outpatients with HIV/AIDS. RESULTS: The prevalence of hypoalbuminemia was 11.7%. The only risk factor associated with hypoalbuminemia was current antiretroviral therapy (no exposure: odds ratio=3...
March 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Jong An, Jason Brownell, Darrell Barker, Theresa Stockinger, Robert Brady, Katherine Cebe, Russell Baur
We report the case of a 71-year-old male with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia who developed cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis presenting as an apple-core lesion during induction chemotherapy. CMV infection occurs rarely during induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. CMV infection is usually observed in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and in those on immunosuppressive agents following bone marrow transplant. Although rare, CMV colitis should be considered in patients who are critically ill after systemic chemotherapy as it can cause significant morbidity and mortality...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Michael Mwachiro, Eric Mitchell, Hillary M Topazian, Russell White
The objective of this study was to assess the outcomes for patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency virus (AIDS) who had esophagectomy done for both benign and malignant conditions. A retrospective chart review of patients with HIV and AIDS undergoing esophagectomy at a rural referral hospital was done for the period of 2009-2014. Patient postoperative complications, outcomes, and follow-up data were charted. All procedures were done by a single lead surgeon. Nine patients met the study criteria, 7 of whom had esophageal cancer, and 2 with strictures...
April 2018: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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