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Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227167/diagnosis-of-platelet-function-disorders-a-standardized-rational-and-modular-flow-cytometric-approach
#1
Oliver Andres, Katja Henning, Gabriele Strauß, Annerose Pflug, Georgi Manukjan, Harald Schulze
A high proportion of patients with mucocutaneous bleeding diathesis and suspected inherited or acquired platelet disorder remain without diagnosis even after comprehensive laboratory testing. Since flow cytometry allows investigation of resting and activated platelets on the single cell level by requiring only minimal amounts of blood, this method has become an important assay within the diagnostic algorithm, especially in pediatrics. We therefore developed a standardized and modular flow cytometric approach that contributes to clarify impaired platelet function in a rational step-by-step manner...
December 11, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212213/the-bromodomain-and-extraterminal-domain-inhibitor-bromosporine-synergistically-reactivates-latent-hiv-1-in-latently-infected-cells
#2
Hanyu Pan, Panpan Lu, Yinzhong Shen, Yanan Wang, Zhengtao Jiang, Xinyi Yang, Yangcheng Zhong, He Yang, Inam Ulla Khan, Muya Zhou, Bokang Li, Ziyu Zhang, Jianqing Xu, Hongzhou Lu, Huanzhang Zhu
The long-lived latent HIV-1 reservoir is the major barrier for complete cure of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Here we report that a novel bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) inhibitor bromosporine which can broadly target BETs, is able to potently reactivate HIV-1 replication in different latency models alone and more powerful when combined with prostratin or TNF-α. Furthermore, the treatment with bromosporine induced HIV-1 full-length transcripts in resting CD4+ T cells from infected individuals with suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) ex vivo, with no obvious cytotoxicity or global activation of T cell...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210536/hiv-and-aids-an-overview-of-the-current-issues-treatment-and-prevention
#3
Elizabeth Anne Crock
The theme of World AIDS Day 2017 is 'let's end it'. After almost 40 years since the first occurrences of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), it is possible to envision an end to the HIV epidemic, one of the most serious health and development challenges humanity has faced. This article provides an overview of the current approaches to the treatment, care and support of people living with HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). It also discusses the challenges associated with HIV and AIDS that remain, HIV prevention strategies, and the nurse's role in caring for people living with HIV...
December 6, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184394/highly-specific-reasons-for-nonadherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-results-from-the-german-adherence-study
#4
Johanna Boretzki, Eva Wolf, Carmen Wiese, Sebastian Noe, Annamaria Balogh, Anja Meurer, Ivanka Krznaric, Alexander Zink, Christian Lersch, Christoph D Spinner
Background: Reasons for and frequency of nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) may have changed due to pharmacological improvements. In addition, the importance of known non-pharmacologic reasons for nonadherence is unclear. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional, noninterventional, multicenter study to identify current reasons for nonadherence. Patients were categorized by physicians into the following adherence groups: good, unstable, or poor adherence...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181236/machine-learning-to-improve-the-effectiveness-of-anrs-in-predicting-hiv-drug-resistance
#5
Yashik Singh
Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is one of the major burdens of disease in developing countries, and the standard-of-care treatment includes prescribing antiretroviral drugs. However, antiretroviral drug resistance is inevitable due to selective pressure associated with the high mutation rate of HIV. Determining antiretroviral resistance can be done by phenotypic laboratory tests or by computer-based interpretation algorithms...
October 2017: Healthcare Informatics Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174315/workshop-report-nucleic-acid-delivery-devices-for-hiv-vaccines-workshop-proceedings-national-institute-of-allergy-and-infectious-diseases-bethesda-maryland-usa-may-21-2015
#6
Bruce G Weniger, Ian E Anglin, Tina Tong, Michael Pensiero, Jeffrey K Pullen
On May 21st, 2015, the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) convened a workshop on delivery devices for nucleic acid (NA) as vaccines in order to review the landscape of past and future technologies for administering NA (e.g., DNA, RNA, etc.) as antigen into target tissues of animal models and humans. Its focus was on current and future applications for preventing and treating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) disease, among other infectious-disease priorities...
November 21, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165208/case-report-first-coinfection-report-of-mixed-leishmania-infantum-leishmania-major-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome-report-of-a-case-of-disseminated-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-iran
#7
Alireza Badirzadeh, Mehdi Mohebali, Sadaf Sabzevari, Majid Ghafoori, Kourosh Arzamani, Mohammad Seyyedin, Seyed Ahmad Hashemi
Visceral leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease, is the third most common opportunistic disease in immunosuppressed patients, such as those affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Although the reports have been characterized as Leishmania/HIV coinfections, the occurrence of a mixed infection by two Leishmania species in HIV-positive patients is rare. Here, we present an atypical case of disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) in a 26-year-old HIV-positive man...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163435/evolutionary-analysis-of-hiv-1-pol-proteins-reveals-representative-residues-for-viral-subtype-differentiation
#8
Shohei Nagata, Junnosuke Imai, Gakuto Makino, Masaru Tomita, Akio Kanai
RNA viruses have been used as model systems to understand the patterns and processes of molecular evolution because they have high mutation rates and are genetically diverse. Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), the etiological agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, is highly genetically diverse, and is classified into several groups and subtypes. However, it has been difficult to use its diverse sequences to establish the overall phylogenetic relationships of different strains or the trends in sequence conservation with the construction of phylogenetic trees...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125014/problematizing-official-narratives-of-hiv-and-aids-education-in-scotland-and-zimbabwe
#9
Tarsisio Nyatsanza, Lesley Wood
When human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are framed within an intersectional approach, they have the potential to transform understandings of social justice within the curriculum and education policy and practice in general. Yet, this transformative potential is often hampered by official narratives that fail to position HIV and AIDS as an integral component of overlapping systems of oppression, domination and discrimination. This article explores how official HIV and AIDS narratives tend to promote systemic injustice and inequality within education policy and practice in both Scotland and Zimbabwe, despite their good intents...
December 2017: SAHARA J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118985/acute-development-of-cushing-syndrome-in-an-hiv-infected-child-on-atazanavir-ritonavir-based-antiretroviral-therapy
#10
Gueorgui Dubrocq, Andrea Estrada, Shannon Kelly, Natella Rakhmanina
An 11-year-old male with perinatally acquired human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection on antiretroviral regimen, which included abacavir plus lamivudine (Epzicom), didanosine, ritonavir and atazanavir presented with bilateral axillary striae, increased appetite, fatigue, facial swelling and acute weight gain. Two months prior to presentation, the patient had received a diagnostic and therapeutic intra-articular triamcinolone injection in the knee for pain relief and subsequently became progressively swollen in the face, developed striae bilaterally at the axillae, experienced increased appetite, fatigue and an 8 pound weight gain...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118508/treatment-of-unilateral-zone-i-cytomegalovirus-retinitis-in-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-with-oral-valganciclovir-and-intravitreal-ganciclovir
#11
Koushik Tripathy, Kanhaiya Mittal, Pradeep Venkatesh, Sameer Bakhshi, Rohan Chawla
Cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVR) is an opportunistic infection seen in immunocompromised patients, especially suffering from acquired immune deficiency syndrome. It is uncommonly seen in hematological malignancies and in patients on immunosuppressants. The authors present a 12-year-old girl with unilateral CMVR who was on maintenance phase therapy for mixed phenotype (B/myeloid) leukemia. Serology for human immunodeficiency virus was negative. The child was successfully treated with oral valganciclovir and repeated intravitreal ganciclovir injections...
September 2017: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114483/cryptosporidiosis-a-mini-review
#12
REVIEW
K Vanathy, Subhash Chandra Parija, Jharna Mandal, Abdoul Hamide, Sriram Krishnamurthy
Cryptosporidium spp. was first described in mice in 1907. The first human case was reported in an acquired immune deficiency syndrome patient after which it gained importance. It is one of the emerging protozoan parasites according to the Centre of Disease Control and Prevention. The special structure which is present in them such as rhoptries and micronemes are responsible for their virulence and pathogenicity. They can be transmitted from animals, human to human, water, food, and tends to cause waterborne outbreaks...
July 2017: Tropical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093710/malnutrition-modulator-of-immune-responses-in-tuberculosis
#13
REVIEW
Padmapriyadarsini Chandrasekaran, Natarajan Saravanan, Ramalingam Bethunaickan, Srikanth Tripathy
Nutrition plays a major role in the management of both acute and chronic diseases, in terms of body's response to the pathogenic organism. An array of nutrients like macro- and micro-nutrients, vitamins, etc., are associated with boosting the host's immune responses against intracellular pathogens including mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). These nutrients have an immunomodulatory effects in controlling the infection and inflammation process and nutritional deficiency of any form, i.e., malnutrition may lead to nutritionally acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, which greatly increases an individual's susceptibility to progression of infection to disease...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093251/-magnetic-resonance-imaging-features-of-cryptococcus-infection-in-central-nervous-system-in-patients-with-aids
#14
Chuanjun Xu, Zhiliang Hu, Hongxia Wei, Yongfeng Yang, Chao Du, Jianping Gu
To investigate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of Cryptococcus infection in central nervous system patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
 Methods: The retrospective study on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical data of cryptococcal meningitis (CM) was carried out between July 2011 and March 2017. These patients had not received anti-retroviral treatment. Patients with other specific or suspicious diseases in the central nervous system were not included in the analysis...
October 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093230/sero-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-hiv-1-in-papua-province-indonesia
#15
Muhammad Qushai Yunifiar, Tomohiro Kotaki, Adiana Mutamsari Witaningrum, Siti Qamariyah Khairunisa, Dwi Wahyu Indriati, Meilani Meilani, Tigor Yeheskiel, Shuhei Ueda, Nasronudin Nasronudin, Masanori Kameoka
BACKGROUND: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) cause serious health problems and affect the Indonesian economy. Papua province has the highest prevalence of HIV infection in the country; however, epidemiological data are limited. Therefore, in order to reveal the current situation of HIV/AIDS in Papua province, sero- and molecular epidemiological studies of HIV were conducted. METHODS: serological tests were conducted on 157 healthy individuals from the general population residing in Paniai, Papua...
July 2017: Acta Medica Indonesiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092674/autoantibodies-against-complement-components-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-role-in-the-pathogenesis-and-clinical-manifestations
#16
M H Hristova, V S Stoyanova
Many complement structures and a number of additional factors, i.e. autoantibodies, receptors, hormones and cytokines, are implicated in the complex pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Genetic defects in the complement as well as functional deficiency due to antibodies against its components lead to different pathological conditions, usually clinically presented. Among them hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis, different types of glomerulonephritis as dense deposit disease, IgA nephropathy, atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome and lupus nephritis are very common...
December 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071733/two-stage-orthogonality-based-estimation-for-semiparametric-varying-coefficient-models-and-its-applications-in-analyzing-aids-data
#17
Yan-Yong Zhao, Jin-Guan Lin, Xu-Guo Ye, Hong-Xia Wang, Xing-Fang Huang
Semiparametric smoothing methods are usually used to model longitudinal data, and the interest is to improve efficiency for regression coefficients. This paper is concerned with the estimation in semiparametric varying-coefficient models (SVCMs) for longitudinal data. By the orthogonal projection method, local linear technique, quasi-score estimation, and quasi-maximum likelihood estimation, we propose a two-stage orthogonality-based method to estimate parameter vector, coefficient function vector, and covariance function...
October 26, 2017: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061706/nlrp3-is-a-critical-regulator-of-inflammation-and-innate-immune-cell-response-during-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection
#18
Jesus A Segovia, Te-Hung Chang, Vicki T Winter, Jacqueline J Coalson, Marianna P Cagle, Lavanya Pandranki, Santanu Bose, Joel B Baseman, Thirumalai R Kannan
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an atypical bacterial respiratory pathogen known to cause a range of airway inflammation and lung and extrapulmonary pathologies. We recently reported that an M. pneumoniae-derived ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating toxin called Community-Acquired Respiratory Distress Syndrome (CARDS) toxin is capable of triggering NLRP3 (NLR-family, leucine-rich repeat protein 3) inflammasome activation and interleukin-1β secretion in macrophages. However, it is unclear whether the NLRP3 inflammasome is important for the immune response during M...
October 23, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060439/design-of-an-mhealth-system-for-maternal-and-children-hiv-care
#19
Allya P Koesoema, Arni Ariani, Yoke S Irawan, Soegijardjo Soegijoko
While progress has been made to slow down its spread and increase uptake of treatment, human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is still a highly significant health problem for many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Specifically, almost half of new HIV patients in Asia Pacific were children. The prevention of mother-to-child transmission faces complex socioeconomic and other problems. With the increasing growth of mobile technologies in LMICs, especially in Asia Pacific, mHealth, the application of mobile technology for health applications, has a significant potential to help alleviate these problems...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059664/-guidelines-for-hiv-testing-in-poland
#20
Małgorzata Łucja Janczarek, Anna Grzeszczuk
Including HIV disease in the differential diagnosis is the responsibility of the treating physician. Unfortunately, despite 35 years passed from the description of the first cases of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, AIDS testing for HIV is offered sporadically in Poland. The aim of this paper is to present the current recommendations for HIV testing.
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
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