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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918538/genetic-manipulation-of-borrelia-spp
#1
Dan Drecktrah, D Scott Samuels
The spirochetes Borrelia (Borreliella) burgdorferi and Borrelia hermsii, the etiologic agents of Lyme disease and relapsing fever, respectively, cycle in nature between an arthropod vector and a vertebrate host. They have extraordinarily unusual genomes that are highly segmented and predominantly linear. The genetic analyses of Lyme disease spirochetes have become increasingly more sophisticated, while the age of genetic investigation in the relapsing fever spirochetes is just dawning. Molecular tools available for B...
September 17, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912318/chromosome-and-large-linear-plasmid-sequences-of-a-borrelia-miyamotoi-strain-isolated-from-ixodes-pacificus-ticks-from-california
#2
Luke C Kingry, Adam Replogle, Marc Dolan, Christopher Sexton, Kerry A Padgett, Martin E Schriefer
Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever group spirochete, is an emerging tick-borne pathogen. It has been identified in ixodid ticks across the Northern Hemisphere, including the West Coast of the United States. We describe the chromosome and large linear plasmid sequence of a B. miyamotoi isolate cultured from a California field-collected Ixodes pacificus tick.
September 14, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911326/borrelia-infection-and-risk-of-celiac-disease
#3
Armin Alaedini, Benjamin Lebwohl, Gary P Wormser, Peter H Green, Jonas F Ludvigsson
BACKGROUND: Environmental factors, including infectious agents, are speculated to play a role in the rising prevalence and the geographic distribution of celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder. In the USA and Sweden where the regional variation in the frequency of celiac disease has been studied, a similarity with the geographic distribution of Lyme disease, an emerging multisystemic infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes, has been found, thus raising the possibility of a link...
September 15, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898274/periplasmic-flagella-in-borrelia-burgdoferi-function-to-maintain-cellular-integrity-upon-external-stress
#4
Bharath Kumar, Kelly Miller, Nyles W Charon, Justin Legleiter
Tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) in solution was used to analyze the role of the internally located periplasmic flagella (PFs) of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in withstanding externally applied cellular stresses. By systematically imaging immobilized spirochetes with increasing tapping forces, we found that mutants that lack PFs are more readily compressed and damaged by the imaging process compared to wild-type cells. This finding suggest that the PFs, aside from being essential for motility and involved in cell shape, play a cytoskeletal role in dissipating energy and maintaining cellular integrity in the presence of external stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893674/seroepidemiology-of-leptospirosis-among-febrile-patients-in-a-rapidly-growing-suburban-slum-and-a-flood-vulnerable-rural-district-in-mozambique-2012-2014-implication-for-the-management-of-fever
#5
Policarpo Ribeiro, Nilesh Bhatt, Sádia Ali, Vanessa Monteiro, Edmilson da Silva, Ilana Teruszkin Balassiano, Carolina Aquino, Nilsa de de Deus, Onelia Guiliche, Argentina Felisbela Muianga, Pascoal Jorge Alho, Virginia Lara Evaristo, Ivan Manhiça, Marco Medeiros, Eduardo Samo Gudo
OBJECTIVE: Leptospirosis, is one of most widespread zoonosis in the world and is caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. In Mozambique, the disease is heavily ignored and its epidemiology is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate occurrence of leptospirosis in febrile patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among febrile patients between June 2012 and September 2015. A total of 373 paired samples were drawn from febrile patients, of whom 208 were from Caia District Hospital (rural setting) in Sofala province and 165 were from Polana Caniço General Hospital (suburban setting) in Maputo city...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879525/colonic-spirochetes-what-has-genomics-taught-us
#6
David John Hampson, Penghao Wang
The 'colonic' spirochetes assigned to the genus Brachyspira are slow-growing anaerobic bacteria. The genus includes both pathogenic and non-pathogenic species, and these variously colonise the large intestines of different species of birds and animals, including humans. Scientific understanding of the physiology and molecular biology of Brachyspira spp. remains very limited compared with that of other pathogenic spirochetes, and there are few descriptions of successful genetic manipulations undertaken to investigate gene function...
September 7, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874019/detection-in-malaysia-of-a-borrelia-sp-from-haemaphysalis-hystricis-ixodida-ixodidae
#7
J J Khoo, F S Lim, K K Tan, F S Chen, W H Phoon, C S Khor, B L Pike, L Y Chang, S AbuBakar
Spirochetes from the Borrelia genus are known to cause diseases in humans, namely Lyme disease and relapsing fever. These organisms are commonly transmitted to humans by arthropod vectors including ticks, mite, and lice. Here, we report the molecular detection of a Borrelia sp. from a Haemaphysalis hystricis Supino tick collected from wildlife in an Orang Asli settlement in Selangor, Malaysia. Phylogenetic analyses of partial 16s rRNA and flaB gene sequences revealed that the Borrelia sp. is closely related to the relapsing fever group borreliae, Borrelia lonestari, Borrelia miyamotoi, and Borrelia theileri, as well as a number of uncharacterized Borrelia sp...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874016/transmission-of-the-lyme-disease-spirochete-borrelia-mayonii-in-relation-to-duration-of-attachment-by-nymphal-ixodes-scapularis-acari-ixodidae
#8
Marc C Dolan, Nicole E Breuner, Andrias Hojgaard, Karen A Boegler, J Charles Hoxmeier, Adam J Replogle, Lars Eisen
The recently recognized Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia mayonii, has been detected in host-seeking Ixodes scapularis Say ticks and is associated with human disease in the Upper Midwest. Although experimentally shown to be vector competent, studies have been lacking to determine the duration of time from attachment of a single B. mayonii-infected I. scapularis nymph to transmission of spirochetes to a host. If B. mayonii spirochetes were found to be transmitted within the first 24 h after tick attachment, in contrast to Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes (>24 h), then current recommendations for tick checks and prompt tick removal as a way to prevent transmission of Lyme disease spirochetes would need to be amended...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870618/revisiting-the-theoretical-basis-of-the-endosymbiotic-origin-of-plastids-in-the-original-context-of-lynn-margulis-on-the-origin-of-mitosing-eukaryotic-cells
#9
Naoki Sato
Fifty years ago, Lynn Margulis proposed a comprehensive hypothesis on the origin of eukaryotic cells with an emphasis on the origin of mitosis. This hypothesis postulated that the eukaryotic cell is a composite of different parts as a result of the symbiosis of various different bacteria. In this hypothesis, she integrated previously proposed ideas that mitochondria and chloroplasts were descendants of endosymbionts that originated from aerobic bacteria and blue-green algae (now cyanobacteria), respectively...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864829/physiologic-and-genetic-factors-influencing-the-zoonotic-cycle-of-borrelia-burgdorferi
#10
Philip E Stewart, Patricia A Rosa
Borrelia burgdorferi is a symbiont of ticks of the Ixodes ricinus complex. These ticks serve as vectors to disseminate the spirochete to a variety of susceptible vertebrate hosts, which, in turn, act as reservoirs for naïve ticks to become infected, perpetuating the infectious life cycle of B. burgdorferi. The pivotal role of ticks in this life cycle and tick-spirochete interactions are the focus of this chapter. Here, we describe the challenging physiological environment that spirochetes encounter within Ixodes ticks, and the genetic factors that B...
September 2, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863166/the-novel-lyme-borreliosis-vaccine-vla15-shows-broad-protection-against-borrelia-species-expressing-six-different-ospa-serotypes
#11
Pär Comstedt, Wolfgang Schüler, Andreas Meinke, Urban Lundberg
We have previously shown that the Outer surface protein A (OspA) based Lyme borreliosis vaccine VLA15 induces protective immunity in mice. Herein, we report the induction of protective immunity by VLA15 with mouse models using ticks infected with B. burgdorferi (OspA serotype 1), B. afzelii (OspA serotype 2) and B. bavariensis (OspA serotype 4) or with in vitro grown B. garinii (OspA serotype 5 and 6) for challenge. For B. garinii (OspA serotype 3), we have developed a growth inhibition assay using chicken complement and functional antibodies targeting B...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854805/two-mice-models-for-transferability-of-zoonotic-bacteria-via-tick-vector
#12
B Sallay, T Vaculová, M Derdáková, V Rusňáková Tarageľová, E Špitalská, Ľ Škultéty
Spotted fever and typhus-related diseases caused by rickettsiae, Lyme borreliosis induced by spirochetes from Borrelia burgdorferii sensu lato complex, and Q fever evoked by Coxiella burnetii, are important zoonoses occurring worldwide. In order to study the pathogenesis of these infections, the efficacy of vaccines from the perspective of protection against the pathogens, pathogen - pathogen interactions during co-infections or pathogen-vector-host interrelationship, a suitable animal model should be established...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843481/prevalence-of-borrelia-miyamotoi-and-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato-in-questing-ticks-from-a-recreational-coniferous-forest-of-east-saxony-germany
#13
Sándor Szekeres, Jenny Lügner, Volker Fingerle, Gabriele Margos, Gábor Földvári
The hard tick Ixodes ricinus is the most important vector of tick-transmitted pathogens in Europe, frequently occurring in urban parks and greenbelts utilized for recreational activities. This species is the most common vector of the causative agents of Lyme borreliosis in Europe. Similarly, the species spreads Borrelia miyamotoi, causing a relapsing-fever like illness. A total of 1774 Ixodes ricinus (50 females, 68 males, 840 nymphs and 818 larvae) were collected with flagging between March and September 2014 in a coniferous forest patch in Niederkaina near the town of Bautzen in Saxony, Germany...
August 18, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840838/the-role-of-host-immune-cells-and-borrelia-burgdorferi-antigens-in-the-etiology-of-lyme-disease
#14
Dennis Verhaegh, Leo A B Joosten, Marije Oosting
Lyme disease is a zoonosis caused by infection with bacteria belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi species after the bite of an infected tick. Even though an infection by this bacterium can be effectively treated with antibiotics, when the infection stays unnoticed B. burgdorferi can persist and chronic post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome is able to develop. Although a cellular and humoral response is observed after an infection with the Borrelia bacteria, these pathogens are still capable to stay alive. Several immune evasive mechanisms have been revealed and explained and much work has been put into the understanding of the contribution of the innate and adaptive immune response...
June 1, 2017: European Cytokine Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836724/sleeper-cells-the-stringent-response-and-persistence-in-the-borreliella-borrelia-burgdorferi-enzootic-cycle
#15
REVIEW
Felipe C Cabello, Henry P Godfrey, Julia V Bugrysheva, Stuart A Newman
Infections with tick-transmitted Borreliella (Borrelia) burgdorferi, the cause of Lyme disease, represent an increasingly large public health problem in North America and Europe. The ability of these spirochetes to maintain themselves for extended periods of time in their tick vectors and vertebrate reservoirs is crucial for continuance of the enzootic cycle as well as for the increasing exposure of humans to them. The stringent response mediated by the alarmone (p)ppGpp has been determined to be a master regulator in B...
August 24, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830947/two-distinct-mechanisms-govern-rpos-mediated-repression-of-tick-phase-genes-during-mammalian-host-adaptation-by-borrelia-burgdorferi-the-lyme-disease-spirochete
#16
Arianna P Grove, Dionysios Liveris, Radha Iyer, Mary Petzke, Joseph Rudman, Melissa J Caimano, Justin D Radolf, Ira Schwartz
The alternative sigma factor RpoS plays a key role modulating gene expression in Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, by transcribing mammalian host-phase genes and repressing σ(70)-dependent genes required within the arthropod vector. To identify cis regulatory elements involved in RpoS-dependent repression, we analyzed green fluorescent protein (GFP) transcriptional reporters containing portions of the upstream regions of the prototypical tick-phase genes ospAB, the glp operon, and bba74 As RpoS-mediated repression occurs only following mammalian host adaptation, strains containing the reporters were grown in dialysis membrane chambers (DMCs) implanted into the peritoneal cavities of rats...
August 22, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821219/early-congenital-syphilis-recognising-symptoms-of-an-increasingly-prevalent-disease
#17
Nupur U Patel, Elias Oussedik, Erin T Landis, Lindsay C Strowd
BACKGROUND: Congenital syphilis (CS) is an infectious disease resulting from transplacental transmission of Treponema pallidum spirochetes from an infected mother to fetus during pregnancy. While uncommon, CS has shown an increased incidence in Canada and the United States since 2001 and 2012, respectively. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a 5-week-old female infant with blistering rash on the palms and soles. The infant displayed decreased movement of the left upper extremity, clinically consistent with Parrot pseudoparalysis...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802273/evidence-for-borrelia-bavariensis-infections-of-ixodes-uriae-within-seabird-colonies-of-the-north-atlantic-ocean
#18
Hannah J Munro, Nicholas H Ogden, L Robbin Lindsay, Gregory J Robertson, Hugh Whitney, Andrew S Lang
The first report of members of the spirochete genus Borrelia in the seabird tick, Ixodes uriae, and seabird colonies occurred during the early 1990s. Since then, Borrelia spp. have been detected in these ticks and seabird colonies around the world. To-date, the primary species detected has been B. garinii, with rare occurrences of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. lusitaniae. During our research on Borrelia and I. uriae in seabird colonies of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, we have identified B. bavariensis in I...
August 11, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791815/an-outbreak-of-leptospirosis-imported-from-germany-to-poland
#19
Beata Fiecek, Tomasz Chmielewski, Małgorzata Sadkowska-Todys, Michał Czerwiński, Grażyna Zalewska, Urszula Roguska, Stanisława Tylewska-Wierzbanowska
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by spirochetes of the Leptospiraceae family. In both humans and animals the main route of infection is indirect contact - through water or other products contaminated with urine containing spirochetes. Infection most commonly occurs through ingestion of water or food contaminated with Leptospira spp. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to characterize cases of leptospirosis imported to Poland from Germany in 2014 and to analyze methods that are helpful for making a diagnosis...
May 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780349/implications-of-coordinated-cell-body-rotations-for-leptospira-motility
#20
Kyosuke Takabe, Akihiro Kawamoto, Hajime Tahara, Seishi Kudo, Shuichi Nakamura
The spirochete Leptospira has a coiled cell body and two periplasmic flagella (PFs) that reside beneath the outer sheath. PFs extend from each end of the cell body and are attached to the right-handed spiral protoplasmic cylinder (PC) via a connection with the flagellar motor embedded in the inner membrane. PFs bend each end of the cell body into left-handed spiral (S) or planar hook (H) shapes, allowing leptospiral cells to swim using combined anterior S-end and posterior H-end gyrations with PC rotations...
August 3, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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