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Susan Kane Patton, Bailey Phillips
Evidence-based strategies for nurses. ABSTRACT: Lyme disease is recognized as the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. Surveillance data indicate both increasing numbers of Lyme disease cases and geographic expansion of areas where the causative spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, can be found. With prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment in the acute stage, most patients will recover fully. Without treatment, however, the infecting pathogen remains within the body, often producing long-term complications, including musculoskeletal, neurologic, and cardiovascular effects...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Nursing
Xiao-Xia Ma, Peng Ma, Qiu-Yan Chang, Zhen-Bin Liu, Derong Zhang, Xiao-Kai Zhou, Zhong-Ren Ma, Xin Cao
Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is a focally endemic tick-transmitted zoonotic infection. In this study, the major factors underlying synonymous codon-related amino acid usage in the B. burgdorferi genome and bias in synonymous codon usage of the translation initiation region of coding sequences were analyzed. Additionally, adaptation of B. burgdorferi to several of its hosts was analyzed in the context of synonymous codon usage. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that nucleotide content at the third synonymous position of a codon influenced the synonymous codon usage pattern, but the strand-specific factor did not influence the synonymous codon usage pattern of B...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Aurélie Marquez, Zoheira Djelouadji, Virginie Lattard, Angéli Kodjo
Leptospirosis is a virulent zoonosis with a global distribution. Pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira are responsible for this disease, and the primary animal reservoirs are rodentvvvs. Direct and indirect contact with infected urine constitutes the main route of transmission. Renal failure and advanced abortions are frequently observed in animals affected by leptospirosis, causing serious problems for farms. In humans, there is a high rate of mortality (10 percent), and farmers and persons in contact with water are frequently exposed...
December 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
Caroline E Cameron
Syphilis, caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, continues to be a prevalent disease in low- and middle-income countries, and has re-emerged in key populations, including men who have sex with men, in high-income nations. The rising number of cases shows syphilis elimination will require augmentation of public health screening and treatment campaigns with syphilis vaccine development and implementation initiatives. Optimal vaccine candidates, deciphered from careful consideration of the pathogenic mechanisms employed by T...
March 9, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Dejan Stojkovic, Marina Kostic, Marija Smiljkovic, Milena Aleksic, Perica Vasiljevic, Milos Nikolic, Marina Sokovic
The following review is oriented towards microbes linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and antimicrobial effect of compounds and extracts derived from aquatic organisms against specific bacteria, fungi and viruses which were found previously in patients suffering from AD. Major group of microbes linked to AD include bacteria: Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, Actinomyces naeslundii, spirochete group; fungi: Candida sp., Cryptococcus sp...
March 8, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Ana Carreras-González, Nicolás Navasa, Itziar Martín-Ruiz, José Luis Lavín, Mikel Azkargorta, Estíbaliz Atondo, Diego Barriales, Nuria Macías-Cámara, Miguel Angel Pascual-Itoiz, Leticia Sampedro, Julen Tomás-Cortázar, Ainize Peña-Cearra, Aize Pellón, Rafael Prados-Rosales, Leticia Abecia, Félix Elortza, Ana M Aransay, Héctor Rodríguez, Juan Anguita
Macrophages are cells of the innate immune system with the ability to phagocytose and induce a global pattern of responses that depend on several signaling pathways. We have determined the biosignature of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages and human blood monocytes using transcriptomic and proteomic approaches. We identified a common pattern of genes that are transcriptionally regulated and overall indicate that the response to B. burgdorferi involves the interaction of spirochetal antigens with several inflammatory pathways corresponding to primary (triggered by pattern-recognition receptors) and secondary (induced by proinflammatory cytokines) responses...
March 7, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Margarita N German, Kristina A Matkowskyj, Robert J Hoffman, Parul D Agarwal
While the incidence of syphilis has been persistently on the rise in the United States, hepatitis as a complication of early syphilis is relatively uncommon. We present a case of a 51-year-old homosexual, HIV-positive male who presented with acute cholestatic hepatitis with a predominantly elevated alkaline phosphatase. After lab studies and imaging were unrevealing, a liver biopsy was performed that showed expanded portal tracts with a predominantly lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate and prominent bile ductular proliferation with periductal neutrophils...
March 2, 2018: Human Pathology
Hanna Carlsson, Christina Ekerfelt, Anna J Henningsson, Lars Brudin, Ivar Tjernberg
BACKGROUND: Determinants of a subclinical course of Lyme borreliosis (LB) remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the extent, sex and age profiles of subclinical Borrelia seroconversion in a LB endemic area in Sweden and to map blood cellular Borrelia-specific immune marker patterns in individuals with a previous subclinical LB course compared with patients previously diagnosed with Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB). METHODS: A large group of 1113 healthy blood donors was screened for multiple IgG anti-Borrelia antibodies and asked to complete a health inquiry regarding previous LB...
February 16, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Brittney K Tegels, Lee D Oliver, Daniel P Miller, Richard T Marconi
Treponema denticola is a proteolytic-anaerobic spirochete whose abundance in the subgingival crevice correlates with periodontal disease severity. Treponema denticola evades serum-mediated killing through the binding of factor H (FH), a negative regulator of the complement system. The T. denticola FH receptor has been identified as FhbB, an 11.4 kDa immunodominant lipoprotein. Three distinct subfamilies of FhbB proteins have been delineated and designated as FhbB1, FhbB2 and FhbB3. In this study we demonstrate that all FhbB variants bind human plasminogen (Plg)...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
Yasuhiro Kuroi, Shigeru Tani, Makoto Shibuya, Hidetoshi Kasuya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2018: Neurology
Darko Breitenfeld, Davor Kust, Tomislav Breitenfeld, Marin Prpić, Marko Lucijanić, Davor Zibar, Vedran Hostić, Maja Franceschi, Ante Bolanča
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted, systemic disease caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum. The most common mechanism of transmission is sexual intercourse. Although there are several hypotheses, the exact origin of the disease remains unknown. Newly published evidence suggests that the hypothesis supporting the theory of the American origin of the disease is the valid one. Among 1500 analyzed pathographies of composers and musicians, data on ten Anglo-American composers and jazz musicians having suffered from neurosyphilis (tertiary stage of the disease) were extracted for this report...
September 2017: Acta Clinica Croatica
Sébastien Bontemps-Gallo, Kevin A Lawrence, Crystal L Richards, Frank C Gherardini
Polyamines are an essential class of metabolites found throughout all kingdoms in life. Borrelia burgdorferi harbors no enzymes to synthesize or degrade polyamines yet does contain a polyamine uptake system, potABCD. In this report, we describe the initial characterization of this putative transport system. After several unsuccessful attempts to inactivate potABCD, we placed the operon under the control of an inducible LacI promoter expression system. Analyses of this construct confirmed that potABCD was required for in vitro survival...
February 24, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Ashley L Marcinkiewicz, Ilva Lieknina, Svetlana Kotelovica, Xiuli Yang, Peter Kraiczy, Utpal Pal, Yi-Pin Lin, Kaspars Tars
The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease, the most common tick-borne disease in the US and Europe. No potent human vaccine is currently available. The innate immune complement system is vital to host defense against pathogens, as complement activation on the surface of spirochetes results in bacterial killing. Complement system is inhibited by the complement regulator factor H (FH). To escape killing, B. burgdorferi produces an outer surface protein CspZ that binds FH to inhibit complement activation on the cell surface...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Marianne J Middelveen, Melissa C Fesler, Raphael B Stricker
Morgellons disease (MD) is a skin condition characterized by the presence of multicolored filaments that lie under, are embedded in, or project from skin. Although the condition may have a longer history, disease matching the above description was first reported in the US in 2002. Since that time, the condition that we know as MD has become a polemic topic. Because individuals afflicted with the disease may have crawling or stinging sensations and sometimes believe they have an insect or parasite infestation, most medical practitioners consider MD a purely delusional disorder...
2018: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
H Kassem Youssef, A Blind, F Chouta Ngaha, B Drenou, H Nojavan, C Michel
INTRODUCTION: Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease that can affect numerous organs in its secondary or tertiary stages. We describe a case of secondary syphilis with pulmonary involvement and we present a literature review. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 69-year-old male patient was admitted to hospital for dyspnoea and extended papular exanthema with palmoplantar involvement. The serological test for syphilis was positive. Ocular examination showed bilateral papillitis and retinal haemorrhage...
February 17, 2018: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Eva Björnelius, Britta Krynitz
Syphilis - an old imitator is back on the stage Syphilis is one of the oldest sexually transmitted infections and caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. The incubation time is 10-90 days and patients are contagious for approximately one year. In Sweden all blood donors and pregnant women are screened. By law, individuals with early syphilis (primary and secondary stages) are reported and contact tracing is performed. The syphilis incidence is increasing in Europe, USA and many other countries. The main drivers are men having sex with men...
February 15, 2018: Läkartidningen
Chin Vk, Lee Ty, Lim Wf, Wan Shahriman Ywy, Syafinaz An, Zamberi S, Maha A
Leptospirosis remains one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira, which accounts for high morbidity and mortality globally. Leptospiral infections are often found in tropical and subtropical regions, with people exposed to contaminated environments or animal reservoirs are at high risk of getting the infection. Leptospirosis has a wide range of clinical manifestations with non-specific signs and symptoms and often misdiagnosed with other acute febrile illnesses at early stage of infection...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
Ngoc T T Nguyen, Florian Röttgerding, Gayatri Devraj, Yi-Pin Lin, Arno Koenigs, Peter Kraiczy
The emerging relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia ( B .) miyamotoi is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes the so-called hard tick-borne relapsing fever or B. miyamotoi disease (BMD). More recently, we identified a surface-exposed molecule, CbiA exhibiting complement binding and inhibitory capacity and rendering spirochetes resistant to complement-mediated lysis. To gain deeper insight into the molecular principles of B. miyamotoi -host interaction, we examined CbiA as a plasmin(ogen) receptor that enables B...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Alexis Lacout, Véronique Dacher, Mostafa El Hajjam, Pierre Yves Marcy, Christian Perronne
Lyme disease is an affection caused by a spirochete infection called Borrelia Burgdorferi which may harbor a varied and misleading clinical symptomatology. The serology tests commonly used for diagnosis show a wide sensitivity varying from 34% to 70,5%, leaving many infected patients with false negative tests. Alternative techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) could be helpful but not conclusive enough. Using biofilm busters, such as stevia and serratiopeptidase, could lead to bacterial blood release, thus increasing the spirochete load, making PCR test more sensitive, thus improving the patient's diagnosis and management...
March 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Melanie K B Wills, Andrea M Kirby, Vett K Lloyd
Lyme disease is a serious vector-borne infection that is caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato family of spirochetes, which are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Ixodes ticks. The primary etiological agent in North America is Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. As geographic risk regions expand, it is prudent to support robust surveillance programs that can measure tick infection rates, and communicate findings to clinicians, veterinarians, and the general public. The molecular technique of nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) has long been used for this purpose, and it remains a central, inexpensive, and robust approach in the detection of Borrelia in both ticks and wildlife...
February 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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