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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135519/syphilis-of-the-aerodigestive-tract
#1
Julie Y Tse, May P Chan, Judith A Ferry, Vikram Deshpande, Aliyah R Sohani, Valentina Nardi, Andras Schaffer, Rosalynn M Nazarian, Lawrence R Zukerberg
Syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Treponema pallidum, is increasing in prevalence in the United States. It has been our experience that primary and secondary syphilis of the aerodigestive tract can afflict a large age spectrum with varied clinical and histopathologic findings, which can lead to diagnostic problems and frequent misdiagnosis. In this study, we describe the histopathologic patterns of syphilis of the aerodigestive tract to expand awareness of its varied appearance...
November 9, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133662/a-tiny-tick-can-cause-a-big-health-problem
#2
Manuel John, M Raman, Keith Ryan
Ticks are tiny crawling bugs in the spider family that feed by sucking blood from animals. They are second only to mosquitoes as vectors of human disease, both infectious and toxic. Infected ticks spread over a hundred diseases, some of which are fatal if undetected. They spread the spirochete (which multiplies in the insect's gut) with a subsequent bite to the next host. We describe the only reported cases of peri ocular tick bite from India that presented to us within a span of 3 days and its management. Due suspicion and magnification of the lesions revealed the ticks which otherwise masqueraded as small skin tags/moles on gross examination...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129539/leptospirosis-report-from-the-task-force-on-tropical-diseases-by-the-world-federation-of-societies-of-intensive-and-critical-care-medicine
#3
REVIEW
Juan Ignacio Silesky Jiménez, Jorge Luis Hidalgo Marroquin, Guy A Richards, Pravin Amin
Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by a gram negative aerobic spirochete of the genus Leptospira. It is acquired by contact with urine or reproductive fluids from infected animals, or by inoculation from contaminated water or soil. The disease has a global distribution, mainly in tropical and subtropical regions that have a humid, rainy climate and is also common in travelers returning from these regions. Clinical suspicion is critical for the diagnosis and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of any patient with a febrile hepatorenal syndrome in, or returning from endemic regions...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127407/crystal-structure-of-borrelia-turicatae-protein-bta121-a-differentially-regulated-%C3%A2-gene-in-the-tick-mammalian-transmission-cycle-of-relapsing-fever-spirochetes
#4
Zhipu Luo, Alan J Kelleher, Rabih Darwiche, Elissa M Hudspeth, Oluwatosin K Shittu, Aparna Krishnavajhala, Roger Schneiter, Job E Lopez, Oluwatoyin A Asojo
Tick-borne relapsing fever (RF) borreliosis is a neglected disease that is often misdiagnosed. RF species circulating in the United States include Borrelia turicatae, which is transmitted by argasid ticks. Environmental adaptation by RF Borrelia is poorly understood, however our previous studies indicated differential regulation of B. turicatae genes localized on the 150 kb linear megaplasmid during the tick-mammalian transmission cycle, including bta121. This gene is up-regulated by B. turicatae in the tick versus the mammal, and the encoded protein (BTA121) is predicted to be surface localized...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116038/borrelia-burgdorferi-glycosaminoglycan-binding-proteins-a-potential-target-for-new-therapeutics-against-lyme-disease
#5
Yi-Pin Lin, Lingyun Li, Fuming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt
The spirochete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferisensu lato is the causative agent of Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne disease in Europe and the United States. The spirochetes can be transmitted to humans via ticks, and then spread to different tissues, leading to arthritis, carditis and neuroborreliosis. Although antibiotics have commonly been used to treat infected individuals, some treated patients do not respond to antibiotics and experience persistent, long-term arthritis. Thus, there is a need to investigate alternative therapeutics against Lyme disease...
November 8, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114218/periodontitis-microbiomes-and-their-role-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Anna B Pritchard, StJohn Crean, Ingar Olsen, Sim K Singhrao
As far back as the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, microbial infections were responsible for vast numbers of deaths. The trend reversed with the introduction of antibiotics coinciding with longer life. Increased life expectancy however, accompanied the emergence of age related chronic inflammatory states including the sporadic form of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Taken together, the true challenge of retaining health into later years of life now appears to lie in delaying and/or preventing the progression of chronic inflammatory diseases, through identifying and influencing modifiable risk factors...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105221/analysis-of-recombinational-switching-at-the-antigenic-variation-locus-of-the-lyme-spirochete-using-a-novel-pacbio-sequencing-pipeline
#7
Theodore B Verhey, Mildred Castellanos, George Chaconas
The Lyme disease spirochete evades the host immune system by combinatorial variation of VlsE, a surface antigen. Antigenic variation occurs via segmental gene conversion from contiguous silent cassettes into the vlsE locus. Because of the high degree of similarity between switch variants and the size of vlsE, short-read NGS technologies have been unsuitable for sequencing vlsE populations. Here we use PacBio sequencing technology coupled with the first fully-automated software pipeline (VAST) to accurately process NGS data by minimizing error frequency, eliminating heteroduplex errors and accurately aligning switch variants...
November 4, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099929/transcriptome-assessment-of-erythema-migrans-skin-lesions-in-patients-with-early-lyme-disease-reveals-predominant-interferon-signaling
#8
Adriana Marques, Ira Schwartz, Gary P Wormser, Yanmei Wang, Ronald L Hornung, Cumhur Y Demirkale, Peter J Munson, Siu-Ping Turk, Carla Williams, Chyi-Chia Richard Lee, Jun Yang, Mary M Petzke
Background: The most common clinical manifestation of early Lyme disease is the erythema migrans (EM) skin lesion that develops at the tick bite site typically between 7 and 14 days following infection with Borreliella burgdorferi. The host-pathogen interactions that occur in the skin may have a critical role in determining outcome of infection. Methods: Gene arrays were utilized to characterize the global transcriptional alterations in skin biopsy samples of EM lesions from untreated adult patients with Lyme disease in comparison to controls...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099898/isolation-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-brachyspira-species-from-feces-of-layer-chickens-in-germany
#9
Werner Herbst, Hermann Willems, Jörg Heuser, Christa Ewers
OBJECTIVE: Anaerobic spirochetes of the genus Brachyspira are important pathogens causing swine dysentery (Brachyspira [B.] hyodysenteriae) and porcine intestinal spirochetosis (B. pilosicoli, PIS). In addition, avian intestinal spirochetosis (AIS) is caused by B. pilosicoli, B. intermedia and B. alvinipulli. Despite the economic impact of AIS, the disease has not received appropriate attention in Germany. This study was aimed at identifying Brachyspira spp. in Germany and determining their antimicrobial susceptibility...
November 3, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084219/ecological-niche-modeling-and-distribution-of-ornithodoros-hermsi-associated-with-tick-borne-relapsing-fever-in-western-north-america
#10
Kylie M Sage, Tammi L Johnson, Michael B Teglas, Nathan C Nieto, Tom G Schwan
Tick-borne relapsing fever in western North America is a zoonosis caused by the spirochete bacterium, Borrelia hermsii, which is transmitted by the bite of infected Ornithodoros hermsi ticks. The pathogen is maintained in natural cycles involving small rodent hosts such as chipmunks and tree squirrels, as well as the tick vector. In order for these ticks to establish sustained and viable populations, a narrow set of environmental parameters must exist, primarily moderate temperatures and moderate to high amounts of precipitation...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084186/-morphological-and-immunological-variation-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-and-diagnostic-methods
#11
EDITORIAL
Tadeusz Płusa
Diagnostic problems observed in patients infected with Borrelia burgdorferi are a significant impediment to therapeutic decision making. It appears that the pathogen is characterized by morphological and immunological variation in particular stages of development. The bacterium has the ability to morphologically transform into a cell wall deficient form of spheroplast, L-form, bleb-like spirochetes and round body/form cysts. It also has the ability to create biofilm, which is a major barrier to antibiotics...
October 23, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064060/regulation-of-gene-and-protein-expression-in-the-lyme-disease-spirochete
#12
Brian Stevenson, Janakiram Seshu
The infectious cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi necessitates persistent infection of both vertebrates and ticks, and efficient means of transmission between those two very different types of hosts. The Lyme disease spirochete has evolved mechanisms to sense its location in the infectious cycle, and use that information to control production of the proteins and other factors required for each step. Numerous components of borrelial regulatory pathways have been characterized to date. Their effects are being pieced together, thereby providing glimpses into a complex web of cooperative and antagonistic interactions...
October 25, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056661/detection-of-leptospiral-dna-in-the-urine-of-donkeys-on-the-caribbean-island-of-saint-kitts
#13
Bernard Grevemeyer, Michel Vandenplas, Brittney Beigel, Ellen Cho, Arve Lee Willingham, Ashutosh Verma
Leptospirosis is a global zoonosis caused by pathogenic spirochetes classified within the genus Leptospira. Leptospires live in the proximal renal tubules of reservoir or chronic carrier animals, and are shed in the urine. Naïve animals acquire infection either when they come in direct contact with a reservoir or infected animals or by exposure to environmental surface water or soil that is contaminated with their urine. In this study, urine samples from a herd of donkeys on the Caribbean island of St. Kitts were screened using a TaqMan-based real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) targeting a pathogen-specific leptospiral gene, lipl32...
January 10, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051759/ifn%C3%AE-enhances-cd64-potentiated-phagocytosis-of-treponema-pallidum-opsonized-with-human-syphilitic-serum-by-human-macrophages
#14
Kelly L Hawley, Adriana R Cruz, Sarah J Benjamin, Carson J La Vake, Jorge L Cervantes, Morgan LeDoyt, Lady G Ramirez, Daniza Mandich, Mary Fiel-Gan, Melissa J Caimano, Justin D Radolf, Juan C Salazar
Syphilis is a multi-stage, sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum (Tp). Considered broadly, syphilis can be conceptualized as a dualistic process in which spirochete-driven inflammation, the cause of clinical manifestations, coexists to varying extents with bacterial persistence. Inflammation is elicited in the tissues, along with the persistence of spirochetes to keep driving a robust immune response while evading host defenses; this duality is best exemplified during the florid, disseminated stage called secondary syphilis (SS)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038532/the-major-outer-sheath-protein-forms-distinct-conformers-and-multimeric-complexes-in-the-outer-membrane-and-periplasm-of-treponema-denticola
#15
Robbins Puthenveetil, Sanjiv Kumar, Melissa J Caimano, Abhishek Dey, Arvind Anand, Olga Vinogradova, Justin D Radolf
The major outer sheath protein (MOSP) is a prominent constituent of the cell envelope of Treponema denticola (TDE) and one of its principal virulence determinants. Bioinformatics predicts that MOSP consists of N- and C-terminal domains, MOSP(N) and MOSP(C). Biophysical analysis of constructs refolded in vitro demonstrated that MOSP(C), previously shown to possess porin activity, forms amphiphilic trimers, while MOSP(N) forms an extended hydrophilic monomer. In TDE and E. coli expressing MOSP with a PelB signal sequence (PelB-MOSP), MOSP(C) is OM-embedded and surface-exposed, while MOSP(N) resides in the periplasm...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033900/weak-organic-acids-decrease-borrelia-burgdorferi-cytoplasmic-ph-eliciting-an-acid-stress-response-and-impacting-rpon-and-rpos-dependent-gene-expression
#16
Daniel P Dulebohn, Crystal L Richards, Hua Su, Kevin A Lawrence, Frank C Gherardini
The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi survives in its tick vector, Ixodes scapularis, or within various hosts. To transition between and survive in these distinct niches, B. burgdorferi changes its gene expression in response to environmental cues, both biochemical and physiological. Exposure of B. burgdorferi to weak monocarboxylic organic acids, including those detected in the blood meal of fed ticks, decreased the cytoplasmic pH of B. burgdorferi in vitro. A decrease in the cytoplasmic pH induced the expression of genes encoding enzymes that have been shown to restore pH homeostasis in other bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032554/measuring-borrelia-burgdorferi-motility-and-chemotaxis
#17
Kai Zhang, Chunhao Li
Swimming plate, cell motion tracking, and capillary tube assays are very useful tools to quantitatively measure bacterial motility and chemotaxis. These methods were modified and applied to study Borrelia burgdorferi motility and chemotaxis. By using these methods, numerous motility and chemotaxis mutants have been characterized and several chemoattractants were identified. With the assistance of these tools, the role of motility and chemotaxis in the pathogenicity of B. burgdorferi has been established. In addition, these tools also facilitate the study of motility and chemotaxis in other spirochetes...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032553/phagocytosis-assays-for-borrelia-burgdorferi
#18
Juan Anguita, Ana Carreras-González, Nicolás Navasa
Phagocytosis of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is a poorly understood process, despite its importance during the host immune response to infection. Thus, macrophages infiltrate the infected tissues, including the base of the heart and phagocytose the spirochete, therefore contributing to their elimination from infected tissues and leading to inflammation. An impaired bacterial clearance will result in bacterial persistence that may interfere with normal physiology of the heart, such as electrical signals from the heart, resulting in an impaired coordination of the beating of the heart or "heart block...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032551/two-photon-intravital-microscopy-of-lyme-borrelia-in-mice
#19
Alexia A Belperron, Jialing Mao, Linda K Bockenstedt
Two-photon intravital microscopy is a powerful tool that allows visualization of cells in intact tissues in a live animal in real time. In recent years, this advanced technology has been applied to understand pathogen-host interactions using fluorescently labeled bacteria. In particular, infectious fluorescent transformants of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, an Ixodes tick-transmitted pathogen, have been imaged by two-photon intravital microscopy to study bacterial motility and interactions of the pathogen with feeding ticks and host tissues...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032550/analysis-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-proteome-and-protein-protein-interactions
#20
Xiuli Yang, Meghna Thakur, Juraj Koci, Alexis A Smith, Preeti Singh, Xuran Zhuang, Kamoltip Promnares, Yan Wang, Ozlem Buyuktanir, Utpal Pal
The proteome of Borrelia burgdorferi undergoes dynamic alterations as the microbe cycles through and persists in diverse host or vector environments. Therefore, studies of B. burgdorferi proteome and protein-protein interactions, which play central roles in biological processes in diverse organisms, are critical in understanding biology and infectivity of spirochetes. Here, we describe the proteomic analysis of B. burgdorferi by two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis followed by protein identification via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and database searching...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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