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Treponema pallidum

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093460/a-double-edged-sword-does-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-contribute-to-syphilis-incidence-by-impairing-immunity-to-treponema-pallidum
#1
REVIEW
Michael L Rekart, Wilfred Ndifon, Robert C Brunham, Jonathan Dushoff, Sang Woo Park, Sanjana Rawat, Caroline E Cameron
BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESIS: Recently, the world has experienced a rapidly escalating outbreak of infectious syphilis primarily affecting men who have sex with men (MSM); many are taking highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV-1 infection. The prevailing hypothesis is that HAART availability and effectiveness have led to the perception among both individuals who are HIV-1 infected and those who are uninfected that HIV-1 transmission has become much less likely, and the effects of HIV-1 infection less deadly...
January 16, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079920/serum-microrna-profiles-in-patients-with-syphilis
#2
Ping Lu, Chang Fang, Qing Cheng, Wu-Jian Ke, Tao Huang, Jun Zhang, He-Ping Zheng, Bin Yang
Syphilis is an acute and chronic inflammatory disorder caused by the non-cultivatable spirochete Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (T. pallidum).(1,2) T. pallidum does not produce any known toxic proteins; therefore, most of the symptoms and tissue damage related to syphilis are caused by activation of the host's inflammatory and immune responses,(3) thus suggesting that host genetics play an important role in regulating the progression of syphilis infection. MiRNAs are a class of 19- to 24-nt noncoding RNAs that influence many biological systems, including development, cellular differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, metabolism, and the immune response;(4-6) they also play crucial roles during microbial infection...
January 12, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058468/-nonviral-sexually-transmitted-infections-epidemiology-clinical-manifestations-diagnostic-workup-therapy-part%C3%A2-3-treponemes-gardnerella-and-trichomonads
#3
REVIEW
P Nenoff, A Manos, I Ehrhard, C Krüger, U Paasch, P Helmbold, W Handrick
In Germany, the reported syphilis prevalence has increased continuously since 2010, with a total of 6834 syphilis cases being reported in 2015. The largest increase of reported syphilis occurred in men who have sex with men (MSM). The antibiotic agent of choice for treatment of syphilis is still penicillin. There are no penicillin-resistant Treponema pallidum strains. Alternatives are ceftriaxone and doxycycline. In Germany, azithromycin is not approved for treatment of syphilis; however, therapy failures are increasingly reported...
January 5, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033297/could-lengthening-minocycline-therapy-better-treat-early-syphilis
#4
Li-Li Shao, Rui Guo, Wei-Jie Shi, Yuan-Jun Liu, Bin Feng, Long Han, Quan-Zhong Liu
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum. Minocycline, a representative tetracycline derivative, has the greatest antimicrobial activity among all tetracyclines. There are few reports about treating syphilis with minocycline because there is a lack of efficacy data from controlled trials. We compared the rates of serological cure in patients with early syphilis who were treated with minocycline or benzathine penicillin G (BPG).During the study period, a total of 40 syphilis patients received the BPG treatment, which was a single intramuscular dose of 2...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029229/on-site-test-to-detect-syphilis-in-pregnancy-a-systematic-review-of-test-accuracy-studies
#5
REVIEW
E Rogozińska, L Kara-Newton, J R Zamora, K S Khan
BACKGROUND: Syphilis in pregnancy can lead to fetal and neonatal death or congenital anomalies. Accurate on-site tests are an essential part of effective prevention of mother-to-child transmission of the disease. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review assessed the accuracy of on-site tests to detect infection with Treponema pallidum in pregnant women. SEARCH STRATEGY: Major databases were searched from inception to January 2016 using terms: 'pregnancy', 'antenatal', 'syphilis', 'Treponema pallidum' with their variations, and the search limit for the relevant study design...
December 28, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009086/1-2-diacylglycerol-choline-phosphotransferase-catalyzes-the-final-step-in-the-unique-treponema-denticola-phosphatidylcholine-biosynthesis-pathway
#6
Miguel Ángel Vences-Guzmán, M Paula Goetting-Minesky, Ziqiang Guan, Santiago Castillo-Ramirez, Luz América Córdoba-Castro, Isabel M López-Lara, Otto Geiger, Christian Sohlenkamp, J Christopher Fenno
Treponema denticola synthesizes phosphatidylcholine through a licCA-dependent CDP-choline pathway identified only in the genus Treponema. However, the mechanism of conversion of CDP-choline to phosphatidylcholine remained unclear. We report here characterization of TDE0021 (herein designated cpt) encoding a 1,2-diacylglycerol choline phosphotransferase homologous to choline phosphotransferases that catalyze the final step of the highly conserved Kennedy pathway for phosphatidylcholine synthesis in eukaryotes...
December 23, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998453/-clinical-features-of-neurosyphilis-with-optic-neuritis-as-an-initial-finding
#7
S S Cao, H Y Li, Q G Xu, S Y Tan, S H Wei
Objective: To study the characteristics of neurosyphilis with optic neuritis as an initial finding. Methods: Retrospective analysis of clinical data and laboratory testing results of 16 cases (27 eyes) with optic neuritis as an initial finding of neurosyphilis from October 2010 to March 2015 in General Hospital of People's Liberation Army was made. Results: Six-teen patients (12 males, 4 females) were collected, the median age of patients was 47 (range 33 to 65) years ,the mean age was (49.63±9.05) years. Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA) analysis was positive in all of the patients and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test was positive in 14 patients (2 patients did not test)...
December 11, 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993382/syphilis
#8
REVIEW
Edward W Hook
Syphilis is a chronic bacterial infection caused by Treponema pallidum that is endemic in low-income countries and and occurs at lower rates in middle-income and high-income countries. The disease is of both individual and public health importance and, in addition to its direct morbidity, increases risk of HIV infection and can cause lifelong morbidity in children born to infected mothers. Without treatment the disease can progress over years through a series of clinical stages and lead to irreversible neurological or cardiovascular complications...
December 16, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982548/syphilitic-aortitis-and-its-complications-in-the-modern-era
#9
Francesco Drago, Giulia Merlo, Alfredo Rebora, Aurora Parodi
INTRODUCTION: Aortitis is a well recognized manifestation of the tertiary stage of syphilis. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Although often regarded as an unexpected diagnosis, actually new cases of cardiovascular syphilis continue to be reported. Presumably, Treponema pallidum invades the aortic wall and the inflammatory response progresses towards obliterative endarteritis and necrosis of the muscular and elastic fibers in the aortic media. The consequent weakening of the aortic wall can lead to severe complications, represented by aortic aneurysm, aortic valvular insufficiency, aortic root dilation and coronary ostial stenosis...
December 16, 2016: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978847/non-antibiotic-treatments-for-bacterial-diseases-in-an-era-of-progressive-antibiotic-resistance
#10
EDITORIAL
Steven M Opal
The emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) microbial pathogens threatens the very foundation upon which standard antibacterial chemotherapy is based. We must consider non-antibiotic solutions to manage invasive bacterial infections. Transition from antibiotics to non-traditional treatments poses real clinical challenges that will not be easy to solve. Antibiotics will continue to reliably treat some infections (e.g., group A streptococci and Treponema pallidum) but will likely need adjuvant therapies or will need to be replaced for many bacterial infections in the future...
December 16, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938337/performance-of-syphilis-sentinel-surveillance-in-the-context-of-endemic-treponematoses-experience-from-ghana
#11
Edward Tieru Dassah, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Philippe Mayaud
BACKGROUND: Use of treponemal tests to screen for syphilis (caused by Treponema pallidum pallidum) poses challenges with infection status classification, especially in settings where other treponemal infections are endemic. This study aimed to determine the validity of the syphilis surveillance testing strategy implemented since 2004 using two treponemal tests, and estimate the seroprevalence of active syphilis infection in Ghana where yaws (caused by Treponema pallidum pertenue) is endemic...
December 9, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928093/imported-disease-screening-prior-to-chemotherapy-and-bone-marrow-transplantation-for-oncohematological-malignancies
#12
Adrián Sánchez-Montalvá, Fernando Salvador, Isabel Ruiz-Camps, Pere Barba, David Valcárcel, Elena Sulleiro, Enrique Sanz-García, Israel Molina
Reactivation of latent imported infections has been periodically reported in migrant patients undergoing immunosuppression. We performed a prospective study at Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain). Migrant patients over 16 years with the diagnosis of any oncohematologic disease were included. Patients were tested for soil-transmitted helminths, hepatitis virus, and human immunodeficiency virus, Treponema pallidum, human T-cell lymphotropic virus, latent tuberculosis infection, Toxoplasma spp...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922851/future-prospects-for-new-vaccines-against-sexually-transmitted-infections
#13
Sami L Gottlieb, Christine Johnston
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an update on the need, development status, and important next steps for advancing development of vaccines against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including herpes simplex virus (HSV), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea), Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia), and Treponema pallidum (syphilis). RECENT FINDINGS: Global estimates suggest that more than a million STIs are acquired every day, and many new and emerging challenges to STI control highlight the critical need for development of new STI vaccines...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920653/intestinal-bacterial-infection-diagnosed-by-histological-examination-of-endoscopic-biopsy-specimens
#14
Michiko Yuki, Yuko Emoto, Katsuhiko Yoshizawa, Takashi Yuri, Airo Tsubura
Intestinal spirochetosis (IS) in humans is characterized by spirochetal microorganisms attached to the luminal surface of the colonic epithelium. In the present case, attached organisms appeared as 3- to 4 μm-thick (average thickness, 3.4 μm) basophilic fringes or haze in HE-stained endoscopic biopsy specimens. The basophilic fringes were clearly labeled by Treponema pallidum antiserum. Because IS is relatively rare in developed countries, thin basophilic fringes characteristic of IS are readily overlooked...
September 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918528/origin-of-modern-syphilis-and-emergence-of-a-pandemic-treponema-pallidum-cluster
#15
Natasha Arora, Verena J Schuenemann, Günter Jäger, Alexander Peltzer, Alexander Seitz, Alexander Herbig, Michal Strouhal, Linda Grillová, Leonor Sánchez-Busó, Denise Kühnert, Kirsten I Bos, Leyla Rivero Davis, Lenka Mikalová, Sylvia Bruisten, Peter Komericki, Patrick French, Paul R Grant, María A Pando, Lucía Gallo Vaulet, Marcelo Rodríguez Fermepin, Antonio Martinez, Arturo Centurion Lara, Lorenzo Giacani, Steven J Norris, David Šmajs, Philipp P Bosshard, Fernando González-Candelas, Kay Nieselt, Johannes Krause, Homayoun C Bagheri
The abrupt onslaught of the syphilis pandemic that started in the late fifteenth century established this devastating infectious disease as one of the most feared in human history(1). Surprisingly, despite the availability of effective antibiotic treatment since the mid-twentieth century, this bacterial infection, which is caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA), has been re-emerging globally in the last few decades with an estimated 10.6 million cases in 2008 (ref. 2). Although resistance to penicillin has not yet been identified, an increasing number of strains fail to respond to the second-line antibiotic azithromycin(3)...
December 5, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903355/-factors-associated-with-commercial-sexual-behavior-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-shenzhen-china-in-2011-2015
#16
Y M Cai, Y J Song, H Liu, F C Hong
Objective: To investigate the status and factors associated with commercial sexual behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Shenzhen. Methods: A convenience sampling method was used to recruit MSM in Shenzhen from 2011 to 2015. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted on a one-on-one basis. Data were collected, including socio-demographic information, HIV testing history, history of blood donation and drug abuse in the last 2 years, self-reported sexual orientation, role in homosexual behavior, and experience serving as a male sex worker and/or as a client of male sex workers...
November 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888719/treponema-pallidum-flagellin-flaa2-induces-il-6-secretion-in-thp-1-cells-via-the-toll-like-receptor-2-signaling-pathway
#17
Yafeng Xie, Man Xu, Yongjian Xiao, Zhuoran Liu, Chuanhao Jiang, Xingxing Kuang, Chuan Wang, Haiying Wu, Jing Peng, Chun Li, Yu Wang, Huaming Liu, Bin Liu, Xiaotuan Zhang, Feijun Zhao, Tiebing Zeng, Shuangquan Liu, Yimou Wu
Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum membrane proteins are considered as potent inducers in the initiation and development of inflammation. In the present study, the mechanism that leads to the production of interleukin 6 (IL-6), one of the key proinflammatory cytokines, by human monocytic THP-1 cells when these cells are treated with T. pallidum flagellin FlaA2 was investigated. Stimulation with flagellin FlaA2 can induce IL-6 expression in human monocytes and augment the phosphorylation of ERK, p38, and NF-κB, but has no effect on the phosphorylation of JNK...
January 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882070/serological-patterns-and-molecular-characterization-of-occult-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-among-blood-donors
#18
Hong Lin, Hong Zhao, Xinyi Tang, Wenjia Hu, Nizheng Jiang, Shaowen Zhu, Chengyin Huang
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B infections, characterized by the presence of a viral genome without detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg; Occult hepatitis B infection [OBI]), have been reported recently. OBJECTIVES: We performed serological and molecular characterization of OBI among blood donors at Jiangsu province blood center during years 2013 and 2014. METHODS: All donor samples were routinely screened by double enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Treponema pallidum (TP), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)...
October 2016: Hepatitis Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876463/re-evaluating-the-sensitivity-of-the-rabbit-infectivity-test-for-treponema-pallidum-in-modern-era
#19
Man-Li Tong, Hui-Lin Zhang, Xiao-Zhen Zhu, Jin-Yi Fan, Kun Gao, Li-Rong Lin, Li-Li Liu, Shu-Lian Li, Hui-Ling Lin, Zhi-Feng Lin, Jian-Jun Niu, Wei-Hong Zheng, Tian-Ci Yang
BACKGROUND: The rabbit infectivity test (RIT) was previously described as a highly-sensitive method for clinically detecting Treponema pallidum. But our primary study indicated this result may have changed in current antibiotics era. METHODS: By inoculating rabbits testis with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (n=63) and exudate from hard chancre lesions (n=13), we re-evaluated the sensitivity of RIT in modern era. All isolated T. pallidum strains from the RIT were performed for the strain type based on "CDC subtype/tp0548" method...
January 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873284/a-case-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-due-to-cardiovascular-syphilis-with-aortic-regurgitation-and-bilateral-coronary-ostial-stenosis
#20
Mutsuo Tanaka, Minoru Okamoto, Toshihiko Murayama
We report an interesting case of a 66-year-old man with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with bilateral coronary ostial stenosis cardiovascular syphilis complicated by aortic regurgitation (AR). A 12-lead electrocardiogram and blood tests on arrival suggested AMI, and echocardiography showed moderate AR. Emergency coronary angiography showed bilateral coronary ostial stenosis. The patient underwent emergency surgical treatment, coronary artery bypass grafting, and aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthetic valve...
December 2016: Surgical Case Reports
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