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T. pallidum

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135519/syphilis-of-the-aerodigestive-tract
#1
Julie Y Tse, May P Chan, Judith A Ferry, Vikram Deshpande, Aliyah R Sohani, Valentina Nardi, Andras Schaffer, Rosalynn M Nazarian, Lawrence R Zukerberg
Syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Treponema pallidum, is increasing in prevalence in the United States. It has been our experience that primary and secondary syphilis of the aerodigestive tract can afflict a large age spectrum with varied clinical and histopathologic findings, which can lead to diagnostic problems and frequent misdiagnosis. In this study, we describe the histopathologic patterns of syphilis of the aerodigestive tract to expand awareness of its varied appearance...
November 9, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133803/microbial-diversity-of-genital-ulcers-of-hsv-2-seropositive-women
#2
Supriya D Mehta, Ashish K Pradhan, Stefan J Green, Ankur Naqib, Elijah Odoyo-June, Charlotte A Gaydos, Sheila Barry, Alan Landay, Robert C Bailey
We measured the microbial community structure of genital ulcers in women. Swabs from clinically detected ulcers were tested for HSV-2 and Treponema pallidum by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). HSV-2 and T. pallidum were detected by serum antibody testing. Microbial community structure was characterized by high-throughput 16 s rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Multiple group testing and Elastic net and Lasso regressions identified taxa associated with differences in factors of interest. Among 49 ulcer specimens from 49 HSV-2 seropositive women, by PCR HSV-2 was recovered from 28 (57%) specimens and T...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124540/oligonucleotide-microchip-for-the-identification-of-infectious-agents-of-reproductive-system-with-simultaneous-analysis-of-determinants-of-resistance-to-antimicrobial-substances
#3
A T Leinsoo, B L Shaskol'skii, E I Dement'eva, D A Gryadunov, A A Kubanov, A V Chestkov, O A Obraztsova, M V Shpilevaya, D G Deryabin
We developed a multiplexed DNA microarray-based assay allowing identification of 12 causative agents of reproductive tract infections with the simultaneous detection of 47 genetic determinants of resistance to antimicrobial substances. The microarray was tested on 93 isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 32 isolates of Treponema pallidum and 29 samples of Ureaplasma spp./Mycoplasma spp. The N. gonorrhoeae isolates had multiple mutations in the penA, ponA, rpsJ, gyrA, parC, and mtrR genes; their prognostic value significantly increased when combinations of mutations were detected...
November 10, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107621/effectiveness-of-single-dose-azithromycin-to-treat-latent-yaws-a-longitudinal-comparative-cohort-study
#4
Oriol Mitjà, Camila González-Beiras, Charmie Godornes, Reman Kolmau, Wendy Houinei, Haina Abel, August Kapa, Raymond Paru, Sibauk V Bieb, James Wangi, Sergi Sanz, Kingsley Asiedu, Sheila A Lukehart, Quique Bassat
BACKGROUND: Treatment of latent yaws is a crucial component of the WHO yaws eradication strategy to prevent relapse and the resulting transmission to uninfected children. We assessed the effectiveness of single-dose azithromycin to treat patients with latent yaws. METHODS: This population-based cohort study included children (age <20 years) living on Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea, with high-titre (rapid plasma reagin titre ≥1:8) latent or active yaws, between April, 2013, and May, 2015...
October 26, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053737/screening-for-hiv-hepatitis-b-and-syphilis-on-dried-blood-spots-a-promising-method-to-better-reach-hidden-high-risk-populations-with-self-collected-sampling
#5
Inge H M van Loo, Nicole H T M Dukers-Muijrers, Rosalie Heuts, Marianne A B van der Sande, Christian J P A Hoebe
INTRODUCTION: Many people at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), e.g., men who have sex with men (MSM), are not optimally reached by current sexual health care systems with testing. To facilitate testing by home-based sampling or sampling in outreach setting we evaluated dried blood spots (DBS), a method for self-collected blood sampling for serological screening of HIV, hepatitis B (HBV) and syphilis. The aims of this study were to assess the acceptability and feasibility of self-collected DBS and to compare the test results for screening of HIV, HBV and syphilis from DBS with blood drawn by venous puncture...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051759/ifn%C3%AE-enhances-cd64-potentiated-phagocytosis-of-treponema-pallidum-opsonized-with-human-syphilitic-serum-by-human-macrophages
#6
Kelly L Hawley, Adriana R Cruz, Sarah J Benjamin, Carson J La Vake, Jorge L Cervantes, Morgan LeDoyt, Lady G Ramirez, Daniza Mandich, Mary Fiel-Gan, Melissa J Caimano, Justin D Radolf, Juan C Salazar
Syphilis is a multi-stage, sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum (Tp). Considered broadly, syphilis can be conceptualized as a dualistic process in which spirochete-driven inflammation, the cause of clinical manifestations, coexists to varying extents with bacterial persistence. Inflammation is elicited in the tissues, along with the persistence of spirochetes to keep driving a robust immune response while evading host defenses; this duality is best exemplified during the florid, disseminated stage called secondary syphilis (SS)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050149/-accuracy-analysis-and-comparison-of-different-serological-detection-methods-in-syphilis
#7
M Hu, N Liu, Y Y Cai, T Lei, M Zhang
Objective: To compare the accuracy of different methods by reviewing syphilis serologic screening external quality assessment (EQA) data of Chinese primary health care institutions. Methods: The EQA was based on one or two distinct shipments from 2011 to 2016. Each shipment consisted of five serum samples. The laboratories performed the EQA and sent back the results by the deadline. The results were analyzed using the standard procedures and methods. Results: Six different methods were used for syphilis serologic screening: enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, colloidal gold method, Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) test, rapid plasma reagin card test, toluidine red unheated serum reagin test and chemiluminescence immunoassay...
September 26, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045605/diagnostics-for-yaws-eradication-insights-from-direct-next-generation-sequencing-of-cutaneous-strains-of-treponema-pallidum
#8
Michael Marks, Maria Fookes, Josef Wagner, Robert Butcher, Rosanna Ghinai, Oliver Sokana, Yaw-Adu Sarkodie, Sheila A Lukehart, Anthony W Solomon, David C W Mabey, Nicholas Thomson
Background: Yaws-like chronic ulcers can be caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue, Haemophilus ducreyi, or other still-undefined bacteria. To permit accurate evaluation of yaws elimination efforts programmatic use of molecular diagnostics is required. The accuracy and sensitivity of current tools remains unclear because our understanding of T. pallidum diversity is limited by the low number of sequenced genomes. Methods: We tested samples from patients with suspected yaws collected in previous studies in the Solomon Islands and Ghana...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022569/syphilis
#9
REVIEW
Rosanna W Peeling, David Mabey, Mary L Kamb, Xiang-Sheng Chen, Justin D Radolf, Adele S Benzaken
Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum (T. pallidum) causes syphilis via sexual exposure or via vertical transmission during pregnancy. T. pallidum is renowned for its invasiveness and immune-evasiveness; its clinical manifestations result from local inflammatory responses to replicating spirochaetes and often imitate those of other diseases. The spirochaete has a long latent period during which individuals have no signs or symptoms but can remain infectious. Despite the availability of simple diagnostic tests and the effectiveness of treatment with a single dose of long-acting penicillin, syphilis is re-emerging as a global public health problem, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) in high-income and middle-income countries...
October 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020152/increases-in-ocular-syphilis-north-carolina-2014-2015
#10
Sara E Oliver, Anna Barry Cope, Jessica L Rinsky, Charnetta Williams, Gui Liu, Stephanie Hawks, Thomas A Peterman, Lauri Markowitz, Aaron T Fleischauer, Erika Samoff
Background: Ocular syphilis is an inflammatory eye disease due to Treponema pallidum infection. In the United States, syphilis rates have increased since 2000; clusters of ocular syphilis were reported in 2015. We investigated ocular syphilis in North Carolina to describe the epidemiology and clinical course of disease. Methods: We reviewed syphilis cases reported to North Carolina during 2014-2015 and abstracted information from health department interviews for cases with ocular symptoms and no other defined etiology...
July 13, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016285/development-and-evaluation-of-a-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay-for-the-detection-of-treponema-pallidum-dna-in-the-peripheral-blood-of-secondary-syphilis-patients
#11
Yongjian Xiao, Yafeng Xie, Man Xu, Shuangquan Liu, Chuanhao Jiang, Feijun Zhao, Tiebing Zeng, Zhuoran Liu, Jian Yu, Yimou Wu
Secondary syphilis (SS) has always been puzzling for the clinicians because of the similarity of the appearance of skin rashes with other dermatoses. Serological assays are useful, but less sensitive at an early stage of SS or when patients are immunodeficient. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a rapid and effective tool for the diagnosis of SS, which may play an important role in the control of epidemic syphilis outbreaks. In this study, we evaluated a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay, targeting gene encoding the basic membrane protein of Treponema pallidum, to detect the presence of circulating T...
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982539/treponema-pallidum-flagellins-stimulate-mmp-9-and-mmp-13-expression-via-tlr5-and-mapk-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways-in-human-epidermal-keratinocytes
#12
Chuanhao Jiang, Man Xu, Xingxing Kuang, Jinhong Xiao, Manyi Tan, Yafeng Xie, Yongjian Xiao, Feijun Zhao, Yimou Wu
Syphilis is a chronic disease caused by Treponema pallidum and the pathogenesis is still unclear. T. pallidum infection induced inflammatory responses are involved in the immunopathological damage in skin and other tissues. Flagellin, the monomeric subunit of bacterial flagella, is a classic pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that interacts to TLR5 and induces inflammatory responses. Keratinocytes, as immune sentinels recognize the PAMPs via TLRs, play an important role in skin innate immune response...
October 2, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981903/neural-correlates-of-inhibitory-spillover-in-adolescence-associations-with-internalizing-symptoms
#13
Sarah A Stoycos, Larissa Del Piero, Gayla Margolin, Jonas T Kaplan, Darby E Saxbe
The current study used an emotional go/no-go task (Berkman et al., 2009) to explore inhibitory spillover (how intentional cognitive inhibition "spills over" to inhibit neural responses to affective stimuli) within 23 adolescents. Adolescents were shown emotional faces and asked to press a button depending on the gender of the face. When asked to inhibit with irrelevant affective stimuli present, adolescents recruited prefrontal cognitive control regions (rIFG, ACC) and ventral affective areas (insula, amygdala)...
August 17, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972591/altered-activation-and-connectivity-in-a-hippocampal-basal-ganglia-midbrain-circuit-during-salience-processing-in-subjects-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis
#14
T Winton-Brown, A Schmidt, J P Roiser, O D Howes, A Egerton, P Fusar-Poli, N Bunzeck, A A Grace, E Duzel, S Kapur, P McGuire
Animal models of psychosis propose that abnormal hippocampal activity drives increased subcortical dopamine function, which is thought to contribute to aberrant salience processing and psychotic symptoms. These effects appear to be mediated through connections between the hippocampus, ventral striatum/pallidum and the midbrain. The aim of the present study was to examine the activity and connectivity in this pathway in people at ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare neural responses in a hippocampal-basal ganglia-midbrain network during reward, novelty and aversion processing between 29 UHR subjects and 32 healthy controls...
October 3, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963103/the-role-of-routine-screening-in-blood-borne-pathogens-in-chinese-patients-undergoing-joint-arthroplasty
#15
T Cheng, X-L Zhang, J-J Hu, B Li, Q Wang
OBJECTIVES: Surgeons face a substantial risk of infection because of the occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens (BBPs) from patients undergoing high-risk orthopaedic procedures. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of four BBPs among patients undergoing joint arthroplasty in Shanghai, China. In addition, we evaluated the significance of pre-operative screening by calculating a cost-to-benefit ratio. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of pre-operative screening for BBPs, including hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Treponema pallidum (TP), was conducted for sequential patients in the orthopaedic department of a large urban teaching hospital between 01 January 2009 and 30 May 2016...
September 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960028/prevalence-of-and-risk-factors-for-sexually-transmitted-infections-among-korean-adolescents-under-probation
#16
Jin Ju Park, Yu Bin Seo, Sookyung Jeong, Jacob Lee
There is limited research on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents in Korea. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence of and risk factors for STIs among Korean adolescents under probation. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in one juvenile-delinquent center and five probation offices in Korea to determine the prevalence of STIs caused by the following pathogens: Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex virus (HSV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Treponema pallidum, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Ureaplasma parvum...
November 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894291/neural-predictors-of-12-month-weight-loss-outcomes-following-bariatric-surgery
#17
L M Holsen, P Davidson, H Cerit, T Hye, P Moondra, F Haimovici, S Sogg, S Shikora, J M Goldstein, A E Evins, L E Stoeckel
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Despite the effectiveness of bariatric surgery, there is still substantial variability in long-term weight outcomes and few factors with predictive power to explain this variability. Neuroimaging may provide a novel biomarker with utility beyond other commonly used variables in bariatric surgery trials to improve prediction of long-term weight-loss outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on reward and cognitive control circuitry postsurgery and determine the extent to which baseline brain activity predicts weight loss at 12-month postsurgery...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886021/complete-genome-sequences-of-two-strains-of-treponema-pallidum-subsp-pertenue-from-ghana-africa-identical-genome-sequences-in-samples-isolated-more-than-7-years-apart
#18
Michal Strouhal, Lenka Mikalová, Pavla Havlíčková, Paolo Tenti, Darina Čejková, Ivan Rychlík, Sylvia Bruisten, David Šmajs
BACKGROUND: Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue (TPE) is the causative agent of yaws, a multi-stage disease, endemic in tropical regions of Africa, Asia, Oceania, and South America. To date, four TPE strains have been completely sequenced including three TPE strains of human origin (Samoa D, CDC-2, and Gauthier) and one TPE strain (Fribourg-Blanc) isolated from a baboon. All TPE strains are highly similar to T. pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA) strains. The mutation rate in syphilis and related treponemes has not been experimentally determined yet...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870407/striatal-dopamine-d2-3-receptor-mediated-neurotransmission-in-major-depression-implications-for-anhedonia-anxiety-and-treatment-response
#19
Marta Peciña, Magdalena Sikora, Erich T Avery, Joseph Heffernan, Susana Peciña, Brian J Mickey, Jon-Kar Zubieta
Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission within the brain's reward circuit has been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression and in both, cognitive and pharmacological mechanisms of treatment response. Still, a direct relationship between measures of DA neurotransmission and reward-related deficits in patients with depression has not been demonstrated. To gain insight into the symptom-specific alterations in the DA system in patients with depression, we used positron emission tomography (PET) and the D2/3 receptor-selective radiotracer [(11)C]raclopride in twenty-three non-smoking un-medicated Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) patients and sixteen healthy controls (HC)...
October 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821219/early-congenital-syphilis-recognising-symptoms-of-an-increasingly-prevalent-disease
#20
Nupur U Patel, Elias Oussedik, Erin T Landis, Lindsay C Strowd
BACKGROUND: Congenital syphilis (CS) is an infectious disease resulting from transplacental transmission of Treponema pallidum spirochetes from an infected mother to fetus during pregnancy. While uncommon, CS has shown an increased incidence in Canada and the United States since 2001 and 2012, respectively. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a 5-week-old female infant with blistering rash on the palms and soles. The infant displayed decreased movement of the left upper extremity, clinically consistent with Parrot pseudoparalysis...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
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