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T. pallidum

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888719/treponema-pallidum-flagellin-flaa2-induces-il-6-secretion-in-thp-1-cells-via-the-toll-like-receptor-2-signaling-pathway
#1
Yafeng Xie, Man Xu, Yongjian Xiao, Zhuoran Liu, Chuanhao Jiang, Xingxing Kuang, Chuan Wang, Haiying Wu, Jing Peng, Chun Li, Yu Wang, Huaming Liu, Bin Liu, Xiaotuan Zhang, Feijun Zhao, Tiebing Zeng, Shuangquan Liu, Yimou Wu
Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum membrane proteins are considered as potent inducers in the initiation and development of inflammation. In the present study, the mechanism that leads to the production of interleukin 6 (IL-6), one of the key proinflammatory cytokines, by human monocytic THP-1 cells when these cells are treated with T. pallidum flagellin FlaA2 was investigated. Stimulation with flagellin FlaA2 can induce IL-6 expression in human monocytes and augment the phosphorylation of ERK, p38, and NF-κB, but has no effect on the phosphorylation of JNK...
November 23, 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876463/re-evaluating-the-sensitivity-of-the-rabbit-infectivity-test-for-treponema-pallidum-in-modern-era
#2
Man-Li Tong, Hui-Lin Zhang, Xiao-Zhen Zhu, Jin-Yi Fan, Kun Gao, Li-Rong Lin, Li-Li Liu, Shu-Lian Li, Hui-Ling Lin, Zhi-Feng Lin, Jian-Jun Niu, Wei-Hong Zheng, Tian-Ci Yang
BACKGROUND: The rabbit infectivity test (RIT) was previously described as a highly-sensitive method for clinically detecting Treponema pallidum. But our primary study indicated this result may have changed in current antibiotics era. METHODS: By inoculating rabbits testis with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (n=63) and exudate from hard chancre lesions (n=13), we re-evaluated the sensitivity of RIT in modern era. All isolated T. pallidum strains from the RIT were performed for the strain type based on "CDC subtype/tp0548" method...
November 20, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832149/the-structure-of-treponema-pallidum-tp0624-reveals-a-modular-assembly-of-divergently-functionalized-and-previously-uncharacterized-domains
#3
Michelle L Parker, Simon Houston, Charmaine Wetherell, Caroline E Cameron, Martin J Boulanger
Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum is the causative agent of syphilis, a chronic, multistage, systemic infection that remains a major global health concern. The molecular mechanisms underlying T. pallidum pathogenesis are incompletely understood, partially due to the phylogenetic divergence of T. pallidum. One aspect of T. pallidum that differentiates it from conventional Gram-negative bacteria, and is believed to play an important role in pathogenesis, is its unusual cell envelope ultrastructure; in particular, the T...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802246/morphometry-analysis-of-basal-ganglia-structures-in-children-with-obstructive-sleep%C3%A2-apnea
#4
Jian Lv, Lin Shi, Lei Zhao, Jian Weng, Vincent C T Mok, Winnie C W Chu, Defeng Wang
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects both adults and children, likely mediated by the deficits of various brain regions. The association between structural alterations in the brain and OSA syndrome have been reported in adult patients, but the corresponding evidence for OSA children is still limited. OBJECTIVE: The proposed study aimed to investigate the structural alterations in the brain of children with OSA, with focus on basal ganglia structures...
October 6, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792884/altered-basal-ganglia-cortical-functional-connections-in-frontal-lobe-epilepsy-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#5
Li Dong, Pu Wang, Rui Peng, Sisi Jiang, Benjamin Klugah-Brown, Cheng Luo, Dezhong Yao
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate alterations of basal ganglia-cortical functional connections in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). METHOD: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were gathered from 19 FLE patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Functional connectivity (FC) analysis was used to assess the functional connections between basal ganglia and cerebral cortex. Regions of interest, including the left/right caudate, putamen, pallidum and thalamus, were selected as the seeds...
December 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779299/-neurosyphilis-in-the-21st-century-a-descriptive-study-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-madrid
#6
R N Villar-Quiles, J Porta-Etessam
INTRODUCTION: Neurosyphilis can occur at any time following infection by Treponema pallidum and its incidence has increased over recent years. The epidemiological and clinical pattern has undergone a substantial change in the post-antibiotic era. AIMS: To describe and analyse the population of patients diagnosed with neurosyphilis at a tertiary hospital in Madrid from January to May 2015. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the following data was performed: demographic, clinical, complementary tests -serology, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), neuroimaging- and progression of 28 patients diagnosed between 2008 and 2015...
November 1, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748767/genome-scale-analysis-of-the-non-cultivable-treponema-pallidum-reveals-extensive-within-patient-genetic-variation
#7
Miguel Pinto, Vítor Borges, Minia Antelo, Miguel Pinheiro, Alexandra Nunes, Jacinta Azevedo, Maria José Borrego, Joana Mendonça, Dina Carpinteiro, Luís Vieira, João Paulo Gomes
Insights into the genomic adaptive traits of Treponema pallidum, the causative bacterium of syphilis, have long been hampered due to the absence of in vitro culture models and the constraints associated with its propagation in rabbits. Here, we have bypassed the culture bottleneck by means of a targeted strategy never applied to uncultivable bacterial human pathogens to directly capture whole-genome T. pallidum data in the context of human infection. This strategy has unveiled a scenario of discreet T. pallidum interstrain single-nucleotide-polymorphism-based microevolution, contrasting with a rampant within-patient genetic heterogeneity mainly targeting multiple phase-variable loci and a major antigen-coding gene (tprK)...
October 17, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721440/treponema-pallidum-the-syphilis-spirochete-making-a-living-as-a-stealth-pathogen
#8
Justin D Radolf, Ranjit K Deka, Arvind Anand, David Šmajs, Michael V Norgard, X Frank Yang
The past two decades have seen a worldwide resurgence in infections caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the syphilis spirochete. The well-recognized capacity of the syphilis spirochete for early dissemination and immune evasion has earned it the designation 'the stealth pathogen'. Despite the many hurdles to studying syphilis pathogenesis, most notably the inability to culture and to genetically manipulate T. pallidum, in recent years, considerable progress has been made in elucidating the structural, physiological, and regulatory facets of T...
December 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716251/seroprevalence-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hepatitis-b-and-c-viruses-and-treponema-pallidum-infections-among-blood-donors-at-shiyan-central-china
#9
Shuguo Yang, Danmei Jiao, Changjun Liu, Ming Lv, Shan Li, Zongyun Chen, Yao Deng, Yanqing Zhao, Jian Li
BACKGROUND: Ordinary screening of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) among blood donors is essential for blood transfusion. Although there is several TTIs studies focus on human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C viruses, and Treponema pallidum infections in China, it is no data to illustrate any firm conclusion from Shiyan City, Central China. It aims to verify the seroprevalence of TTIs among blood donors at Shiyan. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of blood donors' information was conducted for the presence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T...
October 1, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696564/a-novel-glycan-modifies-the-flagellar-filament-proteins-of-the-oral-bacterium-treponema-denticola
#10
Kurni Kurniyati, John F Kelly, Evgeny Vinogradov, Anna Robotham, Youbing Tu, Juyu Wang, Jun Liu, Susan M Logan, Chunhao Li
While protein glycosylation has been reported in several spirochetes including the syphilis bacterium Treponema pallidum and Lyme disease pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi, the pertinent glycan structures and their roles remain uncharacterized. Herein, a novel glycan with an unusual chemical composition and structure in the oral spirochete Treponema denticola, a keystone pathogen of periodontitis was reported. The identified glycan of mass 450.2 Da is composed of a monoacetylated nonulosonic acid (Non) with a novel extended N7 acyl modification, a 2-methoxy-4,5,6-trihydroxy-hexanoyl residue in which the Non has a pseudaminic acid configuration (L-glycero-L-manno) and is β-linked to serine or threonine residues...
October 1, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684568/scanning-electron-microscopy-of-the-adhesion-of-treponema-pallidum-subspecies-pallidum-nichol-strain-to-human-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-in-vitro
#11
Fan Wu, Jing-Ping Zhang, Qian-Qiu Wang
Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum (T. pallidum), the pathogen of syphilis, can invade the central nervous system (CNS) and causes a series of severe diseases collectively termed neurosyphilis (NS).(1) Recently, there are increasing reports of NS cases, especially in HIV-infected syphilis patients.(2,3) Meanwhile, the misdiagnosis rate of NS is high, that of neurosyphilitic ischemic stroke was up to 80.95%.(4) This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
September 29, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683203/the-structure-of-treponema-pallidum-tp0751-pallilysin-reveals-a-non-canonical-lipocalin-fold-that-mediates-adhesion-to-extracellular-matrix-components-and-interactions-with-host-cells
#12
Michelle L Parker, Simon Houston, Helena Pětrošová, Karen V Lithgow, Rebecca Hof, Charmaine Wetherell, Wei-Chien Kao, Yi-Pin Lin, Tara J Moriarty, Rhodaba Ebady, Caroline E Cameron, Martin J Boulanger
Syphilis is a chronic disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum. Treponema pallidum disseminates widely throughout the host and extravasates from the vasculature, a process that is at least partially dependent upon the ability of T. pallidum to interact with host extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Defining the molecular basis for the interaction between T. pallidum and the host is complicated by the intractability of T. pallidum to in vitro culturing and genetic manipulation. Correspondingly, few T...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670115/spirochaete-flagella-hook-proteins-self-catalyse-a-lysinoalanine-covalent-crosslink-for-motility
#13
Michael R Miller, Kelly A Miller, Jiang Bian, Milinda E James, Sheng Zhang, Michael J Lynch, Patrick S Callery, Justin M Hettick, Andrew Cockburn, Jun Liu, Chunhao Li, Brian R Crane, Nyles W Charon
Spirochaetes are bacteria responsible for several serious diseases, including Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), syphilis (Treponema pallidum) and leptospirosis (Leptospira interrogans), and contribute to periodontal diseases (Treponema denticola)(1). These spirochaetes employ an unusual form of flagella-based motility necessary for pathogenicity; indeed, spirochaete flagella (periplasmic flagella) reside and rotate within the periplasmic space(2-11). The universal joint or hook that links the rotary motor to the filament is composed of ∼120-130 FlgE proteins, which in spirochaetes form an unusually stable, high-molecular-weight complex(9,12-17)...
August 8, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625376/antiphospholipid-antibodies-and-the-risk-of-stroke-in-urban-and-rural-tanzania-a-community-based-case-control-study
#14
Quirijn de Mast, Jessica E Molhoek, André J van der Ven, William K Gray, Philip G de Groot, Ahmed Jusabani, Ferdinand Mugusi, Rolf T Urbanus, Richard W Walker
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The burden of stroke is high in sub-Saharan Africa, and improved knowledge of risk factors is needed. Antiphospholipid antibodies are a common acquired stroke risk factor in young individuals. Antiphospholipid antibodies may be induced by infectious diseases. Sub-Saharan Africa has a high infectious burden, and we analyzed the contribution of antiphospholipid antibodies to the risk of stroke in an incident population from rural and urban Tanzania. METHODS: Stroke cases and age- and sex-matched community-acquired controls from the rural Hai district and urban Dar-es-Salaam areas of Tanzania were recruited in a wider study of stroke incidence between June 2003 and June 2006...
October 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606673/characterizing-the-syphilis-causing-treponema-pallidum-ssp-pallidum-proteome-using-complementary-mass-spectrometry
#15
Kara K Osbak, Simon Houston, Karen V Lithgow, Conor J Meehan, Michal Strouhal, David Šmajs, Caroline E Cameron, Xaveer Van Ostade, Chris R Kenyon, Geert A Van Raemdonck
BACKGROUND: The spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum is the etiological agent of syphilis, a chronic multistage disease. Little is known about the global T. pallidum proteome, therefore mass spectrometry studies are needed to bring insights into pathogenicity and protein expression profiles during infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To better understand the T. pallidum proteome profile during infection, we studied T. pallidum ssp. pallidum DAL-1 strain bacteria isolated from rabbits using complementary mass spectrometry techniques, including multidimensional peptide separation and protein identification via matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and electrospray ionization (ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap) tandem mass spectrometry...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599076/sexually-transmitted-pathogens-coinfections-and-risk-factors-in-patients-attending-obstetrics-and-gynecology-clinics-in-jalisco-mexico
#16
Néstor Casillas-Vega, Rayo Morfín-Otero, Santos García, Jorge Llaca-Díaz, Eduardo Rodríguez-Noriega, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Ma de la Merced Ayala-Castellanos, Soraya Mendoza-Olazarán, Samantha Flores-Treviño, Santiago Petersen-Morfín, Héctor J Maldonado-Garza, Francisco J Bosques-Padilla, Elvira Garza-González
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of nine sexually transmitted pathogens, coinfections and risk factors in patients attending obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Jalisco, Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples from 662 patients attending obstetrics and gynecology clinics were analyzed. Treponema pallidum, HIV, and HCV were detected by serology. HPV was detected by Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR), and its genotype was determined by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP)...
August 2016: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558164/first-report-of-tertiary-syphilis-presenting-as-lipoatrophic-panniculitis-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#17
Francesco Drago, Giulia Ciccarese, Carlo F Tomasini, Paola Calamaro, Maurizio Boggio, Alfredo Rebora, Aurora Parodi
We describe herein a woman who developed subcutaneous gummas in her trochanteric regions, bilaterally, although she had been treated for syphilis two decades earlier. Evidence of Treponema pallidum latent late infection was the presence of IgG antibodies against T. pallidum and the positive non-treponemal and treponemal tests. Moreover, immunohistochemical staining for T. pallidum detected some spirochetes close to the atrophic adipocytes allowing the diagnosis of lypo-atrophic panniculitis tertiary syphilis...
August 24, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536942/the-tp0684-mglb-2-lipoprotein-of-treponema-pallidum-a-glucose-binding-protein-with-divergent-topology
#18
Chad A Brautigam, Ranjit K Deka, Wei Z Liu, Michael V Norgard
Treponema pallidum, the bacterium that causes syphilis, is an obligate human parasite. As such, it must acquire energy, in the form of carbon sources, from the host. There is ample evidence that the principal source of energy for this spirochete is D-glucose acquired from its environment, likely via an ABC transporter. Further, there is genetic evidence of a D-glucose chemotaxis system in T. pallidum. Both of these processes may be dependent on a single lipidated chemoreceptor: Tp0684, also called TpMglB-2 for its sequence homology to MglB of Escherichia coli...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529342/changes-of-brain-glucose-metabolism-in-the-pretreatment-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-retrospective-pet-ct-study
#19
Weishan Zhang, Ning Ning, Xianjun Li, Gang Niu, Lijun Bai, Youmin Guo, Jian Yang
OBJECTIVE: The tumor-to-brain communication has been emphasized by recent converging evidences. This study aimed to compare the difference of brain glucose metabolism between patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and control subjects. METHODS: NSCLC patients prior to oncotherapy and control subjects without malignancy confirmed by 6 months follow-up were collected and underwent the resting state 18F-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) PET/CT. Normalized FDG metabolism was calculated by a signal intensity ratio of each brain region to whole brain...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522711/-evaluation-of-the-recombinant-protein-tp0965-of-treponema-pallidum-as-perspective-antigen-for-the-improved-serological-diagnosis-of-syphilis
#20
A V Runina, A S Starovoitova, D G Deryabin, A A Kubanov
UNLABELLED: BACKGRAUND. Treponemal tests based on the detection of antibodies against the Treponema pallidum antigens are the most specific methods for serological diagnosis of syphilis. Due to the inability to cultivate this bacterium in vitro, the most promising sources of antigens for diagnostics are recombinant proteins of T. pallidum. Evaluation of the analytical value of certain T. pallidum proteins is the approach to improve sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of syphilis serological tests, including possibilities of differential diagnosis of various forms of the disease...
2016: Vestnik Rossiĭskoĭ Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk
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