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Baseball, shoulder

Bobby Jean S Lee, J Craig Garrison, John E Conway, Kalyssa Pollard, Subhash Aryal
BACKGROUND: Humeral retrotorsion has been investigated in relation to shoulder range of motion (ROM) in healthy baseball players. Currently, there is limited information on the osseous anatomy and development of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) tears. PURPOSE: To determine the relationship between humeral retrotorsion and shoulder ROM in baseball players with a UCL tear. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: Fifty-four baseball players (mean age, 18...
October 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Katherine E Reuther, Ryan Larsen, Pamela D Kuhn, John D Kelly, Stephen J Thomas
BACKGROUND: The natural time course for recovery of glenohumeral internal rotation (IR) loss after a throwing episode is unknown. In addition, the effect of the sleeper stretch on the time course for recovery of motion after a throwing episode has never been investigated. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to (1) to determine the natural time course for spontaneous recovery of IR after a throwing episode and (2) to evaluate the effect of the sleeper stretch on the time course for recovery of IR after a throwing episode...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Raffy Mirzayan, Michael J Lim
BACKGROUND: Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the capitellum is a rare yet debilitating injury seen in young athletes. This is the first report in the literature describing fresh osteochondral allograft transplantation (FOCAT) to treat OCD of the capitellum. METHODS: Nine male baseball players (mean age, 15.3; range, 14-18 years), with OCD of the capitellum were treated with FOCAT. There were 6 pitchers and 3 position players. A ligament-sparing, mini-open approach was used...
November 2016: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Jorge Delgado, Diego Jaramillo, Nancy A Chauvin
Increased physical activity in childhood has resulted in a large number of sports-related injuries. Although there is overlap between the sports-related injuries seen in pediatric and adult patients, important differences exist in the injury patterns of pediatric patients. These differences are related to the continuous changes in the developing skeleton and its relationship with adjacent soft tissues. The imbalance in strength between the growing bones and the nearby tendons and ligaments makes the bones prone to acute and chronic injuries...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Sakiko Oyama, Araceli Sosa, Rebekah Campbell, Alexandra Correa
Video recordings are used to quantitatively analyze pitchers' technique. However, reliability and validity of such analysis is unknown. The purpose of the study was to investigate the reliability and validity of joint and segment angles identified during a pitching motion using video analysis. Thirty high school baseball pitchers participated. The pitching motion was captured using two high-speed video cameras and a motion capture system. Two raters reviewed the videos to digitize the body segments to calculate two-dimensional angles...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Koya Mine, Takashi Nakayama, Steve Milanese, Karen Grimmer
Posterior shoulder tightness (PST) and glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) are common physical impairments in overhead sports, such as baseball, cricket and tennis.(1-4)) PST is clinically measured by passive shoulder horizontal adduction with scapula stabilized in supine or side lying.(5),(6)) GIRD is generally characterised as concurrent deficits of internal rotation (IR) and total arc of motion in dominant side.(7),(8)) Although the mechanisms of PST and GIRD are not clear, it is speculated that they derive from tight posterior glenohumeral capsule and posterior muscles, such as posterior deltoid, infraspinatus and teres minor muscles...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Kevin Laudner, Jose Vazquez, Noelle Selkow, Keith Meister
CONTEXT: Baseball players, specifically pitchers, with symptomatic neurovascular occlusion often initially complain of arm fatigue, loss of ball control, and velocity. As the compression continues complaints may manifest into dull pain, paresthesia, and decreased grip strength. OBJECTIVE: To determine the correlation between upper extremity blood flow volume and grip strength among baseball pitchers. DESIGN: cross-sectional. SETTING: Athletic training room...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Aaron Lear, Niraj Patel
The windmill softball pitch generates considerable forces about the athlete's shoulder and elbow. The injury pattern of softball pitchers seems to be primarily overuse injury, and they seem not to suffer the same volume of injury that baseball pitchers do. This article will explore softball pitching techniques, kinetics and kinematics of the windmill pitch, epidemiology of softball pitchers, and discuss possible etiologies of softball pitching injuries.
September 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Jun Sakata, Emi Nakamura, Makoto Suzukawa, Atsushi Akaike, Kuniaki Shimizu
BACKGROUND: The physical risk factors for a medial elbow injury in junior baseball players are unknown. PURPOSE: To identify the risk factors for an initial medial elbow injury in junior baseball players. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: Junior baseball players (aged 6-12 years) without a history of elbow pain underwent a clinical assessment, ultrasonography, and physical function measurements before the baseball season started...
September 7, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Casey J Meyer, J Craig Garrison, John E Conway
BACKGROUND: Previous work has suggested that an increase in the amount of developmentally acquired, dominant arm humeral retrotorsion (D HRT) in the thrower's shoulder may be a potentially protective mechanism. Although the relationship between HRT and shoulder injuries has been reported, the relationship between HRT and ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) tears in baseball players is not known. PURPOSE: To determine whether D HRT and nondominant arm HRT (ND HRT) measurements in baseball players with a UCL tear differ statistically from a matched healthy cohort...
September 2, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Chihiro Nakase, Teruhisa Mihata, Yasuo Itami, Atsushi Takeda, Masashi Neo
BACKGROUND: Humeral retroversion physiologically decreases during growth. However, in throwing athletes, the external forces caused by repetitive throwing are thought to increase humeral retroversion on the dominant side compared with that on the nondominant side. PURPOSE: To investigate the correlation between humeral retroversion and length of baseball career before age 16 years. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3...
September 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
M Mickevičius, S Rutkauskas, S Sipavičienė, A Skurvydas, J Jürimäe, H Degens, S Kamandulis
The aim of this study was to assess whether side-to-side differences in morphology and function of the upper limbs in 11-12 year-old male baseball players with throwing-related pain (n=14) were more pronounced than that of age-matched healthy untrained subjects (n=16). Baseball players 1) had played baseball≥4.5 h·wk(-1) for ≥ 4 years and (2) suffered from moderate-intensity (3-6 points on 10-point questionnaire scale) throwing-related pain in the shoulder or elbow in at least 2 training sessions within the past month...
August 23, 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Rachel Patrick, Josh McGinty, Ann Lucado, Beth Collier
BACKGROUND: Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) tears and associated Tommy Johns surgical intervention from excessive and poor quality pitching has increased immensely-with more college and professional pitchers undergoing the surgery in 2014 alone than in the 1990s as a whole.(1) Faulty mechanics developed at young ages are often well-engrained by the late adolescent years and the minimal healing ability of the largely avascular UCL often leads to delayed safe return to sport.(2). PURPOSE: The purpose of this case study was to describe an innovative, multimodal approach to conservative management of a chronic UCL injury in a college-aged baseball pitcher...
August 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Taishi Yamauchi, Satoshi Hasegawa, Masatoshi Nakamura, Satoru Nishishita, Ko Yanase, Kosuke Fujita, Jun Umehara, Xiang Ji, Satoko Ibuki, Noriaki Ichihashi
BACKGROUND: The cross-body stretch and sleeper stretch are widely used for improving flexibility of the posterior shoulder. These stretching methods were modified by Wilk. However, few quantitative data are available on the new, modified stretching methods. A recent study reported the immediate effects of stretching and soft tissue mobilization on the shoulder range of motion (ROM) and muscle stiffness in subjects with posterior shoulder tightness. However, the long-term effect of stretching for muscle stiffness is unknown...
September 2016: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Daniel R Lueders, Jacob L Sellon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Brent Harper, Kevin Steinberger, John Shifflett, M Chad Hyatt, Steven Boswell, Cory Lail, Cameron Holhouser, Kristen Jagger, Adrian Aron
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Malachy P McHugh, Timothy F Tyler, Michael J Mullaney, Michael R Mirabella, Stephen J Nicholas
BACKGROUND: Shoulder range of motion and strength adaptations occur at an early age in baseball pitchers. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of pitch volume on in-season and year-to-year range of motion (ROM) and strength adaptations in high school baseball pitchers. The hypothesis was that a high pitch volume will not affect range of motion asymmetries but will impair supraspinatus strength. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2...
September 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Thomas J Noonan, Charles A Thigpen, Lane B Bailey, Douglas J Wyland, Michael Kissenberth, Richard J Hawkins, Ellen Shanley
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have demonstrated that humeral retrotorsion is increased in the dominant arms of throwing athletes. No study has clearly defined the relationship between humeral retrotorsion and shoulder and elbow injury. HYPOTHESIS: Uninjured professional pitchers will display more dominant humeral torsion (HT) than professional pitchers who sustain shoulder injuries but less than pitchers who sustain elbow injuries. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3...
September 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Brittany Dowling, Glenn S Fleisig
Determining and understanding baseball batting mechanics at various competition levels may help players and coaches identify key kinematics crucial to being a successful hitter. The purpose of this study was to compare batting kinematics across competition levels. Kinematic and temporal data were analysed for 170 male batters (youth n = 33; high school n = 69; college n = 22; professional n = 46) using 3D motion capture (480 Hz). The results showed differences in angular positions between competition levels during the five phases of the swing, with the greatest differences seen between the youth and professional batters...
September 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Masaaki Tsuruike, Todd S Ellenbecker
BACKGROUND: The characteristics of scapular muscle activities in elevation and descent exercises have yet to be elucidated to assess scapular dyskinesis. The purpose of this study was to identify the adaptation of electromyograph (EMG) activities of the upper trapezius (UT), lower trapezius (LT), serratus anterior (SA), and anterior deltoid (AD) muscles with different weight loads in flexion (FLX) and abduction (ABD) in collegiate baseball players. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty eight individuals, including 13 pitchers, were tested...
October 2016: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
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