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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749433/hbv-drug-resistance-substitutions-existed-before-the-clinical-approval-of-nucleos-t-ide-analogues-a-bioinformatic-analysis-by-genbank-data-mining
#1
Xizhan Xu, Kuanhui Xiang, Mingze Su, Yao Li, Wei Ji, Yutang Li, Hui Zhuang, Tong Li
Naturally occurring nucleos(t)ide analogue resistance (NUCr) substitution frequencies in the reverse transcriptase (RT) of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) were studied extensively after the clinical approval of nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUCs; year of approval 1998). We aimed to study NUCr substitutions in HBV RT sequences obtained before 1998 and better understand the evolution of RT sequences without NUC pressures. Our strategy was to retrieve HBV sequences from GenBank deposited before 1998. The initial search used the keywords "hepatitis B virus" or "HBV" and 1139 sequences were found...
July 27, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749101/barriers-to-cervical-cancer-and-breast-cancer-screening-uptake-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#2
Rakibul M Islam, Baki Billah, Md Nassif Hossain, John Oldroyd
Background: Cervical cancer (CCa) and breast cancer (BCa) are the two leading cancers in women worldwide. Early detection and education to promote early diagnosis and screening of CCa and BCa greatly increases the chances for successful treatment and survival. Screening uptake for CCa and BCa in low and middle - income countries (LMICs) is low, and is consequently failing to prevent these diseases. We conducted a systematic review to identify the key barriers to CCa and BCa screening in women in LMICs. Methods: We performed a systematic literature search using Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, CINHAL Plus, and Google scholar to retrieve all English language studies from inception to 2015...
July 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748493/cost-effectiveness-of-preimplantation-genetic-screening-for-women-older-than-37-undergoing-in-vitro-fertilization
#3
Stephen C Collins, Xiao Xu, Winifred Mak
PURPOSE: Adding preimplantation genetic screening to in vitro fertilization has been shown to increase live birth rate in women older than 37. However, preimplantation genetic screening is an expensive procedure. Information on the cost-effectiveness of preimplantation genetic screening can help inform clinical decision making. METHODS: We constructed a decision analytic model for a hypothetical fresh, autologous in vitro fertilization cycle (with versus without preimplantation genetic screening) for women older than age 37 who had a successful oocyte retrieval and development of at least one blastocyst...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747894/dimensions-underlying-the-perceived-similarity-of-acoustic-environments
#4
Francesco Aletta, Östen Axelsson, Jian Kang
Scientific research on how people perceive or experience and/or understand the acoustic environment as a whole (i.e., soundscape) is still in development. In order to predict how people would perceive an acoustic environment, it is central to identify its underlying acoustic properties. This was the purpose of the present study. Three successive experiments were conducted. With the aid of 30 university students, the first experiment mapped the underlying dimensions of perceived similarity among 50 acoustic environments, using a visual sorting task of their spectrograms...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747662/inference-of-neuronal-functional-circuitry-with-spike-triggered-non-negative-matrix-factorization
#5
Jian K Liu, Helene M Schreyer, Arno Onken, Fernando Rozenblit, Mohammad H Khani, Vidhyasankar Krishnamoorthy, Stefano Panzeri, Tim Gollisch
Neurons in sensory systems often pool inputs over arrays of presynaptic cells, giving rise to functional subunits inside a neuron's receptive field. The organization of these subunits provides a signature of the neuron's presynaptic functional connectivity and determines how the neuron integrates sensory stimuli. Here we introduce the method of spike-triggered non-negative matrix factorization for detecting the layout of subunits within a neuron's receptive field. The method only requires the neuron's spiking responses under finely structured sensory stimulation and is therefore applicable to large populations of simultaneously recorded neurons...
July 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746752/immunotherapy-for-diabetic-amyotrophy
#6
REVIEW
Yee Cheun Chan, Yew Long Lo, Edwin Sy Chan
BACKGROUND: People with diabetes mellitus (DM) sometimes present with acute or subacute, progressive, asymmetrical pain and weakness of the proximal lower limb muscles. The various names for the condition include diabetic amyotrophy, diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathies, diabetic femoral neuropathy or Bruns-Garland syndrome. Some studies suggest that diabetic amyotrophy may be an immune-mediated inflammatory microvasculitis causing ischaemic damage of the nerves. Immunotherapies would therefore be expected to be beneficial...
July 26, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746190/vasa-mrna-ddx4-detection-is-more-specific-than-immunohistochemistry-using-poly-or-monoclonal-antibodies-for-germ-cells-in-the-male-urogenital-tract
#7
Willem P A Boellaard, Hans Stoop, Ad J M Gillis, J Wolter Oosterhuis, Leendert H J Looijenga
VASA, also known as DDX4, is reported to be specifically expressed in cells belonging to the germ cell lineage, both in males and females. Therefore, it could be an informative protein biomarker to be applied on semen to differentiate between obstructive and nonobstructive azoospermia (OA and NOA, respectively). In addition, it could be of value to predict sperm retrieval based on testicular sperm extraction. Immunocytochemistry of proven OA semen using both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against VASA showed positive staining of both cells and cell sized particles...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746084/epidemiology-and-location-of-primary-retrieval-missions-in-a-scottish-aeromedical-service
#8
Gregg Neagle, Lisa Curatolo, John Ferris, Mike Donald, Stephen Hearns, Alasdair R Corfield
INTRODUCTION: Prehospital critical care teams comprising an appropriately trained physician and paramedic or nurse have been associated with improved outcomes in selected trauma patients. These teams are a scarce and expensive resource, especially when delivered by rotary air assets. The optimal tasking of prehospital critical care teams is therefore vital and remains a subject of debate. Emergency Medical Retrieval Service (EMRS) provides a prehospital critical care response team to incidents over a large area of Scotland either by air or by road...
July 25, 2017: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744896/elective-repeat-caesarean-section-versus-induction-of-labour-for-women-with-a-previous-caesarean-birth
#9
REVIEW
Jodie M Dodd, Caroline A Crowther, Rosalie M Grivell, Andrea R Deussen
BACKGROUND: When a woman has had a previous caesarean birth and requires induction of labour for a subsequent pregnancy, two options are available for her care: an elective repeat caesarean and planned induction of labour. Although risks and benefits are associated with both elective repeat caesarean birth and planned induction of labour, current sources of information are limited to non-randomised cohort studies, and studies designed in this way have significant potential for bias. Consequently, any conclusions based on results of these studies are limited in their reliability and should be interpreted with caution...
July 26, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743727/basolateral-amygdala-to-orbitofrontal-cortex-projections-enable-cue-triggered-reward-expectations
#10
Nina T Lichtenberg, Zachary T Pennington, Sandra M Holley, Venuz Y Greenfield, Carlos Cepeda, Michael S Levine, Kate M Wassum
To make an appropriate decision one must anticipate potential future rewarding events, even when they are not readily observable. These expectations are generated by using observable information (e.g., stimuli or available actions) to retrieve often quite detailed memories of available rewards. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are two reciprocally-connected key nodes in the circuitry supporting such outcome-guided behaviors. But there is much unknown about the contribution of this circuit to decision making, and almost nothing known about the whether any contribution is via direct, monosynaptic projections, or the direction of information transfer...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743644/species-trees-from-consensus-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-snp-data-testing-phylogenetic-approaches-with-simulated-and-empirical-data
#11
Alexander N Schmidt-Lebuhn, Nicola C Aitken, Aaron Chuah
Datasets of hundreds or thousands of SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) from multiple individuals per species are increasingly used to study population structure, species delimitation and shallow phylogenetics. The principal software tool to infer species or population trees from SNP data is currently the BEAST template SNAPP which uses a Bayesian coalescent analysis. However, it is computationally extremely demanding and tolerates only small amounts of missing data. We used simulated and empirical SNPs from plants (Australian Craspedia, Asteraceae, and Pelargonium, Geraniaceae) to compare species trees produced (1) by SNAPP, (2) using SVD quartets, and (3) using Bayesian and parsimony analysis with several different approaches to summarising data from multiple samples into one set of traits per species...
July 22, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743591/terminology-supported-archiving-and-publication-of-environmental-science-data-in-pangaea-open-access
#12
Michael Diepenbroek, Uwe Schindler, Robert Huber, Stéphane Pesant, Markus Stocker, Janine Felden, Melanie Buss, Matthias Weinrebe
Exemplified on the information system PANGAEA, we describe the application of terminologies for archiving and publishing environmental science data. A Terminology Catalogue (TC) was embedded into the system, with interfaces allowing to replicate and to manually work on terminologies. For data ingest and archiving, we show how the TC can improve structuring and harmonizing lineage and content descriptions of data sets. Key is the conceptualization of measurement and observation types (parameters) and methods, for which we have implemented a basic syntax and rule set...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743033/analysis-of-the-genetic-structure-of-the-malay-population-ancestry-informative-marker-snps-in-the-malay-of-peninsular-malaysia
#13
Padillah Yahya, Sarina Sulong, Azian Harun, Hatin Wan Isa, Nur-Shafawati Ab Rajab, Pongsakorn Wangkumhang, Alisa Wilantho, Chumpol Ngamphiw, Sissades Tongsima, Zilfalil Alwi
Malay, the main ethnic group in Peninsular Malaysia, is represented by various sub-ethnic groups such as Melayu Banjar, Melayu Bugis, Melayu Champa, Melayu Java, Melayu Kedah Melayu Kelantan, Melayu Minang and Melayu Patani. Using data retrieved from the MyHVP (Malaysian Human Variome Project) database, a total of 135 individuals from these sub-ethnic groups were profiled using the Affymetrix GeneChip Mapping Xba 50-K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array to identify SNPs that were ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) for Malays of Peninsular Malaysia...
July 14, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742982/investigation-of-orthologous-pathogen-recognition-gene-rich-regions-in-solanaceous-species
#14
A Di Donato, Giuseppe Andolfo, A Ferrarini, M Delledonne, M R Ercolano
The genome architecture of pathogen receptor genes (PRGs) was extensively investigated in several plant species. However, we still know little about their elaborate reorganization arose during the plant speciation process. Using recently released pepper and eggplant genome sequences we were able to identify 1097 pathogen recognition genes in pepper Zunla-1 and 775 in eggplant Nakate-Shinkuro. The retrieved genes were analysed for their tendency to cluster, using different methods to infer the means of grouping...
July 25, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742845/evaluation-of-k-ras-and-p53-expression-in-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-using-the-cancer-genome-atlas
#15
Liming Lu, Jingchun Zeng
Genetic alterations in K-ras and p53 are thought to be critical in pancreatic cancer development and progression. However, K-ras and p53 expression in pancreatic adenocarcinoma have not been systematically examined in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Data Portal. Information regarding K-ras and p53 alterations, mRNA expression data, and protein/protein phosphorylation abundance was retrieved from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) databases, and analyses were performed by the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics. The mutual exclusivity analysis showed that events in K-ras and p53 were likely to co-occur in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (Log odds ratio = 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742151/exploring-the-cross-talk-between-er-stress-and-inflammation-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#16
Samira Kheitan, Zarrin Minuchehr, Zahra-Soheila Soheili
Increasing evidence demonstrates that inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a multifactorial neurodegenerative disease. However the cross talk between these cellular mechanisms has not been clearly and fully understood. The present study investigates a possible intersection between ER stress and inflammation in AMD. In this study, we recruited two collections of involved protein markers to retrieve their interaction information from IMEx-curated databases, which are the most well- known protein-protein interaction collections, allowing us to design an intersection network for AMD that is unprecedented...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742111/axonal-outgrowth-neuropeptides-expression-and-receptors-tyrosine-kinase-phosphorylation-in-3d-organotypic-cultures-of-adult-dorsal-root-ganglia
#17
Estrela Neto, Cecília J Alves, Luís Leitão, Daniela M Sousa, Inês S Alencastre, Francisco Conceição, Meriem Lamghari
Limited knowledge from mechanistic studies on adult sensory neuronal activity was generated, to some extent, in recapitulated adult in vivo 3D microenvironment. To fill this gap there is a real need to better characterize the adult dorsal root ganglia (aDRG) organotypic cultures to make these in vitro systems exploitable for different approaches, ranging from basic neurobiology to regenerative therapies, to address the sensory nervous system in adult stage. We conducted a direct head-to-head comparison of aDRG and embryonic DRG (eDRG) organotypic culture focusing on axonal growth, neuropeptides expression and receptors tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation associated with neuronal survival, proliferation and differentiation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741788/molecular-analysis-of-single-circulating-tumour-cells-following-long-term-storage-of-clinical-samples
#18
Barbara Mesquita, Dominic G Rothwell, Deborah J Burt, Francesca Chemi, Fabiola Fernandez-Gutierrez, Daniel Slane-Tan, Jenny Antonello, Mathew Carter, Louise Carter, Marina Parry, Lynsey Franklin, Richard Marais, Fiona Blackhall, Caroline Dive, Ged Brady
The CellSearch® semi-automated CTC enrichment and staining system has been established as the "gold standard" for CTC enumeration with CellSearch® CTC counts recognized by the FDA as prognostic for a number of cancers. We and others have gone on to show that molecular analysis of CellSearch® CTCs isolated shortly after CellSearch® enrichment provides another valuable layer of information that has potential clinical utility including predicting response to treatment. Although CellSearch® CTCs can be readily isolated after enrichment, the process of analysing a single CellSearch® patient sample, which may contain many CTCs, is both time consuming and costly...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741116/application-of-multivariate-curve-resolution-alternate-least-square-technique-on-extracting-pure-spectral-components-from-multiple-emitting-systems-a-case-study
#19
Madhumita Tarai, Ashok Kumar Mishra
Multiple emitting components in a fluorophoric system often produce complicated emission spectra. Extracting the individual spectral information from the composite spectra is important in order to comprehend the photophysical processes occurring in the multifluorophoric systems. Although the combination of Principal Component Analysis and Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternate Least Square (PCA/MCR-ALS) technique is a well-known approach for curve deconvolution, its applicability in the spectral deconvolution of vibronically and electronically mixed up emitting systems as well as systems merged up with multiple electronic bands without a priori knowledge of the individual emitting species, is not properly studied...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739238/characteristics-of-fixed-wing-air-ambulance-transports-in-victoria-australia
#20
Ashleigh J Delorenzo, Jeremy W Abetz, Emily Andrew, Anthony de Wit, Brett Williams, Karen Smith
OBJECTIVE: Air medical transport is important for the transfer of patients in the prehospital and interhospital environment. Few studies have described the services provided by fixed wing ambulances or the broader clinical profiles of patients they transport. Such information may be useful for the planning and allocation of resources, assistance with training, and refining clinical protocols. We sought to describe the characteristics of patients transported by fixed wing aircraft at Air Ambulance Victoria (AAV) and the service AAV provides in Victoria, Australia...
July 2017: Air Medical Journal
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