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Smell, olfaction, olfactory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653210/lateralized-microstructural-changes-in-early-stage-parkinson-s-disease-in-anterior-olfactory-structures-but-not-in-substantia-nigra
#1
N Joshi, T M Rolheiser, J D Fisk, J R McKelvey, K Schoffer, G Phillips, M Armstrong, M N Khan, R A Leslie, B Rusak, H A Robertson, K P Good
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by motor symptoms as well as severe deficits in olfactory function and microstructural changes in olfactory brain regions. Because of the evidence of asymmetric neuropathological features in early-stage PD, we examined whether lateralized microstructural changes occur in olfactory brain regions and the substantia nigra in a group of early-stage PD patients. Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), we assessed 24 early-stage PD patients (Hoehn and Yahr stage 1 or 2) and 26 healthy controls (HC)...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543731/neuroimaging-biomarkers-and-impaired-olfaction-in-cognitively-normal-individuals
#2
Maria Vassilaki, Teresa J Christianson, Michelle M Mielke, Yonas E Geda, Walter K Kremers, Mary M Machulda, David S Knopman, Ronald C Petersen, Val J Lowe, Clifford R Jack, Rosebud O Roberts
OBJECTIVE: There is a need for inexpensive noninvasive tests to identify older healthy persons at risk for Alzheimer disease (AD) for enrollment in AD prevention trials. Our objective was to examine whether abnormalities in neuroimaging measures of amyloid and neurodegeneration are correlated with odor identification (OI) in the population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. METHODS: Cognitively normal (CN) participants had olfactory function assessed using the Brief Smell Identification Test (B-SIT), underwent magnetic resonance imaging (n = 829) to assess a composite AD signature cortical thickness and hippocampal volume (HVa), and underwent (11) C-Pittsburgh compound B (n = 306) and (18) fluorodeoxyglucose (n = 305) positron emission tomography scanning to assess amyloid accumulation and brain hypometabolism, respectively...
May 22, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506924/olfactory-and-gustatory-functions-in-bipolar-disorders-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Francois Kazour, Sami Richa, Thomas Desmidt, Mathieu Lemaire, Boriana Atanasova, Wissam El Hage
Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions have been described in different psychiatric disorders. Several studies have found gustatory and olfactory function change in bipolar disorders with various results. The aim of this study is to have a systematic review of studies evaluating gustatory and olfactory function in bipolar disorders. After a systematic search, 15 studies on olfaction and 5 studies on taste were included in this review. The UPSIT (University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test) and Sniffin' Sticks were the most widely used tests to evaluate smell...
May 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504111/olfactory-dysfunction-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-is-there-a-common-pathological-substrate
#4
REVIEW
Richard L Doty
In patients with neurodegenerative diseases, there is a spectrum of smell dysfunction ranging from severe loss, as seen in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, to relatively little loss, as seen in progressive supranuclear palsy. Given the ubiquitous but varying degrees of olfactory dysfunction among such diseases, it is conceivable that differential disruption of a common primordial neuropathological substrate causes these differences in olfactory function. For example, the amount of damage to forebrain neurotransmitter and neuromodulator circuits, most notably those involving cholinergic transmission, appears to be correlated with quantitative smell test scores across a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases...
June 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495701/poor-human-olfaction-is-a-19th-century-myth
#5
REVIEW
John P McGann
It is commonly believed that humans have a poor sense of smell compared to other mammalian species. However, this idea derives not from empirical studies of human olfaction but from a famous 19th-century anatomist's hypothesis that the evolution of human free will required a reduction in the proportional size of the brain's olfactory bulb. The human olfactory bulb is actually quite large in absolute terms and contains a similar number of neurons to that of other mammals. Moreover, humans have excellent olfactory abilities...
May 12, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471462/the-role-of-metals-in-mammalian-olfaction-of-low-molecular-weight-organosulfur-compounds
#6
REVIEW
Eric Block, Victor S Batista, Hiroaki Matsunami, Hanyi Zhuang, Lucky Ahmed
Covering: up to the end of 2017While suggestions concerning the possible role of metals in olfaction and taste date back 50 years, only recently has it been possible to confirm these proposals with experiments involving individual olfactory receptors (ORs). A detailed discussion of recent experimental results demonstrating the key role of metals in enhancing the response of human and other vertebrate ORs to specific odorants is presented against the backdrop of our knowledge of how the sense of smell functions both at the molecular and whole animal levels...
May 10, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469524/olfactory-neuroepithelial-neural-progenitor-cells-from-subjects-with-bipolar-i-disorder
#7
Yonglin Gao, Welby Winstead, Zhenmin Lei, Chengliang Lu, Fred J Roisen, Rif S El-Mallakh
BACKGROUND: Research into the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) is limited by the inability to examine brain cellular processes in subjects with the illness. METHODS: Endoscopic biopsy was performed in subjects with bipolar I disorder to establish olfactory neural progenitor (ONP) cell lines. Olfactory function was assessed prebiopsy and postbiopsy using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). Cells were characterized to determine their lineage...
2017: Journal of Central Nervous System Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468171/complications-of-nasal-bone-fractures
#8
Kun Hwang, Seung Han Yeom, Suk Hyun Hwang
The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the treatment of nasal bone fractures. The search terms ("nasal bone fracture" AND complication) and ("nasal bone fracture" AND [anosmia OR olfaction OR olfactory nerve OR smell]) and (anosmia AND ["nasal preparation" OR "nasal antiseptics"]) were used to search PubMed and SCOPUS. Of the 500 titles, 40 full papers were reviewed. One paper was excluded, and 3 mined papers were added. Ultimately, 12 papers were analyzed. The overall deformity rate was 10...
May 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447155/fine-tuned-evaluation-of-olfactory-function-in-patients-operated-for-nasal-polyposis
#9
Marie-Hortense Sonnet, Duc Trung Nguyen, Phi-Linh Nguyen-Thi, Fabien Arous, Roger Jankowski, Cécile Rumeau
Given the forced-choice procedure of the identification test, patients with profound anosmia are more likely to have higher identification scores by chance than patients with hyposmia or normosmia. This may be a confusing factor when assessing the sense of smell, which alters the appreciation of real olfaction improvement. The aim of this study was to fine-tune the results of the identification Sniffin' Sticks test before and 6 weeks after surgery using the real identification score. A total of 133 patients underwent the Identification (I) and Threshold (T) tests the day before and 6 weeks after nasalization surgery...
April 26, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410055/olfactory-recognition-based-on-eeg-gamma-band-activity
#10
Onder Aydemir
There are various kinds of brain monitoring techniques, including local field potential, near-infrared spectroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography, functional MRI, electroencephalography (EEG), and magnetoencephalography. Among those techniques, EEG is the most widely used one due to its portability, low setup cost, and noninvasiveness. Apart from other advantages, EEG signals also help to evaluate the ability of the smelling organ. In such studies, EEG signals, which are recorded during smelling, are analyzed to determine the subject lacks any smelling ability or to measure the response of the brain...
April 14, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379355/neuromodulation-in-chemosensory-pathways
#11
Jeremy C McIntyre, Nicolas Thiebaud, John P McGann, Takaki Komiyama, Markus Rothermel
Interactions with the environment depend not only on sensory perception of external stimuli but also on processes of neuromodulation regulated by the internal state of an organism. These processes allow regulation of stimulus detection to match the demands of an organism influenced by its general brain state (satiety, wakefulness/sleep state, attentiveness, arousal, learning etc.). The sense of smell is initiated by sensory neurons located in the nasal cavity that recognize environmental odorants and project axons into the olfactory bulb (OB), where they form synapses with several types of neurons...
June 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349579/periodic-olfactory-assessment-in-patients-undergoing-skull-base-surgery-with-preservation-of-the-olfactory-strip
#12
Smita Upadhyay, Lamia Buohliqah, Ricardo L L Dolci, Bradley A Otto, Daniel M Prevedello, Ricardo L Carrau
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Others have reported olfactory disturbances following endoscopic approaches to the skull base. However, there is a lack of consensus on the extent and duration of dysfunction. This study aimed to compare our results with previously published work and to validate the olfactory strip-sparing approach. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study to assess olfaction in 50 patients scheduled to undergo resection of skull base tumors via extended endoscopic approaches...
March 27, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346647/validation-of-olfactory-threshold-testing-methods
#13
Alan Hirsch, Alexander Roussos, Sally Freels
In patients with chemosensory complaints, a head-to-head comparison of unilateral olfaction threshold testing with the Phenyl Ethyl Alcohol Smell Threshold Test (PEA) and the OLFACT-RL Odor Threshold Test (OLFACT-RL) was undertaken. The charts of 23 consecutive patients presenting with chemosensory complaints seen at the Smell and Taste Treatment and Research Foundation were reviewed and information extracted per Institutional Review Board guidelines. All patients had undergone olfactory testing with the PEA test and the OLFACT-RL test in accordance with their published administration manuals...
March 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344819/olfaction-as-a-soldier-a-review-of-the-physiology-and-its-present-and-future-use-in-the-military
#14
REVIEW
Palaniappan Ganesh Nagappan, Somasundram Subramaniam, De-Yun Wang
Olfaction is one of our 5 main qualitative sensory abilities. In this review, we have examined the physiology of olfaction from the olfactory receptor to the brain. Through analyzing the physiology of olfaction, we have found that the biochemistry of olfactory nerve stimulation is unique from that of other similar pathways. Upon receiving large amounts of input from the olfactory nerve, the olfactory bulb, followed by several layers of centrifugal and centripetal processing in the brain, has to sort the information from the input as well as integrate it with other inputs from the brain to develop a coherent understanding of the input...
2017: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302020/olfactory-loss-management-in-view-of-avicenna-focus-on-neuroprotective-plants
#15
Farnaz Sinaei, Seyed Ahmad Emami, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Behjat Javadi
BACKGROUND: Loss of olfaction can cause noticeable reduction in general quality of life. Only a small portion of patients with olfactory loss respond to current medications. Thus, development of novel therapeutic strategies seems to be necessary. Looking into traditional medical knowledge can be of great value in addressing useful remedies. Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) has been practiced in Persia for more than 2000 years. Avicenna is the most eminent Persian physician. OBJECTIVE: To survey Avicenna's views on etiology and management of olfactory loss and to search for relevant modern pharmacological data...
March 16, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289233/volatile-secondary-metabolites-as-aposematic-olfactory-signals-and-defensive-weapons-in-aquatic-environments
#16
Giuseppe Giordano, Marianna Carbone, Maria Letizia Ciavatta, Eleonora Silvano, Margherita Gavagnin, Mary J Garson, Karen L Cheney, I Wayan Mudianta, Giovanni Fulvio Russo, Guido Villani, Laura Magliozzi, Gianluca Polese, Christian Zidorn, Adele Cutignano, Angelo Fontana, Michael T Ghiselin, Ernesto Mollo
Olfaction is considered a distance sense; hence, aquatic olfaction is thought to be mediated only by molecules dissolved in water. Here, we challenge this view by showing that shrimp and fish can recognize the presence of hydrophobic olfactory cues by a "tactile" form of chemoreception. We found that odiferous furanosesquiterpenes protect both the Mediterranean octocoral Maasella edwardsi and its specialist predator, the nudibranch gastropod Tritonia striata, from potential predators. Food treated with the terpenes elicited avoidance responses in the cooccurring shrimp Palaemon elegans Rejection was also induced in the shrimp by the memory recall of postingestive aversive effects (vomiting), evoked by repeatedly touching the food with chemosensory mouthparts...
March 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243501/validation-of-olfactory-deficit-as-a-biomarker-of-alzheimer-disease
#17
Matthew R Woodward, Chaitanya V Amrutkar, Harshit C Shah, Ralph H B Benedict, Sanjanaa Rajakrishnan, Rachelle S Doody, Li Yan, Kinga Szigeti
BACKGROUND: We evaluated smell identification as a biomarker for Alzheimer disease (AD) by assessing its utility in differentiating normal aging from an amnestic disorder and determining its predictive value for conversion from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) to AD. METHODS: Cross-sectional study (AD = 262, aMCI = 110, controls = 194) measuring smell identification (University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test [UPSIT]) and cognitive status was performed, as well as longitudinal analysis of aMCI participants (n = 96) with at least 1 year follow-up (mean 477...
February 2017: Neurology. Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242521/a-systematic-review-of-smell-alterations-after-radiotherapy-for-head-and-neck-cancer
#18
REVIEW
M Álvarez-Camacho, S Gonella, S Campbell, R A Scrimger, W V Wismer
PURPOSE: To review the current knowledge on radiotherapy associated olfactory dysfunction among head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. METHODS: A systematic review of RT-related olfactory dysfunction in HNC was performed. Searches were conducted in several databases (Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, CAB Abstracts, SCOPUS, Proquest Dissertations and Theses, PROSPERO, ALLEBM Reviews - Cochrane DSR, ACP Journal Club, DARE, CCTR, CMR, HTA, and NHSEED). Publications investigating olfactory dysfunction as an explicit side effect of Radiotherapy (RT, or RT-chemo or RT-monoclonal antibodies) were eligible, no limits were applied...
March 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242255/olfactory-dysfunction-and-dementia-in-newly-diagnosed-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Magdalena Eriksson Domellöf, Karl-Fredrik Lundin, Mona Edström, Lars Forsgren
INTRODUCTION: Studies report that up to 90% of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) have olfactory dysfunction (hyposmia). Hyposmia has also been connected to cognitive impairment and dementia in PD, but no studies of newly diagnosed patients followed longer than three years exists. The present study investigates the prevalence of olfactory dysfunction at PD diagnosis, how it evolves over time and whether hyposmia increases the risk of dementia in Parkinson's disease. METHODS: Olfactory function was assessed with Brief Smell Identification Test (B-SIT) in 125 newly diagnosed patients with PD...
May 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219971/predicting-human-olfactory-perception-from-chemical-features-of-odor-molecules
#20
Andreas Keller, Richard C Gerkin, Yuanfang Guan, Amit Dhurandhar, Gabor Turu, Bence Szalai, Joel D Mainland, Yusuke Ihara, Chung Wen Yu, Russ Wolfinger, Celine Vens, Leander Schietgat, Kurt De Grave, Raquel Norel, Gustavo Stolovitzky, Guillermo A Cecchi, Leslie B Vosshall, Pablo Meyer
It is still not possible to predict whether a given molecule will have a perceived odor or what olfactory percept it will produce. We therefore organized the crowd-sourced DREAM Olfaction Prediction Challenge. Using a large olfactory psychophysical data set, teams developed machine-learning algorithms to predict sensory attributes of molecules based on their chemoinformatic features. The resulting models accurately predicted odor intensity and pleasantness and also successfully predicted 8 among 19 rated semantic descriptors ("garlic," "fish," "sweet," "fruit," "burnt," "spices," "flower," and "sour")...
February 24, 2017: Science
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