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Smell, olfaction, olfactory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133907/a-primacy-code-for-odor-identity
#1
Christopher D Wilson, Gabriela O Serrano, Alexei A Koulakov, Dmitry Rinberg
Humans can identify visual objects independently of view angle and lighting, words independently of volume and pitch, and smells independently of concentration. The computational principles underlying invariant object recognition remain mostly unknown. Here we propose that, in olfaction, a small and relatively stable set comprised of the earliest activated receptors forms a code for concentration-invariant odor identity. One prediction of this "primacy coding" scheme is that decisions based on odor identity can be made solely using early odor-evoked neural activity...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121272/chronic-cigarette-smoking-associates-directly-and-indirectly-with-self-reported-olfactory-alterations-analysis-of-the-2011-2014-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-nhanes
#2
Sarah-Grace Glennon, Tania Huedo-Medina, Shristi Rawal, Howard J Hoffman, Mark D Litt, Valerie B Duffy
Introduction: Population-based studies show inconsistent effects of cigarette smoking on olfactory function. We aimed to identify direct and indirect associations between measures of smoking exposure/nicotine dependence and altered olfaction in a nationally-representative sample of adults. Methods: NHANES 2011-2014 (n=7,418) participants (mean age=57.8±12.2 years) self-reported olfaction and related health and demographic risks. Affirmative answers to three questions defined altered olfaction (olfactory problems in past year; worse ability since age 25; phantom smells)...
November 7, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106509/fmri-based-neuronal-response-to-new-odorants-in-the-newborn-brain
#3
Alexandra Adam-Darque, Frédéric Grouiller, Lana Vasung, Russia Ha-Vinh Leuchter, Philippe Pollien, François Lazeyras, Petra S Hüppi
The sense of smell is one of the oldest and the most primitive senses mammals possess, it helps to evaluate the surrounding environment. From birth, smell is an important sensory modality, highly relevant for neonatal behavioral adaptation. Even though human newborns seem to be able to perceive and react to olfactory stimuli, there is still a lack of knowledge about the ontogeny of smell and the underlying central processing involved in odor perception in newborns. Brain networks involved in chemosensory perception of odorants are well described in adults, however in newborns there is no evidence that central olfaction is functional given the largely unmyelinated neonatal central nervous system...
July 6, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094070/course-of-olfaction-after-sinus-surgery-for-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#4
Boris R Haxel, Patrick Boessert, Veronika Weyer-Elberich, Kai Fruth
Background: The influence of surgery on olfaction in patients who suffer from chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is still not fully understood. Most particularly, the time course of the recovery is poorly studied. Methods: The prospective study describes the results of the Sniffin' Sticks identification test in 41 subjects before (V1), 2 weeks after (V2), and 6 months after (V3) endonasal sinus surgery (ESS). Influencing factors (gender, revision surgery, nasal polyposis, and initial olfactory score) on the changes of the smell testing were evaluated...
October 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078327/hedgehog-signaling-regulates-ciliary-localization-of-mouse-odorant-receptors
#5
Devendra Kumar Maurya, Staffan Bohm, Mattias Alenius
The ciliary localization of odorant receptors (ORs) is evolutionary conserved and essential for olfactory transduction. However, how the transport of ORs is regulated in mammalian olfactory sensory neurons is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that odorant responsiveness and OR transport is regulated by the Hedgehog pathway. OR transport is inhibited by conditional gene inactivation of the Hedgehog signal mediator Smoothened (Smo) as well as by systemic administration of the Smo inhibitor vismodegib, a clinically used anticancer drug reported to distort smell perception in patients...
October 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989227/smell-or-vision-the-use-of-different-sensory-modalities-in-predator-discrimination
#6
Stefan Fischer, Evelyne Oberhummer, Filipa Cunha-Saraiva, Nina Gerber, Barbara Taborsky
ABSTRACT: Theory predicts that animals should adjust their escape responses to the perceived predation risk. The information animals obtain about potential predation risk may differ qualitatively depending on the sensory modality by which a cue is perceived. For instance, olfactory cues may reveal better information about the presence or absence of threats, whereas visual information can reliably transmit the position and potential attack distance of a predator. While this suggests a differential use of information perceived through the two sensory channels, the relative importance of visual vs...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981823/developmental-fine-tuning-of-human-olfactory-discriminability
#7
Xiaomeng Zhang, Wei Chen, Su Li, Wen Zhou
Unlike vision or audition, human olfaction is generally considered evolutionarily ancient and well-functioning at birth, yet there have been few empirical data on the development of olfactory acuity. The current study has assessed olfactory discriminability in children aged 3 to 6 years with 16 pairs of single-compound odorants that differ in various degrees in structure and smell. We report a significant improvement over age in young children's overall olfactory discriminability. Critically, such improvement is modulated by the degree of structural similarity between odorants independent of odor familiarity...
October 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923431/both-anxiety-and-joint-laxity-determine-the-olfactory-features-in-panic-disorder
#8
Emma Burón, Antonio Bulbena, Andrea Bulbena-Cabré, Sílvia Rosado, Guillem Pailhez
Previous research showed a high sensitivity in sensorial modalities in panic disorder (PD). This disorder has been consistently associated to the joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS). In non-clinical samples, this collagen alteration has been also related to an enhanced sensitivity in some sensorial modalities. The main aim of this study is to explore the olfactory functioning in PD in relation to JHS. Sixty patients with PD and sixty healthy controls performed the Sniffin' Sticks Test (SST) (threshold subtest), and completed the Affective Impact of Odors scale (AIO), the Relational Scale of Olfaction (EROL), and the Odor Awareness Scale (OAS)...
September 11, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882981/characteristics-of-a-nationwide-cohort-of-patients-presenting-with-isolated-hypogonadotropic-hypogonadism-ihh
#9
Marco Bonomi, Valeria Vezzoli, Csilla Gabriella Krausz, Fabiana Guizzardi, Silvia Vezzani, Manuela Simoni, Ivan Bassi, Paolo Duminuco, Natascia Di Iorgi, Claudia Giavoli, Alessandro Pizzoccaro, Gianni Russo, Mirella Moro, Letizia Maria Fatti, Alberto Ferlin, Laura Mazzanti, Maria Chiara Zatelli, Salvatore Cannavò, Andrea M Isidori, Angela I Pincelli, Flavia Prodam, Antonio Mancini, Paolo Limone, Maria Laura Tanda, Rossella Gaudino, Mariacarolina Salerno, Francesca Pregnolato, Mohammad Maghnie, Mario Maggi, Luca Persani
OBJECTIVE: IHH is a rare disorder with pubertal delay, normal (normoosmic-IHH, nIHH) or defective sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome, KS). Other reproductive and non-reproductive anomalies might be present altough information on their frequency are scanty, particularly according to the age of presentation. DESIGN: Observational cohort study carried out between January 2008-June 2016 within a national network of academic or general hospitals Methods: We performed a detailed phenotyping of 503 IHH patients with: 1) manifestations of hypogonadism with low sex steroid hormone and low/normal gonadotropins; 2) absence of expansive hypothalamic/pituitary lesions or multiple pituitary hormone defects...
September 7, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866743/effects-of-oral-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-on-the-cerebral-processing-of-olfactory-input-in-healthy-non-addicted-subjects
#10
Carmen Walter, Bruno G Oertel, Lisa Felden, Ulrike Nöth, Johannes Vermehren, Ralf Deichmann, Jörn Lötsch
BACKGROUND: Considering the increasing acknowledgment of the human sense of smell as a significant component of the quality of life, olfactory drug effects gain potential clinical importance. A recent observation in a human experimental context indicated that Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) impaired the subject's performance in olfactory tests. To further analyze the role of THC in human olfaction, the present report addresses its effects on the central processing of olfactory stimuli...
December 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862008/-olfactory-function-in-patients-undergoing-fess-for-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#11
Zdeněk Knížek, Jan Vodička, Pavlína Brothánková, Hana Shejbalová
Patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) often suffer from loss of olfactory function. Rhinosinusitis can be treated either by medical therapy or surgically (FESS). Postoperative outcome in terms of improving sense of smell has been controversial so far. The aim of our study was to determine the patients who would have better postoperative outcomes in terms of improving olfactory function. We collected data of patients undergoing FESS for chronic rhinosinusitis (either with or without nasal polyps) at our department during the years 2012-2015...
2017: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859712/long-term-olfactory-outcome-after-nasoseptal-flap-reconstructions-in-midline-skull-base-surgery
#12
Michael B Soyka, Carlo Serra, Luca Regli, Eva Meier, David Holzmann
BACKGROUND: The nasoseptal flap (NSF) is a universally used surgical technique to cover defects of the skull base after extended sinonasal surgery. Long-term follow-up of complications, sequelae, and smell function is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate monorhinal olfaction after transsphenoidal skull base surgery. METHODS: Patients who underwent skull base surgery for midline lesions (craniopharyngioma and pituitary tumors) by using a NSF, also referred to as the Haddad flap, were assessed for their long-term outcome...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851985/anosmia-impairs-homing-orientation-but-not-foraging-behaviour-in-free-ranging-shearwaters
#13
O Padget, G Dell'Ariccia, A Gagliardo, J González-Solís, T Guilford
Shearwaters deprived of their olfactory sense before being displaced to distant sites have impaired homing ability but it is unknown what the role of olfaction is when birds navigate freely without their sense of smell. Furthermore, treatments used to induce anosmia and to disrupt magneto-reception in displacement experiments might influence non-specific factors not directly related to navigation and, as a consequence, the results of displacement experiments can have multiple interpretations. To address this, we GPS-tracked the free-ranging foraging trips of incubating Scopoli's shearwaters within the Mediterranean Sea...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816642/proteomic-analysis-of-the-human-olfactory-bulb
#14
Manjunath Dammalli, Gourav Dey, Anil K Madugundu, Manish Kumar, Benvil Rodrigues, Harsha Gowda, Bychapur Gowrishankar Siddaiah, Anita Mahadevan, Susarla Krishna Shankar, Thottethodi Subrahmanya Keshava Prasad
The importance of olfaction to human health and disease is often underappreciated. Olfactory dysfunction has been reported in association with a host of common complex diseases, including neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. For health, olfaction or the sense of smell is also important for most mammals, for optimal engagement with their environment. Indeed, animals have developed sophisticated olfactory systems to detect and interpret the rich information presented to them to assist in day-to-day activities such as locating food sources, differentiating food from poisons, identifying mates, promoting reproduction, avoiding predators, and averting death...
August 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816480/superior-olfactory-language-and-cognition-in-odor-color-synaesthesia
#15
Laura J Speed, Asifa Majid
Olfaction is often considered a vestigial sense in humans, demoted throughout evolution to make way for the dominant sense of vision. This perspective on olfaction is reflected in how we think and talk about smells in the West, with odor imagery and odor language reported to be difficult. In the present study we demonstrate odor cognition is superior in odor-color synaesthesia, where there are additional sensory connections to odor concepts. Synaesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which input in 1 modality leads to involuntary perceptual associations...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802932/anosmia-and-ageusia-in-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Arjun Tarakad, Joseph Jankovic
Anosmia, the loss of sense of smell, is a common nonmotor feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). Ageusia, the loss of sense of taste, is additionally an underappreciated nonmotor feature of PD. The olfactory tract is involved early in PD as indicated by frequent occurrence of hyposmia or anosmia years or decades before motor symptoms and by autopsy studies showing early synuclein pathology in the olfactory tract and anterior olfactory nucleus even in the early stages of PD. Testing for olfaction consists of evaluation of olfactory thresholds, smell identification and discrimination, and olfactory memory...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797909/smelling-themselves-dogs-investigate-their-own-odours-longer-when-modified-in-an-olfactory-mirror-test
#17
Alexandra Horowitz
While domestic dogs, Canis familiaris, have been found to be skillful at social cognitive tasks and even some meta-cognitive tasks, they have not passed the test of mirror self-recognition (MSR). Acknowledging the motivational and sensory challenges that might hinder performance, even before the question of self-recognition is broached, this study creates and enacts a novel design extrapolated from the species' natural behaviour. Given dogs' use of olfactory signals in communication, this experiment presents dogs with various canisters for approach and investigation...
October 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775001/characterization-and-correction-of-olfactory-deficits-in-kidney-disease
#18
Sagar U Nigwekar, Jeremy M Weiser, Sahir Kalim, Dihua Xu, Joshua L Wibecan, Sarah M Dougherty, Laurence Mercier-Lafond, Kristin M Corapi, Nwamaka D Eneanya, Eric H Holbrook, Dennis Brown, Ravi I Thadhani, Teodor G Păunescu
Patients with CKD suffer from food aversion, anorexia, and malnutrition. Although olfaction has a significant role in determining food flavor, our understanding of olfactory impairment and of the olfaction-nutrition axis in patients with kidney disease is limited. We quantified odor identification, odor threshold, and subjective odor perception in a cohort (n=161) comprising 36 participants with CKD, 100 participants with ESRD, and 25 controls. We investigated olfaction-nutrition associations in these participants and examined a novel intervention to improve olfaction in ESRD...
November 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770710/olfactory-dysfunction-and-autoimmunity-pathogenesis-and-new-insights
#19
REVIEW
Oded Shamriz, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Olfaction plays an important role in the perception of our environment. Smell impairment is known to be a manifestation of several autoimmune diseases. Similarities between the olfactory and immune systems and previously published human studies and animal models of autoimmune diseases account for the accumulating evidence for this observation. In this review, we will present the current literature concerning olfactory dysfunction in autoimmune diseases, discuss clinical aspects and provide new insights regarding pathogenesis and possible mechanisms...
July 7, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724250/reuse-water-exposure-duration-seasonality-and-treatment-affect-tissue-responses-in-a-model-fish
#20
B J Blunt, A Singh, L Wu, M Gamal El-Din, M Belosevic, K B Tierney
Partially remediated gray (reuse) water will likely find increasing use in a variety of applications owing to the increasing scarcity of freshwater. We aimed to determine if a model fish, the goldfish, could sense reuse water using olfaction (smell), and if 30min or 7d (acute) and 60d (sub-chronic) exposures would affect their olfactory responses to natural odorants. We examined olfaction as previous studies have found that numerous chemicals can impair the olfactory sense, which is critical to carrying out numerous life-sustaining behaviors from feeding to mating...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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