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Smell, olfaction, olfactory

Melanie Yvonne Denzer-Lippmann, Jonathan Beauchamp, Jessica Freiherr, Norbert Thuerauf, Johannes Kornhuber, Andrea Buettner
Olfactory tests are an important tool in human nutritional research for studying food preferences, yet comprehensive tests dedicated solely to food odors are currently lacking. Therefore, within this study, an innovative food-associated olfactory test (FAOT) system was developed. The FAOT comprises 16 odorant pens that contain representative food odors relating to different macronutrient classes. The test underwent a sensory validation based on identification rate, intensity, hedonic value, and food association scores...
September 28, 2016: Chemical Senses
Shengju Li, Lucky Ahmed, Ruina Zhang, Yi Pan, Hiroaki Matsunami, Jessica L Burger, Eric Block, Victor S Batista, Hanyi Zhuang
Mammalian survival depends on ultrasensitive olfactory detection of volatile sulfur compounds, since these compounds can signal the presence of rancid food, O2 depleted atmospheres, and predators (through carnivore excretions). Skunks exploit this sensitivity with their noxious spray. In commerce, natural and liquefied gases are odorized with t-BuSH and EtSH, respectively, as warnings. The 100-million-fold difference in olfactory perception between structurally similar EtSH and EtOH has long puzzled those studying olfaction...
October 3, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Seckin Ulusoy, Mehmet Emre Dinc, Abdullah Dalgic, Murat Topak, Denizhan Dizdar, Abdulhalim İs
INTRODUCTION: The olfactory system is affected by the nutritional balance and chemical state of the body, serving as an internal sensor. All bodily functions are affected by energy loss, including olfaction; hunger can alter odour perception. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the effect of fasting on olfactory perception in humans, and also assessed perceptual changes during satiation. METHODS: The "Sniffin' Sticks" olfactory test was applied after 16h of fasting, and again at least 1h after Ramadan supper during periods of satiation...
September 12, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Barry W Ache, Andrew M Hein, Yuriy V Bobkov, Jose C Principe
Behavioral evidence from phylogenetically diverse animals and from humans suggests that, by extracting temporal information inherent in the olfactory signal, olfaction is more involved in interpreting space and time than heretofore imagined. If this is the case, the olfactory system must have neural mechanisms capable of encoding time at intervals relevant to the turbulent odor world in which many animals live. Here, we review evidence that animals can use populations of rhythmically active or 'bursting' olfactory receptor neurons (bORNs) to extract and encode temporal information inherent in natural olfactory signals...
October 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
Preeti Kohli, Akash N Naik, Zachary Farhood, Adrian A Ong, Shaun A Nguyen, Zachary M Soler, Rodney J Schlosser
OBJECTIVE: To use combined pre- and postsurgical olfactory outcomes to assess the impact of endoscopic sinus surgery on chronic rhinosinusitis-related olfactory impairment. DATA SOURCES: CINAHL, Cochrane, OVID, EMBASE, PubMed, and SCOPUS. Each database was searched from inception up to October 2015. REVIEW METHODS: Studies were included that reported subjective or objective olfactory data in chronic rhinosinusitis patients before and after endoscopic sinus surgery...
August 30, 2016: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Rodney J Schlosser, Kristina A Storck, Luke Rudmik, Timothy L Smith, Jess C Mace, Jose Mattos, Zachary M Soler
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) has significant impacts upon productivity, economic metrics, and medication usage; however, factors that are associated with these economic outcomes are unknown. METHODS: We evaluated olfactory dysfunction in 221 patients with CRS using the Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorders-Negative Statements (QOD-NS) and the 40-item Smell Identification Test (SIT) and assessed whether an association existed between these olfactory metrics and healthcare utilization, productivity, and medication usage over the preceding 90 days...
August 23, 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Oliver R B Thomas, Nicole C Barbee, Kathryn L Hassell, Stephen E Swearer
Fish, at all life stages, utilize olfactory information in the decision-making processes essential to survival. Olfaction is a sensitive sensory process, and toxicants within urban aquatic environments can have destructive or depreciating effects. In the present study, the authors exposed Galaxias maculatus, a native fish commonly found in urban waterways throughout southeastern Australia, to 1 of 5 ecologically relevant copper (II) chloride concentrations (<1 μg/L, 1 μg/L, 6 μg/L, 8 μg/L, 18 μg/L) for 16 h...
September 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Sung Hoon Kang, Hye Mi Lee, Woo-Keun Seo, Ji Hyun Kim, Seong-Beom Koh
BACKGROUND: Olfactory dysfunction and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) are recognized as pre-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Cognitive dysfunction is observed at a high rate even in the early stages of PD as an important non-motor symptom. PD has been classified in different subtypes and it is unknown if olfactory dysfunction and RBD occur more often in one particular subtype. We investigated the relationship between olfactory impairment, RBD, initial cognitive performance and motor phenotype in PD...
September 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Qin Lu, Kai Wang, Fumin Lei, Dan Yu, Huabin Zhao
The sense of smell, or olfaction, is fundamental in the life of animals. However, penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes) possess relatively small olfactory bulbs compared with most other waterbirds such as Procellariiformes and Gaviiformes. To test whether penguins have a reduced reliance on olfaction, we analyzed the draft genome sequences of the two penguins, which diverged at the origin of the order Sphenisciformes; we also examined six closely related species with available genomes, and identified 29 one-to-one orthologous olfactory receptor genes (i...
2016: Scientific Reports
Judith K Daniels, Eric Vermetten
It is clinically well known that olfactory intrusions in PTSD can be a disabling phenomena due to the involuntary recall of odor memories. Odorants can trigger involuntary recall of emotional memories as well have the potential to help diminishing emotional arousal as grounding stimuli. Despite major advances in our understanding of the function of olfactory system, the study of the relation of olfaction and emotional memory is still relatively scarce. Odor memory is long thought to be different than other types of memories such as verbal or visual memories, being more strongly engraved and more closely related to strong emotions...
October 2016: Experimental Neurology
F Deniz, S A Ay, M Salihoglu, O Kurt, K Baskoy, A Altundag, H Tekeli, A Yonem, T Hummel
Smell and taste are known to be influenced by thyroid function changes. However, many hypothyroid patients and physicians are unaware of their dysosmia and dysgeusia. The present study was performed to shed more light on the relation between hypothyroidism and olfactory loss. 32 primary hypothyroid patients and 31 controls enrolled in the prospective randomized interventional study. Newly diagnosed Primary hypothyroid patients were treated with L-thyroxine for 3-6 months. The control group was selected on the basis of the biochemical evidence of a normal thyroid function...
October 2016: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Michael L Alosco, Johnny Jarnagin, Yorghos Tripodis, Michael Platt, Brett Martin, Christine E Chaisson, Christine M Baugh, Nathan G Fritts, Robert C Cantu, Robert A Stern
Professional American football players incur thousands of repetitive head impacts (RHIs) throughout their lifetime. The long-term consequences of RHI are not well characterized, but may include olfactory dysfunction. RHI has been associated with changes to brain regions involved in olfaction, and olfactory impairment is common after traumatic brain injury. Olfactory dysfunction is a frequent early sequelae of neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), and RHI is associated with the neurodegenerative disease, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE)...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
R Pellegrino, A Hähner, V Bojanowski, C Hummel, J Gerber, T Hummel
BACKGROUND: Individuals with hyposmia, or the partial loss of smell, represent a large sector (15 %) of the population that is likely to grow with the current aging population; however, our understanding to how hyposmics centrally process odors is still not clear. One popular non-invasive tool for in vivo imaging of biological activity among human brains has been function magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) which uses blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal as an indirect measurement...
July 16, 2016: Rhinology
Ivan Nagelkerken, Kylie A Pitt, Melchior D Rutte, Robbert C Geertsma
Symbiotic relationships are common in nature, and are important for individual fitness and sustaining species populations. Global change is rapidly altering environmental conditions, but, with the exception of coral-microalgae interactions, we know little of how this will affect symbiotic relationships. We here test how the effects of ocean acidification, from rising anthropogenic CO2 emissions, may alter symbiotic interactions between juvenile fish and their jellyfish hosts. Fishes treated with elevated seawater CO2 concentrations, as forecast for the end of the century on a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emission scenario, were negatively affected in their behaviour...
June 29, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Güler Berkiten, Tolgar Lütfi Kumral, Ziya Saltürk, Yavuz Atar, Güven Yildirim, Yavuz Uyar, Imran Aydoğdu, Ahmet Arslanoğlu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of deviated nasal septum (DNS) type on nasal mucociliary clearance, quality of life (QoL), olfactory function, and efficiency of nasal surgery (septoplasty with or without inferior turbinate reduction and partial middle turbinectomy). METHODS: Fifty patients (20 females and 30 males) with septal deviation were included in the study and were divided into 6 groups according to deviation type after examination by nasal endoscopy and paranasal computed tomography...
July 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Ersin Aydın, Hakan Tekeli, Ercan Karabacak, İlknur Kıvanç Altunay, Çigdem Aydın, Aslı Aksu Çerman, Aytuğ Altundağ, Murat Salihoğlu, Melih Çayönü
It is well known that psoriasis is not only limited to skin, but a systemic autoimmune disease with various comorbidities. Olfactory dysfunction, one of as a common but lesser known symptom of patients with autoimmune diseases, often presents with smell loss. The aim of this study was to assess the olfactory functions in patients with psoriasis and to compare with healthy controls. A total of 50 patients with psoriasis and 43 control subjects were included to the study. The clinical severity of psoriasis was calculated by psoriasis area and severity index (PASI)...
August 2016: Archives of Dermatological Research
Paul L Greer, Daniel M Bear, Jean-Marc Lassance, Maria Lissitsyna Bloom, Tatsuya Tsukahara, Stan L Pashkovski, Francis Kei Masuda, Alexandra C Nowlan, Rory Kirchner, Hopi E Hoekstra, Sandeep Robert Datta
Odor perception in mammals is mediated by parallel sensory pathways that convey distinct information about the olfactory world. Multiple olfactory subsystems express characteristic seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in a one-receptor-per-neuron pattern that facilitates odor discrimination. Sensory neurons of the "necklace" subsystem are nestled within the recesses of the olfactory epithelium and detect diverse odorants; however, they do not express known GPCR odor receptors. Here, we report that members of the four-pass transmembrane MS4A protein family are chemosensors expressed within necklace sensory neurons...
June 16, 2016: Cell
Mercedes Lachen-Montes, Joaquín Fernandez-Irigoyen, Enrique Santamaria
The anatomy of the olfactory system is highly complex, comprising a system of olfactory receptors, pathways for the transmission of olfactory information, and structures for the recognition, discrimination, and memorization of odors. During the last years, proteomics has emerged as a large-scale comprehensive approach to characterize and quantify specific olfactory related proteomes in different biological conditions such as olfactory learning, neurodegeneration, and ageing between others. The current work reviews recent applications of proteomics to olfaction with particular focus on quantitative proteome profiling studies performed on olfactory areas from laboratory animal models as well as proteomic characterizations performed on specific brain structures and fluids involved in human smell...
May 26, 2016: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
Joshua M Levy, Jess C Mace, E Ritter Sansoni, Zachary M Soler, Timothy L Smith
BACKGROUND: Abnormal olfaction is common with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and associates with various measures of sinonasal inflammation. The Brief Smell Identification Test (BSIT) has demonstrated improvements in abnormal olfactory detection following endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS), but olfaction remains understudied using this instrument. Discerning longitudinal, postoperative durability in olfaction is critical for patient counseling. METHODS: Adult participants with medically recalcitrant CRS were prospectively enrolled into a multi-institutional cohort study and observed for 18 months after ESS...
May 24, 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Lai-Quan Zou, Tim J van Hartevelt, Morten L Kringelbach, Eric F C Cheung, Raymond C K Chan
OBJECTIVE: Pleasure is essential to normal healthy life. Olfaction, as 1 of the neurobehavioral probes of hedonic capacity, has a unique advantage compared to other sensory modalities. However, it is unclear how olfactory hedonic information is processed in the brain. This study aimed to investigate olfactory hedonic processing in the human brain. METHOD: We conducted an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on 16 functional imaging studies that examined brain activation in olfactory hedonic processing-related tasks in healthy adults...
May 19, 2016: Neuropsychology
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