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Smell, olfaction, olfactory

Rubens Gisbert Cury, Margarete de Jesus Carvalho, Fernando Jeyson Lopez Lasteros, Alice Estevo Dias, Maria Gabriela Dos Santos Ghilardi, Anderson Rodrigues Brandão Paiva, Artur Martins Coutinho, Carlos Alberto Buchpiguel, Manoel J Teixeira, Egberto Reis Barbosa, Erich Talamoni Fonoff
BACKGROUND: Olfactory dysfunction is a non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) associated with reduction in quality of life. There is no evidence on whether improvements in olfaction after subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) may be directly attributable to motor improvement or whether this reflect a direct effect of DBS on olfactory brain areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of DBS on olfactory function (OF) in PD as well as to explore the correlation between these changes and changes in motor symptoms and brain metabolism...
March 13, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Godwin Sokpor, Eman Abbas, Joachim Rosenbusch, Jochen F Staiger, Tran Tuoc
The postnatal mammalian olfactory epithelium (OE) represents a major aspect of the peripheral olfactory system. It is a pseudostratified tissue that originates from the olfactory placode and is composed of diverse cells, some of which are specialized receptor neurons capable of transducing odorant stimuli to afford the perception of smell (olfaction). The OE is known to offer a tractable miniature model for studying the systematic generation of neurons and glia that typify neural tissue development. During OE development, stem/progenitor cells that will become olfactory sensory neurons and/or non-neuronal cell types display fine spatiotemporal expression of neuronal and non-neuronal genes that ensures their proper proliferation, differentiation, survival, and regeneration...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Juliane Bräuer, Julia Belger
There has been a growing interest in the cognitive skills of domestic dogs, but most current knowledge about dogs' understanding of their environment is limited to the visual or auditory modality. Although it is well known that dogs have an excellent olfactory sense and that they rely on olfaction heavily when exploring the environment or recognizing individuals, it remains unclear whether dogs perceive odors as representing specific objects. In the current study, we examined this aspect of dogs' perception of the world...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Govindaraju Archunan
Olfaction is an important mechanism by which humans and animals communicate with environment. Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) play crucial role in the olfactory mechanism. Here, we briefly discuss about the role of OBPs and their importance in industrial, pest management and therapeutic developments.
2018: Bioinformation
Sophia C Poletti, Gustavo Murta, Antje Hähner, Thomas Hummel
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we introduce an extension of previous work by Soler et al. (Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 6(3):293-298, 2016) on a modified endoscopic scoring system of the Lund-Kennedy Score (focusing on the olfactory cleft) to evaluate its correlation with the olfactory function in patients with various smell disorders. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. METHODS: Two-hundred and eighty-eight participants were included and categorized in five groups according to the cause of their olfactory disorder: (0) control, (1) idiopathic, (2) sino-nasal, (3) postinfectious and (4) post traumatic olfactory loss...
February 27, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
John L A Huisman, Asifa Majid
People from Western societies generally find it difficult to name odors. In trying to explain this, the olfactory literature has proposed several theories that focus heavily on properties of the odor itself but rarely discuss properties of the label used to describe it. However, recent studies show speakers of languages with dedicated smell lexicons can name odors with relative ease. Has the role of the lexicon been overlooked in the olfactory literature? Word production studies show properties of the label, such as word frequency and semantic context, influence naming; but this field of research focuses heavily on the visual domain...
February 12, 2018: Memory & Cognition
Julia Murr, Thomas Hummel, Gerhard Ritschel, Ilona Croy
BACKGROUND: Olfactory dysfunction is common in older individuals. The importance of such dysfunction to individuals is highly variable: many people do not seem to care about their olfactory dysfunction, others suffer and complain about problems in daily life, a reduced quality of life, or symptoms of depression. OBJECTIVE: Understanding the importance of olfaction for different age groups in normosmic as well as in smell-disordered subjects may help to find reasons for insufficient coping with olfactory dysfunction...
December 5, 2017: Psychosomatics
Janet S Choi, Kevin Hur, Michael Chow, Jasper Shen, Bozena Wrobel
BACKGROUND: In this work we assess the association between olfactory dysfunction and cognition in a nationally representative sample of older adults in the United States. METHODS: Participants aged ≥60 years (n = 1236) from the 2013-2014 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey underwent both olfactory and cognitive testing. Olfaction was assessed by both objective test (8-odor Pocket Smell Test: smell impairment defined as score ≤2) and self-report...
January 23, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Ashiq Hussain, Atefeh Pooryasin, Mo Zhang, Laura F Loschek, Marco La Fortezza, Anja B Friedrich, Catherine-Marie Blais, Habibe K Üçpunar, Vicente A Yépez, Martin Lehmann, Nicolas Gompel, Julien Gagneur, Stephan J Sigrist, Ilona C Grunwald Kadow
Loss of the sense of smell is among the first signs of natural aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Cellular and molecular mechanisms promoting this smell loss are not understood. Here, we show that Drosophila melanogaster also loses olfaction before vision with age. Within the olfactory circuit, cholinergic projection neurons show a reduced odor response accompanied by a defect in axonal integrity and reduction in synaptic marker proteins. Using behavioral functional screening, we pinpoint that expression of the mitochondrial reactive oxygen scavenger SOD2 in cholinergic projection neurons is necessary and sufficient to prevent smell degeneration in aging flies...
January 18, 2018: ELife
Gad Dotan, Eyal Cohen, Ainat Klein, Anat Kesler
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that olfaction is impaired in patients with pseudotumor cerebri (PTC). OBJECTIVES: To measure suprathreshold olfactory function by using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), assessing its usefulness for routine clinical use. METHODS: Forty PTC patients underwent USPIT olfactory testing. RESULTS: Twenty-nine out of 40 (73%) PTC patients (36 women, 4 men; mean age 34 years) had reduced suprathreshold smell sensation according to UPSIT scores: 19 (47%) had mild microsmia, 9 (23%) had moderate microsmia, and one (3%) was classified as having severe microsmia...
January 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Juliette Heinrich, Jean-Sébastien Vidal, Axelle Simon, Anne-Sophie Rigaud, Olivier Hanon, Jacques Epelbaum, Cecile Viollet, Emmanuelle Duron
BACKGROUND: Olfactory impairment is reported in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is associated with hippocampal atrophy. In elderly people, dementia with AD neuropathology and white matter lesions (WML) is common. In this context, olfactory impairment could also depend on the presence of WML. OBJECTIVE: To assess the cross-sectional relationship between olfaction and WML in elderly subjects with MCI. METHODS: Consecutive subjects, >65 years old, diagnosed as MCI after a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment in an expert memory center, with a brain MRI performed within a year and without major depressive state, were included...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
P Han, M Georgi, M Cuevas, A Haehner, V Gudziol, T Hummel
BACKGROUND: Cross-modal chemosensory dysfunction between olfaction and gustation is not well known. METHODOLOGY: 180 participants were classified into three groups (60 with olfactory dysfunction, 60 with gustatory dysfunction and 60 healthy controls without chemosensory dysfunction). Olfactory functions were obtained with Sniffin Sticks; gustatory function was measured by suprathreshold gustatory stimuli (taste sprays) and a quasi-threshold measure of taste function (taste strips) for five taste qualities (sweet, salty, sour, bitter and umami)...
January 7, 2018: Rhinology
Manki Son, Tai Hyun Park
Food intake is the primary method for obtaining energy and component materials in the human being. Humans evaluate the quality of food by combining various facets of information, such as an item of food's appearance, smell, taste, and texture in the mouth. Recently, bioelectronic noses and tongues have been reported that use human olfactory and taste receptors as primary recognition elements, and nanoelectronics as secondary signal transducers. Bioelectronic sensors that mimic human olfaction and gustation have sensitively and selectively detected odor and taste molecules from various food samples, and have been applied to food quality assessment...
December 28, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
Sheng-Tien Li, Tai-Horng Young, Tsung-Wei Huang
Olfactory dysfunction significantly influences patients' life quality, but currently has no adequate treatment. Poly (ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVAL) mediates cell adhesion, growth and modulates differentiation of neural stem cells. However, whether EVAL is a suitable substrate to establish an in vitro culture system that can promote development and differentiation of human olfactory neuroepithelial cells (HONCs) remains unexplored. This study isolates and cultures HONCs on controls and EVAL films for 21 days...
December 26, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
Do Hyun Kim, Yong Kil Hong, Sin-Soo Jeun, Jae-Sung Park, Soo Whan Kim, Jin Hee Cho, Yong Jin Park, Jang-Won Jeong, Sung Won Kim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between tumor size, nasal symptoms including olfactory function, and posoperative atrophic mucosal changes after the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach (EETSA). METHODS: This was a retrospective review of the medical records of 112 patients who underwent the 2 nostrils/4 hands EETSA with bilateral modified nasoseptal rescue flaps between February 2009 and January 2016...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Julia Noel, Al-Rahim R Habib, Andrew Thamboo, Zara M Patel
Objective: Olfactory dysfunction is known to have significant social, psychological, and safety implications. Despite increasingly recognized prevalence, potential risk factors for olfactory loss have been arbitrarily documented and knowledge is limited in scale. The aim of this study is to identify potential demographic and exposure variables correlating with olfactory dysfunction. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of the 2011-2012 and 2013-2014 editions of the National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey was performed...
March 2017: World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
William F Goette, Amy E Werry, Andrew L Schmitt
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to test the theoretical relationships between smell identification and cognitive tasks based on existing neuroimaging and anatomical findings. METHOD: Utilizing data collected from a memory assessment clinic, theory-derived mediation and moderation models were tested. The sample used in this study consisted of 103 (39 male, 64 female) individuals referred for memory assessments. The sample's mean education was 12.4 years (SD = 3.2), and the mean age of the sample was 77...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Christopher D Wilson, Gabriela O Serrano, Alexei A Koulakov, Dmitry Rinberg
Humans can identify visual objects independently of view angle and lighting, words independently of volume and pitch, and smells independently of concentration. The computational principles underlying invariant object recognition remain mostly unknown. Here we propose that, in olfaction, a small and relatively stable set comprised of the earliest activated receptors forms a code for concentration-invariant odor identity. One prediction of this "primacy coding" scheme is that decisions based on odor identity can be made solely using early odor-evoked neural activity...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
Sarah-Grace Glennon, Tania Huedo-Medina, Shristi Rawal, Howard J Hoffman, Mark D Litt, Valerie B Duffy
Introduction: Population-based studies show inconsistent effects of cigarette smoking on olfactory function. We aimed to identify direct and indirect associations between measures of smoking exposure/nicotine dependence and altered olfaction in a nationally-representative sample of adults. Methods: NHANES 2011-2014 (n=7,418) participants (mean age=57.8±12.2 years) self-reported olfaction and related health and demographic risks. Affirmative answers to three questions defined altered olfaction (olfactory problems in past year; worse ability since age 25; phantom smells)...
November 7, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Alexandra Adam-Darque, Frédéric Grouiller, Lana Vasung, Russia Ha-Vinh Leuchter, Philippe Pollien, François Lazeyras, Petra S Hüppi
The sense of smell is one of the oldest and the most primitive senses mammals possess, it helps to evaluate the surrounding environment. From birth, smell is an important sensory modality, highly relevant for neonatal behavioral adaptation. Even though human newborns seem to be able to perceive and react to olfactory stimuli, there is still a lack of knowledge about the ontogeny of smell and the underlying central processing involved in odor perception in newborns. Brain networks involved in chemosensory perception of odorants are well described in adults, however in newborns there is no evidence that central olfaction is functional given the largely unmyelinated neonatal central nervous system...
July 6, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
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