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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719644/isolation-of-putative-stem-cells-present-in-human-adult-olfactory-mucosa
#1
Tamara Tanos, Alberto Maria Saibene, Carlotta Pipolo, Paolo Battaglia, Giovanni Felisati, Alicia Rubio
The olfactory mucosa (OM) has the unique characteristic of performing an almost continuous and lifelong neurogenesis in response to external injuries, due to the presence of olfactory stem cells that guarantee the maintenance of the olfactory function. The easy accessibility of the OM in humans makes these stem cells feasible candidates for the development of regenerative therapies. In this report we present a detailed characterization of a patient-derived OM, together with a description of cell cultures obtained from the OM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719101/neuronal-degeneration-and-regeneration-induced-by-axotomy-in-the-olfactory-epithelium-of-xenopus-laevis
#2
A S Cervino, D A Paz, J L Frontera
The olfactory epithelium (OE) has the remarkable capability to constantly replace olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) due to the presence of neural stem cells (NSCs). For this reason, the OE provides an excellent model to study neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation. In the present work, we induced neuronal degeneration in the OE of Xenopus laevis larvae by bilateral axotomy of the olfactory nerves. We found that axotomy induces specific- neuronal death through apoptosis between 24 and 48h post-injury. In concordance, there was a progressive decrease of the mature-ORN marker OMP until it was completely absent 72h post-injury...
July 18, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719023/identification-of-odorant-binding-and-chemosensory-protein-genes-and-the-ligand-affinity-of-two-of-the-encoded-proteins-suggest-a-complex-olfactory-perception-system-in-periplaneta-americana
#3
P He, Z-Q Li, Y-F Zhang, L Chen, J Wang, L Xu, Y-N Zhang, M He
The American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is an urban pest with a precise chemosensory system that helps it achieve complex physiological behaviours, including locating food and mating. However, its chemosensory mechanisms have not been well studied. Here, we identified 71 putative odorant carrier protein genes in P. americana, including 57 new odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and 11 chemosensory proteins (CSPs). To identify their physiological functions, we investigated their tissue expression patterns in antennae, mouthparts, legs, and the remainder of the body of both sexes, and determined that most of these genes were expressed in chemosensory organs...
July 18, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718821/tick-haller-s-organ-a-new-paradigm-for-arthropod-olfaction-how-ticks-differ-from-insects
#4
Ann L Carr, Robert D Mitchell Iii, Anirudh Dhammi, Brooke W Bissinger, Daniel E Sonenshine, R Michael Roe
Ticks are the vector of many human and animal diseases; and host detection is critical to this process. Ticks have a unique sensory structure located exclusively on the 1st pairs of legs; the fore-tarsal Haller's organ, not found in any other animals, presumed to function like the insect antennae in chemosensation but morphologically very different. The mechanism of tick chemoreception is unknown. Utilizing next-generation sequencing and comparative transcriptomics between the 1st and 4th legs (the latter without the Haller's organ), we characterized 1st leg specific and putative Haller's organ specific transcripts from adult American dog ticks, Dermacentor variabilis...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717388/heritability-of-behavioural-tolerance-to-high-co2-in-a-coral-reef-fish-is-masked-by-nonadaptive-phenotypic-plasticity
#5
Megan J Welch, Philip L Munday
Previous studies have demonstrated limited potential for acclimation of adversely affected olfactory behaviours in reef fishes under elevated CO 2, indicating that genetic adaptation will be required to maintain behavioural performance in the future. Adaptation depends on the presence of heritable phenotypic variation in the trait, which may differ between populations and environments. We used parent-offspring regressions to estimate the heritability (h(2)) of variation in behavioural tolerance to high CO 2 (754 μatm) in both field-collected and laboratory-reared families of Acanthochromis polyacanthus...
August 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717156/patterned-arrangements-of-olfactory-receptor-gene-expression-in-zebrafish-are-established-by-radial-movement-of-specified-olfactory-sensory-neurons
#6
Xalid Bayramli, Yiğit Kocagöz, Uğurcan Sakizli, Stefan H Fuss
Spatial restriction of olfactory receptor (OR) gene expression in peripheral sense organs is a common phenomenon across species, suggesting that zonal OR expression somehow contributes to olfactory function. In zebrafish OR expression patterns reminiscent of zones occur as concentric domains with preferred diameters for different ORs. However, the function and the developmental origin of the pattern are unknown. Here we investigate olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) neurogenesis in the adult zebrafish olfactory epithelium (OE) to understand how the zonally organized OR pattern is established and maintained during the lifetime of the animal...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716706/characterization-of-a-presymptomatic-stage-in-a-drosophila-parkinson-s-disease-model-unveiling-dopaminergic-compensatory-mechanisms
#7
Daniela Molina-Mateo, Nicolás Fuenzalida-Uribe, Sergio Hidalgo, Claudia Molina-Fernández, Jorge Abarca, Rafaella V Zárate, Marcela Escandón, Reinaldo Figueroa, María Florencia Tevy, Jorge M Campusano
Parkinson disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder characterized by several motor symptoms including shaking, rigidity, slow movement and difficult walking, which has been associated to the death of nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons. >90% of PD patients also present olfactory dysfunction. Although the molecular mechanisms responsible for this disease are not clear, hereditary PD is linked to mutations in specific genes, including the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1). In this work we provide for the first time a thorough temporal description of the behavioral effects induced by a mutation in the PINK1 gene in adult Drosophila, a previously described animal model for PD...
July 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715127/increased-aggression-and-lack-of-maternal-behavior-in-dio3-deficient-mice-are-associated-with-abnormalities-in-oxytocin-and-vasopressin-systems
#8
J Patrizia Stohn, M Elena Martinez, Maryam Zafer, Daniela López-Espíndola, Lauren M Keyes, Arturo Hernandez
Thyroid hormones regulate many aspects of brain development and function, and alterations in the levels of thyroid hormone action lead to abnormal anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. A complement of factors in the brain function independently of circulating levels of hormone to strictly controlled local thyroid hormone signaling. A critical factor is the type 3 deiodinase (DIO3), which is located in neurons and protects the brain from excessive thyroid hormone. Here we examined whether a local increase in brain thyroid hormone action secondary to DIO3 deficiency is of consequence for social behaviors...
July 17, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715094/drosophila-mutants-lacking-octopamine-exhibit-impairment-in-aversive-olfactory-associative-learning
#9
Konstantin G Iliadi, Natalia Iliadi, Gabrielle L Boulianne
Octopamine is a biogenic amine in invertebrates that is considered a functional homolog of vertebrate norepinephrine, acting as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator and neurohormone. Octopamine regulates many physiological processes such as metabolism, reproduction and different types of behaviour including learning and memory. Previous studies in insects led to the notion that acquisition of an olfactory memory depends on the octopaminergic system during appetitive (reward-based) learning, but not in the case of aversive (punishment-based) learning...
July 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715089/drosophila-mutants-lacking-octopamine-exhibit-impairment-in-aversive-olfactory-associative-learning-commentary-on-iliadi-et%C3%A2-al-2017
#10
Timothy J Mosca
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714144/cerebellins-are-differentially-expressed-in-selective-subsets-of-neurons-throughout-the-brain
#11
Erica Seigneur, Thomas C Südhof
Cerebellins are secreted hexameric proteins that form tripartite complexes with the presynaptic cell-adhesion molecules neurexins or 'deleted-in-colorectal-cancer' (DCC), and the postsynaptic glutamate-receptor-related proteins GluD1 and GluD2. These tripartite complexes are thought to regulate synapses. However, cerebellins are expressed in multiple isoforms whose relative distributions and overall functions are not understood. Three of the four cerebellins, Cbln1, Cbln2, and Cbln4, autonomously assemble into homohexamers, whereas the Cbln3 requires Cbln1 for assembly and secretion...
July 16, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713962/bioinformatics-analysis-of-key-genes-and-signaling-pathways-associated-with-myocardial-infarction-following-telomerase-activation
#12
Yi Yang, Guang Yang, Hongwei Du, Nana Dong, Bo Yu
The present study aimed to identify key genes and signaling pathways associated with myocardial infarction (MI) following telomerase activation, and investigate the possible underlying molecular mechanisms involved in this process. Array data of GSE62973 was downloaded, including 11 samples from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were analyzed in infarct vs. control, infarct + telomerase vs. control, and infarct + telomerase vs. infarct with the Linear Models for Microarray and RNA‑Seq Data package...
July 6, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713816/effect-of-the-camelid-s-seminal-plasma-ovulation-inducing-factor-%C3%AE-ngf-a-kisspeptin-target-hypothesis
#13
REVIEW
Khalid El Allali, Najlae El Bousmaki, Hassan Ainani, Valérie Simonneaux
Female mammals are classified into spontaneous and induced ovulators based on the mechanism eliciting ovulation. Ovulation in spontaneous species (e.g., human, sheep, cattle, horse, pigs, and most rodents) occurs at regular intervals and depends upon the circulating estradiol. However, in induced ovulators (e.g., rabbits, ferrets, cats, and camelids), ovulation is associated with coitus. In the later, various factors have been proposed to trigger ovulation, including auditory, visual, olfactory, and mechanic stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713638/neurovascular-cell-sheet-transplantation-in-a-canine-model-of-intracranial-hemorrhage
#14
Woo-Jin Lee, Jong Young Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Soon-Tae Lee, Hyo Yeol Kim, Dong-Kyu Park, Jung-Suk Yu, So-Yun Kim, Daejong Jeon, Manho Kim, Sang Kun Lee, Jae-Kyu Roh, Kon Chu
Cell-based therapy for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has a great therapeutic potential. However, methods to effectively induce direct regeneration of the damaged neural tissue after cell transplantation have not been established, which, if done, would improve the efficacy of cell-based therapy. In this study, we aimed to develop a cell sheet with neurovasculogenic potential and evaluate its usefulness in a canine ICH model. We designed a composite cell sheet made of neural progenitors derived from human olfactory neuroepithelium and vascular progenitors from human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells...
2017: Cell Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713029/successive-odor-matching-and-non-matching-to-sample-in-rats-a-reversal-design
#15
Katherine Bruce, Katherine Dyer, Michael Mathews, Catharine Nealley, Tiffany Phasukkan, Ashley Prichard, Mark Galizio
There is a growing body of research on matching- and non-matching-to-sample (MTS, NMTS) relations with rats using olfactory stimuli; however, the specific characteristics of this relational control are unclear. In the current study we examine MTS and NMTS in rats with an automated olfactometer using a successive (go, no-go) procedure. Ten rats were trained to either match- or non-match-to-sample with common scents (apple, cinnamon, etc.) as olfactory stimuli. After matching or non-matching training with four odorants, rats were tested for transfer twice with four new odorants on each test...
July 13, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711395/silymarin-ameliorates-experimentally-induced-depressive-like-behavior-in-rats-involvement-of-hippocampal-bdnf-signaling-inflammatory-cytokines-and-oxidative-stress-response
#16
Vishnu N Thakare, Manoj K Aswar, Yogesh P Kulkarni, Rajesh R Patil, Bhoomika M Patel
Silymarin is a polyphenolic flavonoid of Silybum marianum, exhibited neuroprotection and antidepressant like activity in acute restraint stressed mice. The main objective of the present study is to investigate possible antidepressant like activity of silymarin in experimentally induced depressive behavior in rats. The depressive behaviors were induced in rats by olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) technique. Wistar rats were administered with silymarin at a dose of 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg, by per oral in OBX and sham operated rats...
July 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709998/aversive-smell-associations-shape-social-judgment
#17
Philipp Homan, Benjamin A Ely, May Yuan, Tobias Brosch, John Ng, Yaacov Trope, Daniela Schiller
Once associating another person with an unpleasant smell, how do we perceive and judge this person from that moment on? Here, we used aversive olfactory conditioning followed by a social attribution task during functional magnetic resonance imaging to address this question. After conditioning, where one of two faces was repeatedly paired with an aversive smell, the participants reported negative affect when viewing the smell-conditioned but not the neutral face. When subsequently confronted with the smell-conditioned face (without any smell), the participants tended to judge both positive and negative behaviors as indicative of personality traits rather than related to the situation...
July 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708027/do-valenced-odors-and-trait-body-odor-disgust-affect-evaluation-of-emotion-in-dynamic-faces
#18
Elmeri Syrjänen, Marco Tullio Liuzza, Håkan Fischer, Jonas K Olofsson
Disgust is a core emotion evolved to detect and avoid the ingestion of poisonous food as well as the contact with pathogens and other harmful agents. Previous research has shown that multisensory presentation of olfactory and visual information may strengthen the processing of disgust-relevant information. However, it is not known whether these findings extend to dynamic facial stimuli that changes from neutral to emotionally expressive, or if individual differences in trait body odor disgust may influence the processing of disgust-related information...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707676/obesity-olfactory-senses-linked-to-metabolism
#19
Alan Morris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707266/6-ohda-lesioned-adult-zebrafish-as-a-useful-parkinson-s-disease-model-for-dopaminergic-neuroregeneration
#20
Yuganthini Vijayanathan, Fei Tieng Lim, Siong Meng Lim, Chiau Ming Long, Maw Pin Tan, Abu Bakar Abdul Majeed, Kalavathy Ramasamy
Conventional mammalian models of neurodegeneration are often limited by futile axonogenesis with minimal functional recuperation of severed neurons. The emergence of zebrafish, a non-mammalian model with excellent neuroregenerative properties, may address these limitations. This study aimed to establish an adult zebrafish-based, neurotoxin-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) model and subsequently validate the regenerative capability of dopaminergic neurons (DpN). The DpN of adult male zebrafish (Danio rerio) were lesioned by microinjecting 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) neurotoxin (6...
July 13, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
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