keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Olfactory

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240785/deet-as-a-feeding-deterrent
#1
WeiYu Lu, Justin K Hwang, Fangfang Zeng, Walter S Leal
The insect repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), is a multimodal compound that acts as a spatial repellent as well as an irritant (contact repellent), thus being perceived by the insect's olfactory and gustatory systems as an odorant and a tastant, respectively. Soon after DEET was developed, almost 6 decades ago, it was reported that it reduced mosquito feeding on blood mixed with this repellent. It is now known that the mosquito proboscis senses contact repellents with the tips (labella) of the labium, which remain in direct contact with the outer layers of the skin, while the stylets, including the feeding deterrent sensor (labrum), penetrate the skin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239727/clinical-effects-of-submucosal-middle-turbinectomy-for-eosinophilic-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#2
Kosuke Akiyama, Yasushi Samukawa, Satoshi Takahashi, Youhei Ouchi, Hiroshi Hoshikawa
OBJECTIVE: The preservation or resection of the middle turbinate (MT) during endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) currently remains a matter of debate. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of submucosal middle turbinectomy (SMT) in ESS for eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS). METHODS: The study included 38 ECRS patients (63 sides) who had undergone full-house ESS with SMT and 20 ECRS patients (40 sides) without SMT as a control group. Post-operative middle turbinate lateralization (MTL), synechia formation, and the patency grade of the olfactory cleft (OC) were assessed as the primary outcomes 3 months after surgery...
November 24, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239483/the-effects-of-olfactory-stimulation-on-the-behavior-of-captive-ring-tailed-lemurs-lemur-catta
#3
Brittanny Baker, Sienna Taylor, V Tamara Montrose
Ring-tailed lemurs reside in many animal collections worldwide. Lemur welfare may be a cause of concern due to some captive individuals exhibiting stereotypic behavior. Despite these concerns, there has been little exploration of methods of environmental enrichment for ring-tailed lemurs. Olfactory stimulation can enhance captive animal welfare by encouraging species-typical behaviors, enhancing behavioral diversity, and decreasing stereotypic behaviors. We aimed to investigate the effects of olfactory stimulation via lavender, peppermint, coconut, and prey odor upon the behavior of eight captive ring-tailed lemurs...
December 14, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239337/globose-basal-cells-for-spinal-cord-regeneration
#4
Durai Murugan Muniswami, Indirani Kanakasabapathy, George Tharion
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition with loss of motor and sensory functions below the injury level. Cell based therapies are experimented in pre-clinical studies around the world. Neural stem cells are located intra-cranially in subventricular zone and hippocampus which are highly invasive sources. The olfactory epithelium is a neurogenic tissue where neurogenesis takes place throughout the adult life by a population of stem/progenitor cells. Easily accessible olfactory neuroepithelial stem/progenitor cells are an attractive cell source for transplantation in SCI...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239088/quantitative-evaluation-of-cue-induced-reinstatement-model-for-evidence-based-experimental-optimization
#5
Julia Oberhofer, Hamid R Noori
Cue-induced reinstatement is a widely used model for investigating relapse of reward-seeking behavior with high face validity in relation to clinical observations. Yet, face validity is not sufficient to evaluate an animal model, and quantitative, evidence-based analysis is required to estimate the ultimate applicability of this paradigm. Furthermore, such analysis would allow an accurate and reproducible design of future experiments. Here, we conducted meta-analysis and cluster analysis to characterize the impact of cue type (visual, auditory, olfactory or combinations thereof), intensity (e...
December 14, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238983/brain-volume-changes-in-hyposmic-patients-before-and-after-olfactory-training
#6
Janine Gellrich, Pengfei Han, Cedric Manesse, Amelie Betz, Anne Junghanns, Claudia Raue, Valentin A Schriever, Thomas Hummel
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Olfactory dysfunction is thought to be associated with reduced gray matter (GM) volume in olfactory-related brain areas. The aim of this study was to determine GM structural changes within olfactory-related regions of the brain in patients with smell loss due to upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) before and after olfactory rehabilitation. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective intervention case-control study. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging structural brain images were collected from 30 patients with smell loss due to URTI and 31 controls...
December 14, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238684/a-study-of-clinical-significance-of-the-depth-of-olfactory-fossa-in-patients-undergoing-endoscopic-sinus-surgery
#7
Ashok Murthy V, Bollineni Santosh
The endoscope has revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the nose and paranasal sinuses. Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS), like all minimally invasive surgery, is designed to combine an excellent outcome with minimal patient discomfort. Successful outcome with minimal complications can only be achieved with good knowledge of the endoscopic anatomy, appropriate training in the procedure and the understanding of the anatomical variations. The intraoperative complications of ESS are bleeding and injury to surrounding structures commonly the orbital structures and fovea ethmoidalis...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235485/quantification-of-interacting-cognate-odorants-with-olfactory-receptors-in-nanovesicles
#8
Marta Sanmartí-Espinal, Patrizia Iavicoli, Annalisa Calò, Marta Taulés, Roger Galve, M Pilar Marco, Josep Samitier
This study aims to improve our understanding of the interaction between olfactory receptors and odorants to develop highly selective biosensing devices. Natural nanovesicles (NVs) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ~100 nm in diameter, carrying either the human OR17-40 or the chimpanzee OR7D4 olfactory receptor (OR) tagged with the c-myc epitope at their N-terminus, are presented as model systems to quantify the interaction between odorant and olfactory receptors. The level of expression of olfactory receptors was determined at individual NVs using a novel competitive ELISA immunoassay comparing the values obtained against those from techniques involving the solubilization of cell membrane proteins and the identification of c-myc-carrying receptors...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234959/olfactory-cortex-and-olfactory-bulb-volume-alterations-in-patients-with-post-infectious-olfactory-loss
#9
Linyin Yao, Xiaoli Yi, Jayant Marian Pinto, Xiandao Yuan, Yichen Guo, Yifan Liu, Yongxiang Wei
Upper respiratory tract infection (URI) is one of the most common etiology of olfactory loss. Previous studies demonstrated that both olfactory bulb (OB) volume and sulcus (OS) depth decreased in patients with post-infectious olfactory loss (PIOL) compared to normal controls. The aim of our study was to observe alterations of central olfactory pathways in patients with PIOL. T1 weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired in 19 PIOL patients and 19 age- and sex-matched control subjects on a 3 T scanner...
December 13, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234276/functional-reintegration-of-sensory-neurons-and-transitional-dendritic-reduction-of-mitral-tufted-cells-during-injury-induced-recovery-of-the-larval-xenopus-olfactory-circuit
#10
Sara J Hawkins, Lukas Weiss, Thomas Offner, Katarina Dittrich, Thomas Hassenklöver, Ivan Manzini
Understanding the mechanisms involved in maintaining lifelong neurogenesis has a clear biological and clinical interest. In the present study, we performed olfactory nerve transection on larval Xenopus to induce severe damage to the olfactory circuitry. We surveyed the timing of the degeneration, subsequent rewiring and functional regeneration of the olfactory system following injury. A range of structural labeling techniques and functional calcium imaging were performed on both tissue slices and whole brain preparations...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234275/insulin-modulates-neural-activity-of-pyramidal-neurons-in-the-anterior-piriform-cortex
#11
Yang Zhou, Xiaojie Wang, Tiantian Cao, Jinshan Xu, Dejuan Wang, Diego Restrepo, Anan Li
Insulin is an important peptide hormone that regulates food intake and olfactory function. While a multitude of studies investigated the effect of insulin in the olfactory bulb and olfactory epithelium, research on how it modulates higher olfactory centers is lacking. Here we investigate how insulin modulates neural activity of pyramidal neurons in the anterior piriform cortex, a key olfactory signal processing center that plays important roles in odor perception, preference learning, and odor pattern separation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234134/anatomical-evidence-for-scent-guided-foraging-in-the-turkey-vulture
#12
Nathan P Grigg, Justin M Krilow, Cristian Gutierrez-Ibanez, Douglas R Wylie, Gary R Graves, Andrew N Iwaniuk
The turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) is a widespread, scavenging species in the Western Hemisphere that locates carrion by smell. Scent guided foraging is associated with an expansion of the olfactory bulbs of the brain in vertebrates, but no such neuroanatomical data exists for vultures. We provide the first measurements of turkey vulture brains, including the size of their olfactory bulbs and numbers of mitral cells, which provide the primary output of the olfactory bulbs. Comparative analyses show that the turkey vulture has olfactory bulbs that are 4× larger and contain twice as many mitral cells as those of the sympatric black vulture (Coragyps atratus), despite having brains that are 20% smaller...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233469/olfactory-dysfunctions-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-parkinson-s-disease-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#13
Jin-Woo Park, Do-Young Kwon, Ji Ho Choi, Moon-Ho Park, Ho-Kyoung Yoon
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of olfactory function is valuable for the detection of pre-motor state of Parkinson's disease (PD). PD patients have an increased risk of associated dementia and one-third of PD patients have mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at the time of diagnosis. However, the characteristics of olfactory dysfunction in PD-MCI patients are unclear. This study examined the relationship between olfactory dysfunction and cognitive function in drug-naïve PD at the time of diagnosis with the patterns of olfactory function in PD-MCI patients using the Korean version of the Sniffin' stick test II (KVSS II)...
November 14, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232897/biomimetic-sensors-for-the-senses-towards-better-understanding-of-taste-and-odor-sensation
#14
REVIEW
Chunsheng Wu, Ya-Wen Du, Liquan Huang, Yaron Ben-Shoshan Galeczki, Ayana Dagan-Wiener, Michael Naim, Masha Y Niv, Ping Wang
Taste and smell are very important chemical senses that provide indispensable information on food quality, potential mates and potential danger. In recent decades, much progress has been achieved regarding the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of taste and odor senses. Recently, biosensors have been developed for detecting odorants and tastants as well as for studying ligand-receptor interactions. This review summarizes the currently available biosensing approaches, which can be classified into two main categories: in vitro and in vivo approaches...
December 11, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232497/evaluation-of-olfaction-and-taste-function-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-and-without-peripheral-neuropathy
#15
Semih Yazla, Süay Özmen, Sinem Kıyıcı, Demet Yıldız, Mehmet Haksever, Sündüz Gencay
AIMS: Olfaction and gustation in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have great significance on quality of life and their impairment may result in possible hazards. A limited number of studies have been performed to determine the alteration of both gustatory and olfactory function in type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). The aim of this study was to determine whether type 2 diabetic patients, with and without DPN, exhibit major olfactory and gustatory dysfunction using validated and dependable techniques...
December 12, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231171/tracing-neuronal-circuits-in-transgenic-animals-by-transneuronal-control-of-transcription-tract
#16
Ting-Hao Huang, Peter Niesman, Deepshika Arasu, Daniel Lee, Aubrie De La Cruz, Antuca Callejas, Elizabeth J Hong, Carlos Lois
Understanding the computations that take place in brain circuits requires identifying how neurons in those circuits are connected to one another. We describe a technique called TRACT (TRAnsneuronal Control of Transcription) based on ligand-induced intramembrane proteolysis to reveal monosynaptic connections arising from genetically labeled neurons of interest. In this strategy, neurons expressing an artificial ligand ('donor' neurons) bind to and activate a genetically-engineered artificial receptor on their synaptic partners ('receiver' neurons)...
December 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229938/exploiting-anopheles-responses-to-thermal-odour-and-visual-stimuli-to-improve-surveillance-and-control-of-malaria
#17
Frances M Hawkes, Roch K Dabiré, Simon P Sawadogo, Stephen J Torr, Gabriella Gibson
Mosquito surveillance and control are at the heart of efforts to eliminate malaria, however, there remain significant gaps in our understanding of mosquito behaviour that impede innovation. We hypothesised that a combination of human-associated stimuli could be used to attract and kill malaria vectors more successfully than individual stimuli, and at least as well as a real human. To test this in the field, we quantified Anopheles responses to olfactory, visual and thermal stimuli in Burkina Faso using a simple adhesive trap...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229199/microbiota-and-aging-a-review-and-commentary
#18
REVIEW
Carmen García-Peña, Teresa Álvarez-Cisneros, Ricardo Quiroz-Baez, Robert P Friedland
Although there is a consensus that the dominant species that make up the adult microbiota remains unchanged in elderly people, it has been reported that there are significant alterations in the proportion and composition of the different taxa, leading to reduced microbiota diversity, as well as an increase of enteropathogens that may lead to chronic inflammation. The ageing of mucosal immune and motor systems also contributes to these changes. As the individual ages, there is a loss in the number of Peyer's patches, an altered local capacity of T and B cell functions as well as chronic macrophage activation...
December 8, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228390/altered-brain-morphology-after-focal-radiation-reveals-impact-of-off-target-effects-implications-for-white-matter-development-and-neurogenesis
#19
Kiran G Beera, Yu-Qing Li, Jun Dazai, James Stewart, Shannon Egan, Mashal Ahmed, C Shun Wong, David A Jaffray, Brian J Nieman
Background: Children with brain tumors treated with cranial radiation therapy (RT) often exhibit cognitive late effects, commonly associated with reduced white matter (WM) volume and decreased neurogenesis. The impact of radiation damage in particular regions or tissues on brain development as a whole has not been elucidated. Methods: We delivered whole-brain or focal radiation (8 Gy single dose) to infant mice. Focal treatments targeted white matter (anterior commissure), neuronal (olfactory bulbs), or neurogenic (subventricular zone) regions...
November 2, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228020/transplantation-of-canine-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-producing-chondroitinase-abc-promotes-chondroitin-sulphate-proteoglycan-digestion-and-axonal-sprouting-following-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Darren Carwardine, Jonathan Prager, Jacob Neeves, Elizabeth M Muir, James Uney, Nicolas Granger, Liang-Fong Wong
Olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) transplantation is a promising strategy for treating spinal cord injury (SCI), as has been demonstrated in experimental SCI models and naturally occurring SCI in dogs. However, the presence of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans within the extracellular matrix of the glial scar can inhibit efficient axonal repair and limit the therapeutic potential of OECs. Here we have used lentiviral vectors to genetically modify canine OECs to continuously deliver mammalian chondroitinase ABC at the lesion site in order to degrade the inhibitory chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans in a rodent model of spinal cord injury...
2017: PloS One
keyword
keyword
13455
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"