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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474956/the-clock-gene-period-differentially-regulates-sleep-and-memory-in-drosophila
#1
Robin Fropf, Hong Zhou, Jerry C P Yin
Circadian regulation is a conserved phenomenon across the animal kingdom, and its disruption can have severe behavioral and physiological consequences. Core circadian clock proteins are likewise well conserved from Drosophila to humans. While the molecular clock interactions that regulate circadian rhythms have been extensively described, additional roles for clock genes during complex behaviors are less understood. Here, we show that mutations in the clock gene period result in differential time-of-day effects on acquisition and long-term memory of aversive olfactory conditioning...
February 20, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474516/nasal-structural-and-aerodynamic-features-that-may-benefit-normal-olfactory-sensitivity
#2
Chengyu Li, Jianbo Jiang, Kanghyun Kim, Bradley A Otto, Alexander A Farag, Beverly J Cowart, Edmund A Pribitkin, Pamela Dalton, Kai Zhao
Nasal airflow that effectively transports ambient odors to the olfactory receptors is important for human olfaction. Yet, the impact of nasal anatomical variations on airflow pattern and olfactory function are not fully understood. In this study, 22 healthy volunteers were recruited and underwent CT scans for computational simulations of nasal airflow patterns. Unilateral odor detection thresholds (ODT) to l-Carvone, phenylethyl alcohol (PEA) and d-Limonene were also obtained for all participants. Significant normative variations in both nasal anatomy and aerodynamics were found...
February 21, 2018: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474419/transcriptome-analysis-in-different-developmental-stages-of-batocera-horsfieldi-coleoptera-cerambycidae-and-comparison-of-candidate-olfactory-genes
#3
Hua Yang, Yan Cai, Zhihang Zhuo, Wei Yang, Chunping Yang, Jin Zhang, Yang Yang, Baoxin Wang, Fengrong Guan
The white-striped longhorn beetle Batocera horsfieldi (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a polyphagous wood-boring pest that causes substantial damage to the lumber industry. Moreover olfactory proteins are crucial components to function in related processes, but the B. horsfieldi genome is not readily available for olfactory proteins analysis. In the present study, developmental transcriptomes of larvae from the first instar to the prepupal stage, pupae, and adults (females and males) from emergence to mating were built by RNA sequencing to establish a genetic background that may help understand olfactory genes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473987/chemical-composition-of-glandular-secretions-from-a-pair-living-monogamous-primate-sex-age-and-gland-differences-in-captive-and-wild-owl-monkeys-aotus-spp
#4
Andrea Spence-Aizenberg, Bruce A Kimball, Lawrence E Williams, Eduardo Fernandez-Duque
Broadening our knowledge of olfactory communication in strictly monogamous systems can inform our understanding of how chemosignals may facilitate social and reproductive behavior between the sexes. Compared to other social and mating systems, relatively little is known about olfactory communication in strictly monogamous non-human primates. Furthermore, platyrrhines are not well represented in chemical analyses of glandular secretions. We conducted semi-quantitative headspace gas chromatography with mass spectrometry to investigate the chemical components of glandular secretions from the subcaudal and pectoral glands of a strictly pair-living platyrrhine, the owl monkey (Aotus spp...
February 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473541/a-kinase-dependent-feedforward-loop-affects-crebb-stability-and-long-term-memory-formation
#5
Pei-Tseng Lee, Guang Lin, Wen-Wen Lin, Fengqiu Diao, Benjamin H White, Hugo J Bellen
In Drosophila , long-term memory (LTM) requires the cAMP-dependent transcription factor CREBB, expressed in the mushroom bodies (MB) and phosphorylated by PKA. To identify other kinases required for memory formation, we integrated Trojan exons encoding T2A-GAL4 into genes encoding putative kinases and selected for genes expressed in MB. These lines were screened for learning/memory deficits using UAS-RNAi knockdown based on an olfactory aversive conditioning assay. We identified a novel, conserved kinase, Meng-Po ( MP , CG11221 , SBK1 in human), the loss of which severely affects 3 hr memory and 24 hr LTM, but not learning...
February 23, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473508/tolfenamic-acid-prevents-amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-olfactory-bulb-dysfunction-in-vivo
#6
Cornejo-Montes-de-Oca Jose Maria, Hernandez-Soto Rebeca, Isla G Arturo, C E Morado-Urbina, Pena-Ortega Fernando
Amyloid beta inhibits olfactory bulb function. The mechanisms involved in this effect must include alterations in network excitability, inflammation and the activation of different transduction pathways. Thus, here we tested whether tolfenamic acid, a drug that modulates several of these pathological processes, could prevent amyloid beta-induced olfactory bulb dysfunction. • Objective: To test whether tolfenamic acid prevents amyloid beta-induced alterations in olfactory bulb network function, olfaction and GSK3β activity...
February 22, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473152/white-matter-spongiosis-with-vigabatrin-therapy-for-infantile-spasms
#7
Phillip L Pearl, Annapurna Poduri, Sanjay P Prabhu, Chellamani Harini, Richard Goldstein, Richard M Atkinson, Dawna Armstrong, Hannah Kinney
The histopathology, "white matter spongiosis," defined by electron microscopy (EM) as "intramyelinic edema," has been associated with vigabatrin therapy in various animal models, but its role or significance in clinical studies is unknown. We conducted a neuropathological examination on a 27-month-old boy with bilateral polymicrogyria and epilepsy after sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). The patient was initiated on vigabatrin at 4 months of age, which controlled infantile spasms, and was continued as maintenance therapy...
February 23, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472565/endogenous-insensitivity-to-the-orco-agonist-vuaa1-reveals-novel-olfactory-receptor-complex-properties-in-the-specialist-fly-mayetiola-destructor
#8
Jacob A Corcoran, Yonathan Sonntag, Martin N Andersson, Urban Johanson, Christer Löfstedt
Insect olfactory receptors are routinely expressed in heterologous systems for functional characterisation. It was recently discovered that the essential olfactory receptor co-receptor (Orco) of the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Mdes), does not respond to the agonist VUAA1, which activates Orco in all other insects analysed to date. Here, using a mutagenesis-based approach we identified three residues in MdesOrco, located in different transmembrane helices as supported by 3D modelling, that confer sensitivity to VUAA1...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471922/approach-bias-modification-for-cannabis-use-disorder-a-proof-of-principle-study
#9
Brian J Sherman, Nathaniel L Baker, Lindsay M Squeglia, Aimee L McRae-Clark
BACKGROUND: More effective treatments for cannabis use disorder (CUD) are needed. Evidence suggests that biases in cognitive processing of drug-related stimuli are central to the development and maintenance of addiction. The current study examined the feasibility and effect of a novel intervention - approach bias modification (ApBM) - on cannabis approach bias and cue-reactivity. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled proof-of-principle laboratory experiment investigated the effect of a four-session computerized ApBM training protocol on cannabis approach bias and cue-reactivity in non-treatment seeking adults age 18-65 with CUD (N = 33)...
April 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471869/type-2-diabetes-impairs-odour-detection-olfactory-memory-and-olfactory-neuroplasticity-effects-partly-reversed-by-the-dpp-4-inhibitor-linagliptin
#10
Grazyna Lietzau, William Davidsson, Claes-Göran Östenson, Fausto Chiazza, David Nathanson, Hiranya Pintana, Josefin Skogsberg, Thomas Klein, Thomas Nyström, Vladimer Darsalia, Cesare Patrone
Recent data suggest that olfactory deficits could represent an early marker and a pathogenic mechanism at the basis of cognitive decline in type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, research is needed to further characterize olfactory deficits in diabetes, their relation to cognitive decline and underlying mechanisms.The aim of this study was to determine whether T2D impairs odour detection, olfactory memory as well as neuroplasticity in two major brain areas responsible for olfaction and odour coding: the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and the piriform cortex (PC), respectively...
February 23, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471842/toxoplasma-gondii-alters-nmdar-signaling-and-induces-signs-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-wild-type-c57bl-6-mice
#11
Luisa Torres, Sudie-Ann Robinson, Do-Geun Kim, Angela Yan, Thomas A Cleland, Margaret S Bynoe
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with cognitive decline and complete loss of basic functions. The ubiquitous apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infects up to one third of the world's population and is implicated in AD. METHODS: We infected C57BL/6 wild-type male and female mice with 10 T. gondii ME49 cysts and assessed whether infection led to behavioral and anatomical effects using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, Western blotting, cell culture assays, as well as an array of mouse behavior tests...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470631/flavor-perception-and-the-risk-of-malnutrition-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Dareia S Roos, Oscar J M Oranje, Anneleen F D Freriksen, Henk W Berendse, Sanne Boesveldt
Flavor perception involves both olfactory and gustatory function. In patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), hyposmia is a frequent finding, as well as an increased risk of malnutrition. We performed a pilot study to investigate the relationship between flavor perception and risk of malnutrition in PD patients. 63 PD patients participated to perform an olfactory (Sniffin' Sticks) and gustatory (Taste Strips) task, and a questionnaire to establish nutritional risk (MUST), which includes BMI measurements. The relationship between olfactory and gustatory function and BMI was analyzed using partial correlations, corrected for disease duration, and regression analysis...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470551/tph2-female-mice-restore-socio-sexual-recognition-through-upregulating-er%C3%AE-and-otr-genes-in-the-amygdala
#13
Ying Huo, Yaohua Zhang, Huifen Guo, Yingjuan Liu, Qi Fang, Jianxu Zhang
The central 5-hydroxytryptamine system impairs sociosexual behaviors and olfaction preferences in sexually naive mice. However, it remains unknown whether reproductive experiences impart an effect on the sexual olfactory preferences of female mice lacking central serotonin. Here, we aimed at examining such effects and the underlying mechanisms using Tph2 knockout female mice. Sexually naive Tph2-/- female mice failed to recognize olfactory cues regarding sex, genetic relatedness, and social hierarchy despite exhibiting normal olfactory discrimination...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468384/redirection-of-neuroblast-migration-from-the-rostral-migratory-stream-into-a-lesion-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-adult-rats
#14
Jannis Gundelach, Michael Koch
Clinical treatment of structural brain damage today is largely limited to symptomatic approaches and the avoidance of secondary injury. However, neuronal precursor cells are constantly produced within specified regions of the mammalian brain throughout life. Here we evaluate the potential of the known chemoattractive properties of the glycoprotein laminin on neuroblasts to relocate the cells into damaged brain areas. Injection of a thin laminin tract, leading from the rostral migratory stream to an excitotoxic lesion within the medial prefrontal cortex of rats, enabled neuroblasts to migrate away from their physiological route towards the olfactory bulb into the lesion site...
February 21, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467284/adult-born-neurons-boost-odor-reward-association
#15
Anne Grelat, Laura Benoit, Sébastien Wagner, Carine Moigneu, Pierre-Marie Lledo, Mariana Alonso
Olfaction is an important sensory modality driving fundamental behaviors. During odor-dependent learning, a positive value is commonly assigned to an odorant, and multiple forms of plasticity are involved when such odor-reward associations are formed. In rodents, one of the mechanisms underlying plasticity in the olfactory bulb consists in recruiting new neurons daily throughout life. However, it is still unknown whether adult-born neurons might participate in encoding odor value. Here, we demonstrate that exposure to reward-associated odors specifically increases activity of adult-born neurons but not preexisting neurons...
February 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466358/cycle-specific-female-preferences-for-visual-and-non-visual-cues-in-the-horse-equus-caballus
#16
Dominik Burger, Charles Meuwly, Selina Thomas, Harald Sieme, Michael Oberthür, Claus Wedekind, Sabine Meinecke-Tillmann
Although female preferences are well studied in many mammals, the possible effects of the oestrous cycle are not yet sufficiently understood. Here we investigate female preferences for visual and non-visual male traits relative to the periodically cycling of sexual proceptivity (oestrus) and inactivity (dioestrus), respectively, in the polygynous horse (Equus caballus). We individually exposed mares to stallions in four experimental situations: (i) mares in oestrus and visual contact to stallions allowed, (ii) mares in oestrus, with blinds (wooden partitions preventing visual contact but allowing for acoustic and olfactory communication), (iii) mares in dioestrus, no blinds, and (iv) mares in dioestrus, with blinds...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466015/mating-induced-differential-peptidomics-of-neuropeptides-and-protein-hormones-in-agrotis-ipsilon-moths
#17
Max Diesner, Aurore Gallot, Hellena Binz, Cyril Gaertner, Simon Vitecek, Jörg Kahnt, Joachim Schachtner, Emmanuelle Jacquin-Joly, Christophe Gadenne
In many insects, mating induces drastic changes in male and female responses to sex pheromones or host-plant odors. In the male moth Agrotis ipsilon mating induces a transient inhibition of behavioral and neuronal responses to the female sex pheromone. As neuropeptides and peptide hormones regulate most behavioral processes, we hypothesize that they could be involved in this mating-dependent olfactory plasticity. Here we used next-generation RNA sequencing and a combination of liquid chromatography, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and direct tissue profiling to analyze the transcriptome and peptidome of different brain compartments in virgin and mated males and females of A...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465786/subpopulations-of-vomeronasal-sensory-neurons-with-coordinated-coexpression-of-type-2-vomeronasal-receptor-genes-are-differentially-dependent-on-vmn2r1
#18
Sachiko Akiyoshi, Tomohiro Ishii, Zhaodai Bai, Peter Mombaerts
The mouse vomeronasal organ is specialized in the detection of pheromones. Vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) express chemosensory receptors of two large gene repertoires, V1R and V2R, which encode G-protein coupled receptors. Phylogenetically four families of V2R genes can be discerned: A, B, C, and D. VSNs located in the basal layer of the vomeronasal epithelium coordinately coexpress V2R genes from two families: approximately half of basal VSNs coexpress Vmn2r1 of family C with a single V2R gene of family A8-10, B, or D ("C1 type of V2Rs"), and the other half coexpress Vmn2r2 through Vmn2r7 of family C with a single V2R gene of family A1-6 ("C2 type V2Rs")...
February 21, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464272/quantification-of-organic-solvents-in-aquatic-toys-and-swimming-learning-devices-and-evaluation-of-their-influence-on-the-smell-properties-of-the-corresponding-products
#19
Christoph Wiedmer, Andrea Buettner
Based on the observation that the characteristic odour of inflatable aquatic toys for children is predominantly caused by residues of hazardous organic solvents, the concentrations of cyclohexanone, isophorone and phenol were determined in a selection of 20 products obtained from online suppliers located in Germany. Analytes were extracted with dichloromethane after the addition of non-labelled internal standards, and the volatile fraction was isolated using solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE). Extracts were then concentrated by Vigreux distillation and analysed by means of gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS)...
February 20, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463250/grey-matter-volume-in-healthy-and-epileptic-beagles-using-voxel-based-morphometry-a-pilot-study
#20
Lisa Frank, Matthias Lüpke, Draginja Kostic, Wolfgang Löscher, Andrea Tipold
BACKGROUND: One of the most common chronic neurological disorders in dogs is idiopathic epilepsy (IE) diagnosed as epilepsy without structural changes in the brain. In the current study the hypothesis should be proven that subtle grey matter changes occur in epileptic dogs. Therefore, magnetic resonance (MR) images of one dog breed (Beagles) were used to obtain an approximately uniform brain shape. Local differences in grey matter volume (GMV) were compared between 5 healthy Beagles and 10 Beagles with spontaneously recurrent seizures (5 dogs with IE and 5 dogs with structural epilepsy (SE)), using voxel-based morphometry (VBM)...
February 20, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
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