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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035509/positron-emission-tomography-assessment-of-the-intranasal-delivery-route-for-orexin-a
#1
Genevieve C Van de Bittner, Kyle C Van de Bittner, Hsiao-Ying Wey, Wayne Rowe, Ramalinga Dharanipragada, Xiaoyou Ying, William Hurst, Andrew Giovanni, Kim Alving, Anurag Gupta, John Hoekman, Jacob M Hooker
Intranasal drug delivery is a non-invasive drug delivery route that can enhance systemic delivery of therapeutics with poor oral bioavailability by exploiting the rich microvasculature within the nasal cavity. The intranasal delivery route has also been targeted as a method for improved brain uptake of neurotherapeutics, with a goal of harnessing putative, direct nose-to-brain pathways. Studies in rodents, non-human primates and humans have pointed to the efficacy of intranasally delivered neurotherapeutics, while radiolabeling studies have analyzed brain uptake following intranasal administration...
October 16, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034836/nanomedicine-for-intranasal-delivery-to-improve-brain-uptake
#2
Amit A Patel, Ravish J Patel, Shachi R Patel
Intranasal drug delivery system provide distinct advantage over conventional drug delivery system for a drug that is pharmacokenetically or biologically unstable. Major concern for treatment of central nervous system diseases are law concentration of therapeutically active molecule within brain as blood brain barrier is creating obstacle, where intranasal drug delivery provides direct transport of therapeutically active moiety into brain via olfactory or trigeminal pathway. Nasal mucosa provides distinct advantage like improved bioavailability, law dose and quick onset of action and high patient compliance, major disadvantage is residence time of drug and irreversible entrapment of drug...
October 13, 2017: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034089/more-than-meets-the-ir-the-expanding-roles-of-variant-ionotropic-glutamate-receptors-in-sensing-odor-taste-temperature-and-moisture
#3
REVIEW
Lena van Giesen, Paul A Garrity
The ionotropic receptors (IRs) are a branch of the ionotropic glutamate receptor family and serve as important mediators of sensory transduction in invertebrates. Recent work shows that, though initially studied as olfactory receptors, the IRs also mediate the detection of taste, temperature, and humidity. Here, we summarize recent insights into IR evolution and its potential ecological significance as well as recent advances in our understanding of how IRs contribute to diverse sensory modalities.
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033860/olfactory-functioning-and-depression-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Hannah Taalman, Caroline Wallace, Roumen Milev
BACKGROUND: Research has demonstrated a reduction in olfactory functioning in patients with schizophrenia. This research has led to examination of olfactory functioning in other mental disorders, such as depression. There is a great deal of variation in the results generated from such research, and it remains unclear as to how olfactory functioning is associated with or impacted by depression. METHOD: The current review examined the literature in accordance with PRISMA guidelines in order to generate a better understanding of this relationship and to identify if and what aspects of olfactory processing are altered...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033795/cellular-mechanisms-of-cortisol-induced-changes-in-mauthner-cell-excitability-in-the-startle-circuit-of-goldfish
#5
Daniel R Bronson, Thomas Preuss
Predator pressure and olfactory cues (alarm substance) have been shown to modulate Mauthner cell (M-cell) initiated startle escape responses (C-starts) in teleost fish. The regulation of such adaptive responses to potential threats is thought to involve the release of steroid hormones such as cortisol. However, the mechanism by which cortisol may regulate M-cell excitability is not known. Here, we used intrasomatic, in vivo recordings to elucidate the acute effects of cortisol on M-cell membrane properties and sound evoked post-synaptic potentials (PSPs)...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033788/zinc-as-a-neuromodulator-in-the-central-nervous-system-with-a-focus-on-the-olfactory-bulb
#6
REVIEW
Laura J Blakemore, Paul Q Trombley
The olfactory bulb (OB) is central to the sense of smell, as it is the site of the first synaptic relay involved in the processing of odor information. Odor sensations are first transduced by olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) before being transmitted, by way of the OB, to higher olfactory centers that mediate olfactory discrimination and perception. Zinc is a common trace element, and it is highly concentrated in the synaptic vesicles of subsets of glutamatergic neurons in some brain regions including the hippocampus and OB...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032895/cardiac-sympathetic-denervation-predicts-pd-in-at-risk-individuals
#7
David S Goldstein, Courtney Holmes, Grisel J Lopez, Tianxia Wu, Yehonatan Sharabi
INTRODUCTION: By the time a person develops the motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD), substantial loss of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons has already occurred. There is great interest in identifying biomarkers that can detect pre-clinical PD. Braak's neuropathological staging concept imputes early autonomic involvement. Here we report results from a small prospective cohort study about the utility of neuroimaging evidence of cardiac sympathetic denervation in predicting PD among individuals with multiple PD risk factors...
October 5, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032655/microglial-involvement-in-the-development-of-olfactory-dysfunction
#8
REVIEW
Yoojin Seo, Hyung-Sik Kim, Kyung-Sun Kang
Olfaction is one of the oldest and important senses for life. Olfactory impairment is the most common clinical manifestation among elderly, and its prevalence is sharply increased with aging. Importantly, growing evidence has shown that olfactory dysfunction is the first sign of neurodegeneration, indicating the importance of olfactory assessment as an early diagnostic marker for the detection of neurological disorders. In this review, we described the nature of olfactory dysfunction and the advantage of animal models in olfaction study with brief introduction of olfactory behavior tests widely used in this field...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031735/the-temporal-expression-profile-of-a-nos3-related-natural-antisense-rna-in-the-brain-suggests-a-possible-role-in-neurogenesis
#9
Gabriela G Chavez, Gabriella Taylor, Jekaterina Garaliene, Guy P Richardson, Sergei A Korneev
Experimental work over the past several years has revealed an unexpected abundance of long natural antisense transcripts (NATs) in eukaryotic species. In light of the proposed role of such RNA molecules in the regulation of gene expression in the brain, attention is now focused on specific examples of neuronal NATs. Of particular interest are NATs that are complementary to mRNAs encoding nitric oxide synthase (NOS), the enzyme responsible for production of the important gaseous neurotransmitter nitric oxide (NO)...
October 12, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031549/assessment-of-social-behavior-directed-toward-sick-partners-and-its-relation-to-central-cytokine-expression-in-rats
#10
Eduardo Kenji Hamasato, Dennis Lovelock, João Palermo-Neto, Terrence Deak
Acute illness not only reduces the expression of social behavior by sick rodents, but can also lead to avoidance responses when detected by healthy, would-be social partners. When healthy animals interact with a sick partner, an intriguing question arises: does exposure to a sick conspecific elicit an anticipatory immune response that would facilitate defense against future infection? To address this question, healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (N=64) were given a brief social interaction (30min) with a partner that was either sick (250μg/kg injection with lipopolysaccharide [LPS] 3h prior to test) or healthy (sterile saline injection)...
October 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031530/human-torque-is-not-present-in-chimpanzee-brain
#11
X Li, T J Crow, W D Hopkins, Q Gong, N Roberts
We searched for positional brain surface asymmetries measured as displacements between corresponding vertex pairs in relation to a mid-sagittal plane in Magnetic Resonance (MR) images of the brains of 223 humans and 70 chimpanzees. In humans deviations from symmetry were observed: 1) a Torque pattern comprising right-frontal and left-occipital "petalia" together with downward and rightward "bending" of the occipital extremity, 2) leftward displacement of the anterior temporal lobe and superior temporal sulcus (STS), and 3) posteriorly in the position of left occipito-temporal surface accompanied by a clockwise rotation of the left Sylvian Fissure around the left-right axis...
October 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030885/phylogenetic-distribution-of-a-male-pheromone-that-may-exploit-a-nonsexual-preference-in-lampreys
#12
Tyler J Buchinger, Ugo Bussy, Ke Li, Huiyong Wang, Mar Huertas, Cindy F Baker, Liang Jia, Michael C Hayes, Weiming Li, Nicholas S Johnson
Pheromones are among the most important sexual signals used by organisms throughout the animal kingdom. However, few are identified in vertebrates, leaving the evolutionary mechanisms underlying vertebrate pheromones poorly understood. Pre-existing biases in receivers' perceptual systems shape visual and auditory signaling systems, but studies on how receiver biases influence the evolution of pheromone communication remain sparse. The lamprey Petromyzon marinus uses a relatively well-understood suite of pheromones and offers a unique opportunity to study the evolution of vertebrate pheromone communication...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029324/cadmium-exposure-impairs-cognition-and-olfactory-memory-in-male-c57bl-6-mice
#13
Hao Wang, Liang Zhang, Glen M Abel, Daniel R Storm, Zhengui Xia
Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal of high interest to the Superfund Initiative. Recent epidemiology studies have suggested a possible association between Cd exposure and cognitive as well as olfactory impairments in humans. However, studies in animal models are needed to establish a direct causal relationship between Cd exposure and impairments in cognition and olfaction. This study aims to investigate the toxic effect of Cd on cognition and olfactory function in mice. One group of 8-week old C57BL/6 male mice was exposed to 3 mg/L Cd (in the form of CdCl2) through drinking water for 20 weeks for behavior tests and final blood Cd concentration analysis...
September 25, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028975/comparative-responses-of-rhagoletis-zephyria-and-rhagoletis-pomonella-diptera-tephritidae-to-commercial-and-experimental-sticky-traps-and-odors-in-washington-state
#14
Wee L Yee, Robert B Goughnour, Jeffrey L Feder, Charles E Linn, Dong H Cha
Rhagoletis zephyria Snow and Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are morphologically similar flies that attack white-colored snowberry fruit (Symphoricarpos spp.) and yellow/red or dark-colored apple/hawthorn fruit (Malus/Crataegus spp.), respectively. The two flies are caught together on traps in R. pomonella surveys in the western United States, increasing labor needed to process catches. Comparing responses of the two species with different traps could help identify best practices for reducing R...
September 23, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027463/machine-learning-based-olfactometer-prediction-of-odor-perception-from-physicochemical-features-of-odorant-molecules
#15
Liang Shang, Chuanjun Liu, Yoichi Tomiura, Kenshi Hayashi
Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) has been used in various fields as a valuable method to identify odor-active components from a complex mixture. Since human assessors are employed as a detector to obtain the olfactory perception of separated odorants, the GC-O technique is limited by its subjectivity, variability, and high cost of the trained panelist. Here, we present a proof-of-concept model by which odor information can be obtained by machine-learning based prediction from molecular parameters (MPs) of odorant molecules...
October 13, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026857/repellency-effect-of-essential-oils-of-some-native-plants-and-synthetic-repellents-against-human-flea-pulex-irritans-siphonaptera-pulicidae
#16
Mohammad Bagher Ghavami, Fahimeh Poorrastgoo, Behrooz Taghiloo, Jamshid Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: Fleas are important vectors of human and animal disease, and control measures for protection against their bites and flea-borne diseases are necessary. METHODS: The essential oils (EOs) of four native medicinal plants, Ziziphora tenuiore, Myrtus communis, Achillea wilhelmsii and Mentha piperita were isolated by hydrodistillation technique and analyzed by GC-MC. The repellent activity of EOs and synthetic compounds, DEET and permethrin, were assayed on human subjects against field collected fleas...
March 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026097/chemosensing-of-honeybee-parasite-varroa-destructor-transcriptomic-analysis
#17
Nurit Eliash, Nitin K Singh, Starlin Thangarajan, Noa Sela, Dena Leshkowitz, Yosi Kamer, Ilia Zaidman, Ada Rafaeli, Victoria Soroker
Chemosensing is a primary sense in nature, however little is known about its mechanism in Chelicerata. As a model organism we used the mite Varroa destructor, a key parasite of honeybees. Here we describe a transcriptomic analysis of two physiological stages for the Varroa foreleg, the site of primary olfactory organ. The transcriptomic analysis revealed transcripts of chemosensory related genes belonging to several groups. These include Niemann-Pick disease protein, type C2 (NPC2), gustatory receptors (GRs), ionotropic receptors (IRs), sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) and odorant binding proteins (OBP)...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026079/a-long-range-cis-regulatory-element-for-class-i-odorant-receptor-genes
#18
Tetsuo Iwata, Yoshihito Niimura, Chizuru Kobayashi, Daichi Shirakawa, Hikoyu Suzuki, Takayuki Enomoto, Kazushige Touhara, Yoshihiro Yoshihara, Junji Hirota
Individual olfactory sensory neurons express a single odorant receptor gene from either class I genes residing in a single cluster on a single chromosome or class II genes spread over multiple clusters on multiple chromosomes. Here, we identify an enhancer element for mouse class I genes, the J element, that is conserved through mammalian species from the platypus to humans. The J element regulates most class I genes expression by exerting an effect over ~ 3 megabases within the whole cluster. Deletion of the trans J element increases the expression frequencies of class I genes from the intact J allele, indicating that the allelic exclusion of class I genes depends on the activity of the J element...
October 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025782/olfactory-bulb-agenesis-with-normal-sexual-hormones
#19
Prayuth Tunsuriyawong, Krit Pongpirul, Tagann Chaisam, Petpring Prajuabpansri
An 18-year-old Caucasian man presented with a lack of sense of surrounding smell. The problem was first noticed when a family member discussed the smell of the food, which he had no idea what it was. The patient had normal development and sexual function, no history of trauma, surgery, chemical exposure or infection. Physical examination revealed no significant abnormalities. Smell threshold test using phenyl-ethyl-alcohol revealed bilateral anosmia. MRI showed bilateral aplastic olfactory bulbs and tracts associated with absent cortical growth of the olfactory sulci and asymmetrical gyrus rectus...
October 11, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024727/interspecific-comparison-of-mushroom-body-synaptic-complexes-of-dimorphic-workers-in-the-ant-genus-pheidole
#20
Darcy G Gordon, Alejandra Zelaya, Katherine Ronk, James F A Traniello
Social insects may have morphologically and behaviorally specialized workers that vary in requirements for sensory information processing, making them excellent systems to examine the relationship between brain structure and behavior. The density and size of synaptic complexes (microglomeruli, MG) in the mushroom bodies (MB) have served as proxies for processing ability and synaptic plasticity have been shown to vary among insect species that differ in behavioral complexity. To understand the relationship between behavioral specialization and synaptic structure, we examined age-related changes in MG density and size between minor worker and soldier subcastes in two species of Pheidole ants, P...
October 9, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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