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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667127/bilateral-olfactory-mucosa-damage-induces-the-disappearance-of-olfactory-glomerulus-and-reduces-the-expression-of-extrasynaptic-%C3%AE-5gaba-a-rs-in-the-hippocampus-in-early-postnatal-sprague-dawley-rats
#1
Xiaomin Zheng, Liang Liang, Changchun Hei, Wenjuan Yang, Tingyuan Zhang, Kai Wu, Yi Qin, Qing Chang
Chloroform-induced olfactory mucosal degeneration has been reported in adult rats following gavage. We used fixed-point chloroform infusions on different postnatal days (PNDs) to investigate the effects of early olfactory bilateral deprivation on the main olfactory bulbs in Sprague Dawley rats. The experimental groups included rats infused with chloroform (5 μl) or saline (sham, 5 μl) on PNDs 3 and 8, and rats not receiving infusions (control) (n = 6 in all groups). Rats receiving chloroform on PND 3 showed significant hypoevolutism when compared to those in other groups (P < 0...
April 17, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666586/ecological-and-phylogenetic-relationships-shape-the-peripheral-olfactory-systems-of-highly-specialized-gall-midges-cecidomiiydae
#2
Béla P Molnár, Tina Boddum, Sharon R Hill, Bill S Hansson, Ylva Hillbur, Göran Birgersson
Insects use sensitive olfactory systems to detect relevant host volatiles and avoid unsuitable hosts in a complex environmental odor landscape. Insects with short lifespans, such as gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), are under strong selection pressure to detect and locate suitable hosts for their offspring in a short period of time. Ephemeral gall midges constitute excellent models for investigating the role of olfaction in host choice, host shift, and speciation. Midges mate near their site of emergence and females migrate in order to locate hosts for oviposition, thus females are expected to be more responsive to olfactory cues emitted by the host compared to males...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666581/sex-and-tissue-specific-expression-profiles-of-odorant-binding-protein-and-chemosensory-protein-genes-in-bradysia-odoriphaga-diptera-sciaridae
#3
Yunhe Zhao, Jinfeng Ding, Zhengqun Zhang, Feng Liu, Chenggang Zhou, Wei Mu
Bradysia odoriphaga is an agricultural pest insect affecting the production of Chinese chive and other liliaceous vegetables in China, and it is significantly attracted by sex pheromones and the volatiles derived from host plants. Despite verification of this chemosensory behavior, however, it is still unknown how B. odoriphaga recognizes these volatile compounds on the molecular level. Many of odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) play crucial roles in olfactory perception. Here, we identified 49 OBP and 5 CSP genes from the antennae and body transcriptomes of female and male adults of B...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666369/lithium-associated-transcriptional-regulation-of-crmp1-in-patient-derived-olfactory-neurons-and-symptom-changes-in-bipolar-disorder
#4
Charlee K McLean, Soumya Narayan, Sandra Y Lin, Narayan Rai, Youjin Chung, MariaMananita S Hipolito, Nicola G Cascella, John I Nurnberger, Koko Ishizuka, Akira S Sawa, Evaristus A Nwulia
There is growing evidence that lithium used in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD) affects molecular targets that are involved in neuronal growth, survival, and maturation, but it remains unclear if neuronal alterations in any of these molecules predict specific symptom changes in BD patients undergoing lithium monotherapy. The goals of this study were to (a) determine which molecular changes in the olfactory neurons of symptomatic patients receiving lithium are associated with antimanic or antidepressant response, and (b) uncover novel intraneuronal regulatory mechanisms of lithium therapy...
April 18, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665880/post-operative-course-prediction-during-endoscopic-sinus-surgery-in-patients-with-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#5
K Tsuzuki, K Hashimoto, K Okazaki, M Sakagami
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyse findings of functional endoscopic sinus surgery to estimate the post-operative course of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. METHODS: From 2007 to 2015, 291 adult patients with bilateral chronic rhinosinusitis, divided into eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (n = 210) and non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (n = 81) groups, who underwent primary functional endoscopic sinus surgery were enrolled. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery findings, scored as operating score, were analysed in relation to pre-operative olfactory recognition threshold and sinonasal computed tomography imaging score, as well as post-operative endoscopic appearance...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665679/can-the-electron-accepting-properties-of-odorants-be-involved-in-their-recognition-by-the-olfactory-system
#6
Stanislav Anatolievich Pshenichnyuk, Rustam Rakhmeyev, Nail Asfandiarov, Alexei S Komolov, Alberto Modelli, Derek Jones
The present study examines the possible importance of the electron-accepting properties of odorant molecules and, in particular, the formation and decay of temporary negative ions via low-energy electron attachment, as a possible contribution towards understanding odorant recognition by olfactory receptors (OR). Fragments formed by dissociative electron attachment (DEA) of mustard oil odorants represented by a series of isothiocyanates are studied experimentally using DEA spectroscopy and DFT calculations. Relative intensities for the most abundant fragment species, S- and SCN-, are found to be characteristic for structurally similar odorants under investigation...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665379/superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-loaded-lipid-nanocarriers-incorporated-in-thermosensitive-in-situ-gel-for-magnetic-brain-targeting-of-clonazepam
#7
Haidy Abbas, Hanan Refai, Nesrine El Sayed
The objective of the study was to target clonazepam (CZ) to the brain through the intranasal olfactory mucosa using nanolipid carriers loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) to allow nanocarrier guidance and retention with an external magnetic field. For improved delivery the nanolipid carriers were incorporated in a thermosensitive mucoadhesive in situ gel. Different nanolipid carriers including solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) were prepared and characterized with respect to particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and in vitro release...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665005/myelination-of-the-developing-lateral-olfactory-tract-and-anterior-commissure
#8
L N Collins, D L Hill, P C Brunjes
Both the lateral olfactory tract (LOT) and anterior limb of the anterior commissure (AC) carry olfactory information. The LOT forms the projection from the olfactory bulb to the ipsilateral olfactory cortices, while the AC carries odor information across the midline to the contralateral olfactory cortex and bulb. The LOT and AC differ on a number of dimensions, including early development and functional onset. The present work, examining their myelination in mice, reveals additional important differences. For example, the LOT initiates myelination 3-4 days earlier than the AC, evidenced by both an earlier increase in myelin basic protein staining seen with immunohistochemistry and an earlier appearance of myelinated fibers using electron microscopy...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664936/olfactory-dysfunction-as-a-prognostic-marker-for-disability-progression-in-multiple-sclerosis-an-olfactory-event-related-potential-study
#9
Rosella Ciurleo, Lilla Bonanno, Simona De Salvo, Laura Romeo, Carmela Rifici, Edoardo Sessa, Giangaetano D'Aleo, Margherita Russo, Placido Bramanti, Silvia Marino, Fabrizia Caminiti
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease and one of the leading causes of disability in young adults. Functional markers able to predict MS progression are still lacking. It is recognized that olfactory dysfunction may be an early symptom in MS. The aim of this study was to investigate whether alterations in olfactory event-related potentials could play a prognostic role in MS. Thirty patients affected by MS relapsing-remitting underwent an olfactory potential examination (T0). Three years after baseline (T1), 28 of 30 patients were clinically evaluated by expanded disability status scale...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664186/notch-signaling-regulates-lgr5-olfactory-epithelium-progenitor-stem-cell-turnover-and-mediates-recovery-of-lesioned-olfactory-epithelium-in-mouse-model
#10
Qi Dai, Chen Duan, Wenwen Ren, Fangqi Li, Qian Zheng, Li Wang, Wenyan Li, Xiaoling Lu, Wenli Ni, Yanping Zhang, Yan Chen, Tieqiao Wen, Yiqun Yu, Hongmeng Yu
The Notch signaling pathway regulates stem cell proliferation and differentiation in multiple tissues and organs, and is required for tissue maintenance. However, the role of Notch in regulation of olfactory epithelium (OE) progenitor/stem cells to maintain tissue function is still not clear. A recent study reported that leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) is expressed in globose basal cells (GBCs) localized in OE. Through lineage tracing in vivo, we found that Lgr5+ cells act as progenitor/stem cells in OE...
April 17, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664058/relationships-between-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-clinical-assessments-biomarkers-and-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Min Li, Li Wang, Jiang-Hong Liu, Shu-Qin Zhan
Objective: Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment and loss of muscle atonia during rapid eye movement sleep. RBD is closely related to α-synucleinopathies including Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. Many studies have investigated the markers of imaging and neurophysiological, genetic, cognitive, autonomic function of RBD and their predictive value for neurodegenerative diseases. This report reviewed the progress of these studies and discussed their limitations and future research directions...
April 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663690/cranial-pair-0-the-nervus-terminalis
#12
Angel Peña-Melian, Juan Pablo Cabello-de la Rosa, Maria Jose Gallardo-Alcañiz, Julia Vaamonde-Gamo, Fernanda Relea-Calatayud, Lucia Gonzalez-Lopez, Patricia Villanueva-Anguita, Alicia Flores-Cuadrado, Daniel Saiz-Sanchez, Alino Martinez-Marcos
Originally discovered in elasmobranchs by Fritsh in 1878, the nervus terminalis has been found in virtually all species, including humans. After more than one-century debate on its nomenclature, it is nowadays recognized as cranial pair zero. The nerve mostly originates in the olfactory placode, although neural crest contribution has been also proposed. Developmentally, the nervus terminalis is clearly observed in human embryos; subsequently, during the fetal period loses some of its ganglion cells, and it is less recognizable in adults...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663684/adult-neurogenesis-in-the-central-olfactory-pathway-of-dendrobranchiate-and-caridean-shrimps-new-insights-into-the-evolution-of-the-deutocerebral-proliferative-system-in-reptant-decapods
#13
Christin Wittfoth, Steffen Harzsch
Persistent neurogenesis in the central olfactory pathway characterizes many reptant decapods such as lobsters, crayfish and crabs. In these animals, the deutocerebral proliferative system generates new neurons which integrate into the neuronal network of the first order processing neuropil of the olfactory system, the deutocerebral chemosensory lobes (also called olfactory lobes). However, differences concerning the phenotype and the mechanisms that drive adult neurogenesis were reported in crayfish versus spiny lobsters...
April 16, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663010/septo-optic-dysplasia-assessment-of-associated-findings-with-special-attention-to-the-olfactory-sulci-and-tracts
#14
John C Benson, David Nascene, Charles Truwit, Alexander M McKinney
PURPOSE: Septo-optic dysplasia is a congenital disorder consisting of optic nerve hypoplasia and absent septum pellucidum. While associated anomalies have been described, olfactory sulcus and bulb-tract hypoplasia have been scantily reported and was the focus of this study. METHODS: The picture archival and communications system and radiology information system (PACS-RIS) was searched over 15 years for patients with suspected septo-optic dysplasia (n = 41) and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662070/systemic-and-sex-biased-regulation-of-obp-expression-under-semiochemical-stimuli
#15
Débora Pires Paula, Roberto Coiti Togawa, Marcos Mota do Carmo Costa, Priscila Grynberg, Natália Florêncio Martins, David Alan Andow
Constitutive expression of Odorant-Binding Proteins (OBPs) in antennae and other body parts has been examined mainly to infer their involvement in insect olfaction, while their regulation in response to semiochemical stimuli has remained poorly known. Previous studies of semiochemical response were basically done using electrophysiology, which integrates the response of the set of OBPs present in an antenna or sensillum, without revealing the regulation of OBPs or which ones might be involved. In this study we used boll weevil as a model and mined its OBPs by RNA-Seq to study their simultaneous antennal expression by qPCR under controlled semiochemical stimuli with aggregation pheromone and plant volatiles...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661967/detachment-of-chain-forming-neuroblasts-by-fyn-mediated-control-of-cell-cell-adhesion-in-the-postnatal-brain
#16
Kazuma Fujikake, Masato Sawada, Takao Hikita, Yayoi Seto, Naoko Kaneko, Vicente Herranz-Pérez, Natsuki Dohi, Natsumi Homma, Satoshi Osaga, Yuchio Yanagawa, Toshihiro Akaike, Jose Manuel García-Verdugo, Mitsuharu Hattori, Kazuya Sobue, Kazunobu Sawamoto
In the rodent olfactory system, neuroblasts produced in the ventricular-subventricular zone of the postnatal brain migrate tangentially in chain-like cell aggregates toward the olfactory bulb (OB) through the rostral migratory stream (RMS). After reaching the OB, the chains are dissociated and the neuroblasts migrate individually and radially toward their final destination. The cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling cell-cell adhesion during this detachment remain unclear. Here we report that Fyn, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, regulates the detachment of neuroblasts from chains in the male and female mouse OB...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661885/the-long-non-coding-rna-paupar-promotes-kap1-dependent-chromatin-changes-and-regulates-olfactory-bulb-neurogenesis
#17
Ioanna Pavlaki, Farah Alammari, Bin Sun, Neil Clark, Tamara Sirey, Sheena Lee, Dan J Woodcock, Chris P Ponting, Francis G Szele, Keith W Vance
Many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are expressed during central nervous system (CNS) development, yet their in vivo roles and mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Paupar , a CNS-expressed lncRNA, controls neuroblastoma cell growth by binding and modulating the activity of transcriptional regulatory elements in a genome-wide manner. We show here that the Paupar lncRNA directly binds KAP1, an essential epigenetic regulatory protein, and thereby regulates the expression of shared target genes important for proliferation and neuronal differentiation...
April 16, 2018: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661832/kinase-activity-in-the-olfactory-bulb-is-required-for-odor-memory-consolidation
#18
Michelle T Tong, Tae-Young P Kim, Thomas A Cleland
Long-term fear memory formation in the hippocampus and neocortex depends upon brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling after acquisition. Incremental, appetitive odor discrimination learning is thought to depend substantially on the differentiation of adult-born neurons within the olfactory bulb (OB)-a process that is closely associated with BDNF signaling. We sought to elucidate the role of neurotrophin signaling within the OB on odor memory consolidation. Male mice were trained on odor-reward associative discriminations after bilateral infusion of the kinase inhibitor K252a, or vehicle control, into the OB...
May 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661611/nasal-polyposis-or-chronic-olfactory-rhinitis
#19
R Jankowski, C Rumeau, P Gallet, D T Nguyen
The concept of chronic rhinosinusitis with or without polyps is founded on the structural and functional unicity of the pituitary mucosa and its united response to environmental aggression by allergens, viruses, bacteria, pollution, etc. The present review sets this concept against the evo-devo three-nose theory, in which nasal polyposis is distinguished as specific to the olfactory nose and in particular to the non-olfactory mucosa of the ethmoid, which is considered to be not a sinus but rather the skull-base bone harboring the olfactory mucosa...
April 13, 2018: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660990/novel-radiographic-assessment-of-the-cribriform-plate
#20
Kimia G Ganjaei, Zachary M Soler, Elliott D Mappus, Robert J Taylor, Mitchell L Worley, Jennifer K Mulligan, Jose L Mattos, Nicholas R Rowan, Guilherme J M Garcia, Judy R Dubno, Mark A Eckert, Lois J Matthews, Rodney J Schlosser
Background The cribriform plate (CP) is a common site of spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (SCSF) leaks. Radiographic assessment of the anterior and lateral skull base has shown thinner bone in patients with SCSFs; however, prior assessment of the CP has required postmortem cadaver dissection. Objective To develop novel radiographic techniques to assess the anatomy of the CP. Methods Computed tomography (CT) scans were performed on cadaveric specimens. Bone density and anatomy of a predefined volume of interest of the posterior CP were assessed by two independent reviewers...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
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