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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345616/inhibition-of-oxidative-stress-in-cholinergic-projection-neurons-fully-rescues-aging-associated-olfactory-circuit-degeneration-in-drosophila
#1
Ashiq Hussain, Atefeh Pooryasin, Mo Zhang, Laura F Loschek, Marco La Fortezza, Anja B Friedrich, Catherine-Marie Blais, Habibe K Üçpunar, Vicente A Yépez, Martin Lehmann, Nicolas Gompel, Julien Gagneur, Stephan J Sigrist, Ilona C Grunwald Kadow
Loss of the sense of smell is among the first signs of natural aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Cellular and molecular mechanisms promoting this smell loss are not understood. Here, we show that Drosophila melanogaster also loses olfaction before vision with age. Within the olfactory circuit, cholinergic projection neurons show a reduced odor response accompanied by a defect in axonal integrity and reduction in synaptic marker proteins. Using behavioral functional screening, we pinpoint that expression of the mitochondrial reactive oxygen scavenger SOD2 in cholinergic projection neurons is necessary and sufficient to prevent smell degeneration in aging flies...
January 18, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341791/population-level-evidence-for-seasonality-of-the-human-microbiome
#2
Christina Korownyk, Fangwei Liu, Scott Garrison
The objective of this study is to determine whether human body odors undergo seasonal modulation. We utilized google trends search volume from the United States of America from January 1, 2010 to June 24, 2017 for a number of predetermined body odors. Regression modeling of time series data was completed. Our primary outcome was to determine the proportion of the variability in Internet searches for each unpleasant odor (about the mean) that is explained by a seasonal model. We determined that the seasonal (sinusoidal) model provided a significantly better fit than the null model (best straight line fit) for all searches relating to human body odors (P <...
January 17, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333792/reduced-suprathreshold-odor-identification-in-patients-with-pseudotumor-cerebri-a-non-randomized-prospective-study
#3
Gad Dotan, Eyal Cohen, Ainat Klein, Anat Kesler
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that olfaction is impaired in patients with pseudotumor cerebri (PTC). OBJECTIVES: To measure suprathreshold olfactory function by using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), assessing its usefulness for routine clinical use. METHODS: Forty PTC patients underwent USPIT olfactory testing. RESULTS: Twenty-nine out of 40 (73%) PTC patients (36 women, 4 men; mean age 34 years) had reduced suprathreshold smell sensation according to UPSIT scores: 19 (47%) had mild microsmia, 9 (23%) had moderate microsmia, and one (3%) was classified as having severe microsmia...
January 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332036/relationships-between-lower-olfaction-and-brain-white-matter-lesions-in-elderly-subjects-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#4
Juliette Heinrich, Jean-Sébastien Vidal, Axelle Simon, Anne-Sophie Rigaud, Olivier Hanon, Jacques Epelbaum, Cecile Viollet, Emmanuelle Duron
BACKGROUND: Olfactory impairment is reported in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is associated with hippocampal atrophy. In elderly people, dementia with AD neuropathology and white matter lesions (WML) is common. In this context, olfactory impairment could also depend on the presence of WML. OBJECTIVE: To assess the cross-sectional relationship between olfaction and WML in elderly subjects with MCI. METHODS: Consecutive subjects, >65 years old, diagnosed as MCI after a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment in an expert memory center, with a brain MRI performed within a year and without major depressive state, were included...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330868/insulin-resistance-and-the-increased-risk-for-smell-dysfunction-in-us-adults
#5
Jin-Young Min, Kyoung-Bok Min
OBJECTIVE: Over 24% of older American adults (approximately 14 million) are estimated to have reduced olfactory sensitivity. Previous studies have provided evidence that patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or its complications are at increased risk of olfactory dysfunction. We therefore investigated whether smell dysfunction was associated with DM-related biomarkers, including fasting blood glucose, glycohemoglobin, serum insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR), in older US adults...
January 13, 2018: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330076/frontoethmoidal-schwannoma-with-exertional-cerebrospinal-fluid-rhinorrhea-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
Yuichiro Yoneoka, Katsuhiko Akiyama, Yasuhiro Seki, Go Hasegawa, Akiyoshi Kakita
BACKGROUND: Frontoethmoidal schwannomas are rare. No case manifesting exertional cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea has ever been reported to the best of our knowledge. CASE DESCRIPTION: In this report, we describe an extremely rare case of frontoethmoidal schwannoma extending through the olfactory groove (OG) with exertional CSF rhinorrhea as the initial symptom. A 50-year-old woman was presented to our clinic for frequent nasal discharge on exertion. A postcontrast computed tomographic scan demonstrated heterogeneously enhanced tumor from the anterior cranial fossa to the anterior ethmoid sinus...
January 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324768/identifying-human-diamine-sensors-for-death-related-putrescine-and-cadaverine-molecules
#7
Cristina Izquierdo, José C Gómez-Tamayo, Jean-Christophe Nebel, Leonardo Pardo, Angel Gonzalez
Pungent chemical compounds originating from decaying tissue are strong drivers of animal behavior. Two of the best-characterized death smell components are putrescine (PUT) and cadaverine (CAD), foul-smelling molecules produced by decarboxylation of amino acids during decomposition. These volatile polyamines act as 'necromones', triggering avoidance or attractive responses, which are fundamental for the survival of a wide range of species. The few studies that have attempted to identify the cognate receptors for these molecules have suggested the involvement of the seven-helix trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs), localized in the olfactory epithelium...
January 11, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319267/kallman-syndrome
#8
N Nand, R Mittal, M Yadav, S Venu, A R Deshmukh
Kallman syndrome (KS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized clinically by failure to attain puberty or failure to fully complete it along with an absent or impaired sense of smell with absence of bilateral olfactory bulbi and sulci alongwith absent olfactory tracts. Only very few cases of Kallman syndrome have been reported in females in Indian population.
October 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306960/decreased-electrogustometric-taste-sensitivity-in-patients-with-acquired-olfactory-dysfunction
#9
P Han, M Georgi, M Cuevas, A Haehner, V Gudziol, T Hummel
BACKGROUND: Cross-modal chemosensory dysfunction between olfaction and gustation is not well known. METHODOLOGY: 180 participants were classified into three groups (60 with olfactory dysfunction, 60 with gustatory dysfunction and 60 healthy controls without chemosensory dysfunction). Olfactory functions were obtained with Sniffin Sticks; gustatory function was measured by suprathreshold gustatory stimuli (taste sprays) and a quasi-threshold measure of taste function (taste strips) for five taste qualities (sweet, salty, sour, bitter and umami)...
January 7, 2018: Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304190/enhancement-of-saltiness-perception-by-monosodium-glutamate-taste-and-soy-sauce-odor-a-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#10
Takuya Onuma, Hiroaki Maruyama, Nobuyuki Sakai
Previous studies have reported that the umami taste of monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) and salty-smelling odors (e.g., soy sauce, bacon, sardines) enhance the perception of saltiness. This study aimed to investigate the neural basis of the enhancement of saltiness in human participants using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). University students who had passed a taste panel test participated in this study. Sodium chloride solutions were presented with or without either 0.10% MSG or the odor of soy sauce...
January 3, 2018: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300393/-comparison-of-chemical-composition-of-selected-essential-oils-used-in-respiratory-diseases
#11
Małgorzata Kucharska, Jadwiga A Szymańska, Wiktor Wesołowski, Elżbieta Bruchajzer, Barbara Frydrych
BACKGROUND: Essential oils are fragrances extracted from plants. They have a smooth consistency and pleasant smell. Essential oils have been applied in aromatherapy, cosmetics, food and pharmaceutical products. The aim of the study was to analyze the composition of selected essential oils used in respiratory diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The qualitative analysis was performed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. For the study 6 essential oils available in Polish shops and used in various respiratory diseases were chosen...
December 19, 2017: Medycyna Pracy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296555/irritant-contact-keratitis-caused-by-the-bodily-fluids-of-a-brown-marmorated-stink-bug
#12
Yi-Syun Shen, Chao-Chien Hu
PURPOSE: The brown marmorated stink bug is native to Asia (China, Taiwan, Japan, and the Korean peninsula). Its bodily fluids are toxic and irritating to the human skin and eyes. Human case reports are rare. Only one report of irritant contact dermatitis has been published. We report a case of irritant contact keratitis resulting from the chemical components of the bodily fluids of the bug. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case report. RESULTS: A 74-year-old male presented to our emergency department with pain and redness in his right eye, which had been exposed to the bodily fluids of a brown marmorated stink bug...
October 2017: Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291090/avoidance-of-biological-contaminants-through-sight-smell-and-touch-in-chimpanzees
#13
Cecile Sarabian, Barthelemy Ngoubangoye, Andrew J J MacIntosh
Avoiding biological contaminants is a well-known manifestation of the adaptive system of disgust. In theory, animals evolved with such a system to prevent pathogen and parasite infection. Bodily products are human-universal disgust elicitors, but whether they also elicit avoidance behaviour in non-human primates has yet to be tested. Here, we report experimental evidence that potential exposure to biological contaminants (faeces, blood, semen), as perceived via multiple sensory modalities (visual, olfactory, tactile), might influence feeding decisions in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes)-our closest phylogenetic relatives...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289691/the-bioelectronic-nose-and-tongue-using-olfactory-and-taste-receptors-analytical-tools-for-food-quality-and-safety-assessment
#14
REVIEW
Manki Son, Tai Hyun Park
Food intake is the primary method for obtaining energy and component materials in the human being. Humans evaluate the quality of food by combining various facets of information, such as an item of food's appearance, smell, taste, and texture in the mouth. Recently, bioelectronic noses and tongues have been reported that use human olfactory and taste receptors as primary recognition elements, and nanoelectronics as secondary signal transducers. Bioelectronic sensors that mimic human olfaction and gustation have sensitively and selectively detected odor and taste molecules from various food samples, and have been applied to food quality assessment...
December 28, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289389/tubb3-e410k-syndrome-with-osteoporosis-and-cough-syncope-in-a-patient-previously-diagnosed-with-atypical-moebius-syndrome
#15
Yasuko Nakamura, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Kiyotaka Zaha, Kenji Uematsu, Shigeaki Nonoyama
BACKGROUND: A heterozygous c.1228G > A p.E410K mutation in TUBB3 encoding neuronal-specific β-tubulin isotype 3 causes TUBB3 E410K syndrome, which exhibits a wide range of neurological and endocrinological abnormalities. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient is a 31-year-old Japanese woman who was diagnosed with atypical Moebius syndrome because of congenital facial weakness and extraocular ophthalmoplegia sparing abduction. She suffered a femoral neck fracture at 23 years of age, and radiological and endocrinological studies revealed osteoporosis because of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism...
December 27, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288083/poly-ethylene-co-vinyl-alcohol-is-a-suitable-substrate-for-human-olfactory-neuroepithelial-cell-differentiation-in-vitro-through-a-defined-regulatory-pathway
#16
Sheng-Tien Li, Tai-Horng Young, Tsung-Wei Huang
Olfactory dysfunction significantly influences patients' life quality, but currently has no adequate treatment. Poly (ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVAL) mediates cell adhesion, growth and modulates differentiation of neural stem cells. However, whether EVAL is a suitable substrate to establish an in vitro culture system that can promote development and differentiation of human olfactory neuroepithelial cells (HONCs) remains unexplored. This study isolates and cultures HONCs on controls and EVAL films for 21 days...
December 26, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283943/can-tumor-size-be-a-predictive-factor-of-olfactory-dysfunction-after-endoscopic-endonasal-trans-sphenoidal-approach
#17
Do Hyun Kim, Yong Kil Hong, Sin-Soo Jeun, Jae-Sung Park, Soo Whan Kim, Jin Hee Cho, Yong Jin Park, Jang-Won Jeong, Sung Won Kim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between tumor size, nasal symptoms including olfactory function, and posoperative atrophic mucosal changes after the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach (EETSA). METHODS: This was a retrospective review of the medical records of 112 patients who underwent the 2 nostrils/4 hands EETSA with bilateral modified nasoseptal rescue flaps between February 2009 and January 2016...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259726/does-toxoplasma-infection-increase-sexual-masochism-and-submissiveness-yes-and-no
#18
Jaroslav Flegr
The parasite Toxoplasma needs to get from its intermediate hosts, e.g. rodents, to its definitive hosts, cats, by predation. To increase the probability of this occurrence, Toxoplasma manipulates the behavior of its hosts, for example, by the demethylation of promoters of certain genes in the host's amygdala. After this modification, the stimuli that normally activate fear-related circuits, e.g., the smell of a cat in mice, or smell of leopards in chimpanzees, start to additionally co-activate sexual arousal-related circuits in the infected animals...
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259548/differential-effects-of-parkinson-s-disease-on-interneuron-subtypes-within-the-human-anterior-olfactory-nucleus
#19
Isabel Ubeda-Bañon, Alicia Flores-Cuadrado, Daniel Saiz-Sanchez, Alino Martinez-Marcos
Synucleinopathies (including α-synucleinopathies), which include Parkinson's disease (PD), manifest themsevles early on (stage 1) in the olfactory system; preferentially in the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON). In particular, the non-motor, early manifestations of PD include hyposmia, which is the partial loss of the sense of smell. The neural basis of hyposmia in PD, however, is poorly understood; but the AON appears to be a key structure in the disease's progression. We analyzed whether α-synuclein was involved in the differential interneuron vulnerability associated with PD in the retrobulbar, cortical anterior and cortical posterior divisions of the AON...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247552/ehlers-danlos-syndrome-in-a-young-woman-with-anorexia-nervosa-and-complex-somatic-symptoms
#20
Michelle Lee, Mattias Strand
The Ehler-Danlos syndromes (EDS) are a group of clinically heterogeneous connective tissue disorders characterized by joint hypermobility, hyperextensibility of the skin, and a general connective tissue fragility that can induce symptoms from multiple organ systems. We present a case of comorbid anorexia nervosa and EDS in a 23-year old woman with a multitude of somatic symptoms that were initially attributed to the eating disorder but that were likely caused by the underlying EDS. Various EDS symptoms, such as gastrointestinal complaints, smell and taste abnormalities, and altered somatosensory awareness may resemble or mask an underlying eating disorder, and vice versa...
December 16, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
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