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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778917/favorite-odor-induces-negative-dream-emotion-during-rapid-eye-movement-sleep
#1
Satomi Okabe, Kazuhiko Fukuda, Hiroko Mochizuki-Kawai, Kazuo Yamada
OBJECTIVE: As connections between nightmares and various psychiatric disorders have been reported, the clinical significance of studying dream emotionality is now growing in importance. Because the olfactory bulb connects directly to the amygdala odor presentation may be a crucial tool to study dream emotions. Previous studies have demonstrated that presentation of positive/negative odors during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep affects various aspects of dreaming. Although olfactory perception can be influenced by personal experiences, the role of individual preferences in the effects of olfactory stimuli on dreaming has not yet been clarified...
April 19, 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778624/conditioning-of-human-salivary-flow-using-a-visual-cue-for-sour-candy
#2
Jonathan C Kershaw, Cordelia A Running
OBJECTIVE: Although the "mouthwatering" to sight, smell, or thought of food is commonly accepted in food and nutrition research, the concept of mouthwatering and human salivary flow conditioning is not well accepted in salivary research. The objective of this study was to revisit whether human salivary flow could be classically conditioned to a previously neutral stimulus. DESIGN: Sour candy or a non-food control in opaque containers were presented to healthy participants (n = 8)...
May 14, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778129/the-effect-of-lavender-aromatherapy-on-the-symptoms-of-menopause
#3
Roya Nikjou, Rafat Kazemzadeh, Firoozeh Asadzadeh, Razzag Fathi, Farideh Mostafazadeh
OBJECTIVES: The menopause is a natural biological process that is happened by a permanent regal stop due to the loss of performance. The aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of lavender aromatherapy on the menopause symptoms. STUDY DESIGN: This double-blind cross over clinical trial carried out on 100 menopause women (between 45 and 155 years old) referring to health centers in Ardabil in 2013-14. The samples blocked randomly, placed in two experimental (Lavender) and control (diluted milk) groups...
June 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776155/how-directional-mobility-affects-coexistence-in-rock-paper-scissors-models
#4
P P Avelino, D Bazeia, L Losano, J Menezes, B F de Oliveira, M A Santos
This work deals with a system of three distinct species that changes in time under the presence of mobility, selection, and reproduction, as in the popular rock-paper-scissors game. The novelty of the current study is the modification of the mobility rule to the case of directional mobility, in which the species move following the direction associated to a larger (averaged) number density of selection targets in the surrounding neighborhood. Directional mobility can be used to simulate eyes that see or a nose that smells, and we show how it may contribute to reduce the probability of coexistence...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774237/an-herbivore-induced-plant-volatile-reduces-parasitoid-attraction-by-changing-the-smell-of-caterpillars
#5
Meng Ye, Nathalie Veyrat, Hao Xu, Lingfei Hu, Ted C J Turlings, Matthias Erb
Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) can mediate tritrophic interactions by attracting natural enemies of insect herbivores such as predators and parasitoids. Whether HIPVs can also mediate tritrophic interactions by influencing the attractiveness of the herbivores themselves remains unknown. We explored this question by studying the role of indole, a common HIPV in the plant kingdom. We found that herbivory-induced indole increases the recruitment of the solitary endoparasitoid Microplitis rufiventris to maize plants that are induced by Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770692/highly-sensitive-and-practical-fluorescent-sandwich-elisa-for-ciguatoxins
#6
Takeshi Tsumuraya, Takeshi Sato, Masahiro Hirama, Ikuo Fujii
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) caused by the consumption of fish that have accumulated ciguatoxins (CTXs) affects more than 50,000 people annually. The spread of CFP causes enormous damage to public health, fishery resources, and the economies of tropical and subtropical endemic regions. The difficulty in avoiding CFP arises from the lack of sensitive and reliable analytical methods for the detection and quantification of CTXs in contaminated fish, along with the normal appearance, smell, and taste of fish contaminated with the causative toxins...
May 17, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769515/complications-following-general-anaesthesia-in-paediatric-patients
#7
A K Khan, S R Quddus, H K Khan, M S Ali, M Kamruzzaman, M R Hasan, M Hasan, R H Moon
Complications in paediatric anaesthesia can be conveniently classified as minor or major. Major morbidity includes cardiac arrest, brain damage and death. Minor morbidity can be assessed by clinical audits with smell patient samples. Major morbidity is rare. It is best assessed by very large clinical studies and by review of cases malpractice claims. Both minor & major complication occurs most commonly in infants and children under three especially those with severe co-morbidities. Knowledge of risk profiles in paediatric anaesthesia is a starting point for the reduction of risk complication...
April 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769252/frequency-of-non-motor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease-presenting-to-tertiary-care-centre-in-pakistan-an-observational-cross-sectional-study
#8
Shahid Mukhtar, Rashid Imran, Mohsin Zaheer, Huma Tariq
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of non-motor symptoms (NMS) in patients of Parkinson's disease (PD) presenting to a movement disorder clinic at a tertiary care centre in Pakistan, and how frequency of NMS is different in male and female patients. STUDY DESIGN: Observational, cross-sectional study. SETTING: Tertiary care centre. PARTICIPANTS: Out of 102 patients, 85 were included. Inclusion criteria were patients with PD diagnosed according to the UK Parkinson's Disease Society Brain Bank Clinical Diagnostic Criteria, age ≥18 years, able to give consent and have no difficulty in answering questions...
May 16, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767685/smelling-anxiety-chemosignals-impairs-clinical-performance-of-dental-students
#9
Preet Bano Singh, Alix Young, Synnøve Lind, Marie Cathinka Leegaard, Alessandra Capuozzo, Valentina Parma
Despite the fact that human body odors can transfer anxiety-related signals, the impact of such signals in real-life situations is scant. In this study, the effects of anxiety chemosignals on the performance of dental students operating on simulation units, wearing t-shirts imbued with human sweat and masked with eugenol were tested. Twenty-four 4th year dental students (17F) donated their body odors in two sessions (Anxiety and Rest). Twenty-four normosmic, sex- and age-matched test subjects who were3rd year dental students performed three dental procedures while smelling masked anxiety body odors, masked rest body odors or masker alone...
May 15, 2018: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767353/influences-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-temporal-lobe-resection-on-olfaction
#10
Richard L Doty, Isabelle Tourbier, Jessica K Neff, Jonathan Silas, Bruce Turetsky, Paul Moberg, Taehoon Kim, John Pluta, Jaqueline French, Ashwini D Sharan, Michael J Sperling, Natasha Mirza, Anthony Risser, Gordon Baltuch, John A Detre
Although temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and resection (TLR) impact olfactory eloquent brain structures, their influences on olfaction remain enigmatic. We sought to more definitively assess the influences of TLE and TLR on olfaction using three well-validated olfactory tests and measuring  the tests' associations with the volume of numerous temporal lobe brain structures. The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test and an odor detection threshold test were administered to 71 TLE patients and 71 age- and sex-matched controls; 69 TLE patients and controls received an odor discrimination/memory test...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766732/-remission-of-the-disease-associated-related-with-immunoglobulin-igg4-accompanied-by-multiple-lymphadenopathy-after-treatment-with-rituximab-and-dexamethasone-a-case-report
#11
Zdeněk Adam, Zita Chovancová, Markéta Nová, Pavel Fabian, Zdeněk Řehák, Renata Koukalová, Marek Slávik, Luděk Pour, Marta Krejčí, Aleš Čermák, Zdeněk Král, Jiří Mayer
A disease associated with immunoglobulin IgG4 is a rare unit with very variable symptoms. We describe the course and treatment of the disease in a patient who presented with multiple lymphadenopathy and infiltrates in the area of the retroperitoneum and pelvis and signs of chronic sclerosing pancreatitis. The disease was clinically manifested by a significant loss of weight, but also by a loss of perception of taste and smell. The diagnosis was made based on a high amount of IgG4 expressing plasma cells in the sampled tissue and an increased concentration of immunoglobulins of type IgG and mainly subclass IG4...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763790/the-language-of-smell-connecting-linguistic-and-psychophysical-properties-of-odor-descriptors
#12
Georgios Iatropoulos, Pawel Herman, Anders Lansner, Jussi Karlgren, Maria Larsson, Jonas K Olofsson
The olfactory sense is a particularly challenging domain for cognitive science investigations of perception, memory, and language. Although many studies show that odors often are difficult to describe verbally, little is known about the associations between olfactory percepts and the words that describe them. Quantitative models of how odor experiences are described in natural language are therefore needed to understand how odors are perceived and communicated. In this study, we develop a computational method to characterize the olfaction-related semantic content of words in a large text corpus of internet sites in English...
May 12, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762752/variability-and-coupling-of-olfactory-identification-and-episodic-memory-in-older-adults
#13
Jamie E Knight, David A Bennett, Andrea M Piccinin
Objectives: To determine whether assessment-to-assessment fluctuations in episodic memory (EM) reflect fluctuations in olfaction over time. Methods: Within-person coupled variation in EM and the Brief Smell Identification Test (BSIT) was examined in 565 participants aged 58-106 with autopsy data from the Rush Memory and Aging Project. A growth model for up to 15 years of EM data, with BSIT as time-varying covariate, was estimated accounting for main effects of sex, education, ε4 allele, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, BSIT and time-varying BSIT, as well as the interaction between AD pathology and time-varying BSIT...
May 14, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760879/smell-the-change-on-the-potential-of-gas-chromatographic-ion-mobility-spectrometry-in-ecosystem-monitoring
#14
Wolfgang Vautz, Chandrasekhara Hariharan, Maximilian Weigend
Plant volatile organic compounds (pVOCs) are being recognized as an important factor in plant-environment interactions. Both the type and amount of the emissions appear to be heavily affected by climate change. A range of studies therefore has been directed toward understanding pVOC emissions, mostly under laboratory conditions (branch/leaf enclosure). However, there is a lack of rapid, sensitive, and selective analytical methods, and therefore, only little is known about VOC emissions under natural, outdoor conditions...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756687/comparing-the-sniffing-behavior-of-great-apes
#15
Susann Jänig, Brigitte M Weiß, Anja Widdig
The importance of smell in humans is well established but we know little about it in regard to our closest relatives, the great apes, as systematic studies on their olfactory behavior are still lacking. Olfaction has long been considered to be of lesser importance in hominids given their relatively smaller olfactory bulbs, fewer functional olfactory receptor genes than other species and absence of a functional vomeronasal organ. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of olfaction in hominids...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756485/associations-between-factors-related-to-atopic-disease-and-glaucoma-in-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey
#16
Victoria L Tseng, Janet Lee, Fei Yu, Omar Sirsy, Anne L Coleman
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have suggested associations between glaucoma and serum sensitization to specific allergens. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between inciting factors for atopic disease, atopic diseases and symptoms, and glaucoma in the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. METHODS: The study population included adult participants of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. Inciting factors for atopic disease included pet ownership, mildew/musty smell in home, cockroaches in home, use of water treatment devices, and crowded living conditions...
May 1, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756356/neuroimaging-abnormalities-in-individuals-exhibiting-parkinson-s-disease-risk-markers
#17
Marcus Heldmann, Janna Heeren, Christine Klein, Linus Rauch, Johann Hagenah, Thomas F Münte, Meike Kasten, Norbert Brüggemann
BACKGROUND: The concept of prodromal Parkinson's disease (PD) involves variable combinations of nonmotor features and subtle motor abnormalities as a result of ongoing neurodegeneration in the brain stem including substantia nigra (SN) and abnormal findings upon transcranial sonography and nuclear imaging. Except for nuclear imaging, the predictive value of risk markers for the conversion to overt PD is low. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether PD risk markers are associated with changes in brain structure and to what extent cognitive changes are risk markers for PD...
May 14, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755252/a-digital-endocranial-cast-of-the-early-paleocene-puercan-archaic-mammal-onychodectes-tisonensis-eutheria-taeniodonta
#18
James G Napoli, Thomas E Williamson, Sarah L Shelley, Stephen L Brusatte
Eutherian mammals-placentals and their closest extinct relatives-underwent a major radiation following the end-Cretaceous extinction, during which they evolved disparate anatomy and established new terrestrial ecosystems. Much about the timing, pace, and causes of this radiation remain unclear, in large part because we still know very little about the anatomy, phylogenetic relationships, and biology of the so-called 'archaic' eutherians that prospered during the ~10 million years after the extinction. We describe the first digital endocranial cast of a taeniodont, a bizarre group of eutherians that flourished in the early Paleogene, reconstructed from a computed tomography (CT) scan of a late Puercan (65...
2018: Journal of Mammalian Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747430/effect-of-selective-encapsulation-of-hydroxypropyl-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-on-components-and-antibacterial-properties-of-star-anise-essential-oil
#19
Guangjie Zhang, Chao Yuan, Yonghai Sun
Star anise essential oil (SAEO) is a plant essential oil with good antibacterial activity, but its applications are limited due to its high volatility, strong smell, and unstable physical and chemical properties. The effect of selective encapsulation of SAEO by hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) on its compositions, volatility stability and antibacterial activity was investigated. The GC-MS results indicated that the compositions reduced and content of the compositions of SAEO changed after encapsulation...
May 9, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746892/taste-phenotype-associates-with-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-via-diet-quality-in-multivariate-modeling
#20
Mastaneh Sharafi, Shristi Rawal, Maria Luz Fernandez, Tania B Huedo-Medina, Valerie B Duffy
Sensations from foods and beverages drive dietary choices, which in turn, affect risk of diet-related diseases. Perception of these sensation varies with environmental and genetic influences. This observational study aimed to examine associations between chemosensory phenotype, diet and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Reportedly healthy women (n = 110, average age 45 ± 9 years) participated in laboratory-based measures of chemosensory phenotype (taste and smell function, propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness) and CVD risk factors (waist circumference, blood pressure, serum lipids)...
May 7, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
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