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Placebo effects

Matthias Witte, Silvia Erika Kober, Guilherme Wood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Jason El Brihi, Rob Horne, Kate Faasse
Background: Recent evidence indicates that placebo effects can occur even when patients know that they are taking a placebo, termed the open-label placebo effect. Aim: To assess whether placebo dose (one pill per day vs. four pills per day), treatment expectancies, and adherence contribute to open-label placebo effects. Method: Healthy undergraduate participants were randomly assigned to take one or four open-label placebo pills per day or to a no-treatment control group...
March 14, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Manuel Schabus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Rada M Savic, Prasanna Jagannathan, Richard Kajubi, Liusheng Huang, Nan Zhang, Moses Were, Abel Kakuru, Mary K Muhindo, Norah Mwebaza, Erika Wallender, Tamara D Clark, Bishop Opira, Moses Kamya, Diane V Havlir, Philip J Rosenthal, Grant Dorsey, Francesca T Aweeka
Background: Dihydroartemsinin-piperaquine is highly efficacious as intermittent preventive therapy for malaria during pregnancy (IPTp). Determining associations between piperaquine exposure, malaria risk, and adverse birth outcomes informs optimal dosing strategies. Methods: HIV-uninfected pregnant women were enrolled in a placebo-controlled trial of IPTp at 12-20 weeks gestation and randomized to: sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine every 8 weeks (n=106), dihydroartemsinin-piperaquine every 8 weeks (n=94), or dihydroartemsinin-piperaquine every 4 weeks (n=100) during pregnancy...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
George Kunnackal John, Lin Wang, Julie Nanavati, Claire Twose, Rajdeep Singh, Gerard Mullin
Dietary alteration of the gut microbiome is an important target in the treatment of obesity. Animal and human studies have shown bidirectional weight modulation based on the probiotic formulation used. In this study, we systematically reviewed the literature and performed a meta-analysis to assess the impact of prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics on body weight, body mass index (BMI) and fat mass in adult human subjects. We searched Medline (PubMed), Embase, the Cochrane Library and the Web of Science to identify 4721 articles, of which 41 were subjected to full-text screening, yielding 21 included studies with 33 study arms...
March 16, 2018: Genes
Hannah R Wardill, Ysabella Z A Van Sebille, Matthew A Ciorba, Joanne M Bowen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Strong preclinical data support prophylactic probiotics as an effective preventive strategy for diarrhoea secondary to anticancer therapies. To determine the composite evidence that this approach translates to the clinic, we performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of prophylactic probiotics for the prevention of cancer therapy induced diarrhoea. RECENT FINDINGS: A three-step search strategy was used to identify relevant studies (1 June 2000-1 June 2017) investigating probiotic intervention for diarrhoea secondary to any cancer therapy (cytotoxic, targeted and immunotherapies)...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Maria Luz Fernandez, Minu Sara Thomas, Bruno S Lemos, Diana M DiMarco, Amanda Missimer, Melissa Melough, Ock K Chun, Ana Gabriela Murillo, Hana Alyousef, Isabel Medina-Vera
BACKGROUND: Telomerase Activator 65 (TA-65), a compound extracted from Astragalus membranaceus has been used in Chinese traditional medicine for extending life span. Scarce information exists on the effects of TA-65 on parameters of metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: We recruited 40 patients with MetS to determine the effects of TA-65 on dyslipidemias, hypertension, and oxidative stress in this at-risk population. The study was a double-blind, randomized crossover design in which patients were allocated to consume either 16 mg daily of a TA-65 supplement or a placebo for 12 weeks...
March 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Ruchita Dixit, Sowmya Nettem, Simerjit S Madan, Htoo Htoo Kyaw Soe, Adinegara Bl Abas, Leah D Vance, Patrick J Stover
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of disorders that affects haemoglobin, which causes distorted sickle- or crescent-shaped red blood cells. It is characterized by anaemia, increased susceptibility to infections and episodes of pain. The disease is acquired by inheriting abnormal genes from both parents, the combination giving rise to different forms of the disease. Due to increased erythropoiesis in people with SCD, it is hypothesized that they are at an increased risk for folate deficiency...
March 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Armin Zittermann, Jana B Ernst, Sylvana Prokop, Uwe Fuchs, Jens Dreier, Joachim Kuhn, Cornelius Knabbe, Heiner K Berthold, Ioanna Gouni-Berthold, Jan F Gummert, Jochen Börgermann, Stefan Pilz
PURPOSE: Observational studies indicate a positive association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and testosterone (T) concentrations. Because low 25OHD concentrations and T deficiency are considered to be a generalized phenomenon in patients with advanced heart failure (HF), we aimed to investigate whether vitamin D supplementation has beneficial effects on T indices in these patients. METHODS: In a pre-specified secondary analysis of the EVITA (effect of vitamin D on mortality in heart failure) randomized controlled trial, we analyzed in male subjects with 25OHD concentrations < 75 nmol/L the effect of a daily vitamin D3 supplement of 4000 IU for 3 years (n = 71) vs...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Lesley Uttley, Iñigo Bermejo, Shijie Ren, Marrissa Martyn-St James, Ruth Wong, David L Scott, Adam Young, Matt Stevenson
As part of its Single Technology Appraisal process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer (Pfizer) of tofacitinib (TOF; Xeljanz® ) to submit evidence of the drug's clinical and cost-effectiveness in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after the failure of conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (cDMARDs). The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG)...
March 15, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Mark Waldron, Luke Waldron, Craig Lawlor, Adrian Gray, Jamie Highton
PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of an acute 24-h nitrate-rich beetroot juice supplement (BR) on the energy cost, exercise efficiency and blood pressure responses to intermittent walking at different gradients. METHODS: In a double-blind, cross-over design, eight participants were provided with a total of 350 ml of nitrate-rich (~ 20.5 mmol nitrate) BR or placebo (PLA) across 24 h before completing intermittent walking at 3 km/h on treadmill at gradients of 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20%...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Paulo V Mezzaroba, Dalton M Pessôa Filho, Alessandro M Zagatto, Fabiana Andrade Machado
This study aimed to investigate the effect of prior LED sessions on the responses of cardiorespiratory parameters during the running incremental step test. Twenty-six healthy, physically active, young men, aged between 20 and 30 years, took part in this study. Participants performed two incremental load tests after placebo (PLA) and light-emitting diode application (LED), and had their gas exchange, heart rate (HR), blood lactate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) monitored during all tests. The PLA and LED conditions were compared using the dependent Student t test with significance set at 5%...
March 15, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Lisa Menegazzo, Valentina Scattolini, Roberta Cappellari, Benedetta Maria Bonora, Mattia Albiero, Mario Bortolozzi, Filippo Romanato, Giulio Ceolotto, Saula Vigili de Kreutzeberg, Angelo Avogaro, Gian Paolo Fadini
AIMS: Diabetes is associated with an excess release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and an enhanced NETosis, a neutrophil cell death programme instrumental to anti-microbial defences, but also involved in tissue damage. We herein investigated whether the antidiabetic drug metformin protects against NETosis. METHODS: We measured NET components in the plasma of patients with pre-diabetes who were randomized to receive metformin or placebo for 2 months. To control for the effect on glucose, we also measured NET components in the plasma of patients with type 2 diabetes before and after treatment with insulin or dapagliflozin...
March 15, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
Richard S E Keefe, George Nomikos, Wei Zhong, Michael Cronquist Christensen, William Jacobson
Background: We evaluated vortioxetine's effects on functional capacity in demographic and clinical subgroups of patients with major depressive disorder. Methods: This was an exploratory analysis of the CONNECT study (NCT01564862) that evaluated changes in functional capacity using University of California San Diego Performance-based Skills Assessment (UPSA) data, categorized by sex, age, education, employment status, and baseline disease severity (Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS], Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness [CGI-S])...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Rebecca C Richmond, Gemma C Sharp, Georgia Herbert, Charlotte Atkinson, Caroline Taylor, Sohinee Bhattacharya, Doris Campbell, Marion Hall, Nabila Kazmi, Tom Gaunt, Wendy McArdle, Susan Ring, George Davey Smith, Andy Ness, Caroline L Relton
Background: It has been proposed that maternal folic-acid supplement use may alter the DNA-methylation patterns of the offspring during the in-utero period, which could influence development and later-life health outcomes. Evidence from human studies suggests a role for prenatal folate levels in influencing DNA methylation in early life, but this has not been extended to consider persistent effects into adulthood. Methods: To better elucidate the long-term impact of maternal folic acid in pregnancy on DNA methylation in offspring, we carried out an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) nested within the Aberdeen Folic Acid Supplementation Trial (AFAST-a trial of two different doses: 0...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Cécile Vors, Charles Couillard, Marie-Eve Paradis, Iris Gigleux, Johanne Marin, Marie-Claude Vohl, Patrick Couture, Benoît Lamarche
Background: High-fat meals induce postprandial inflammation. Resveratrol is a polyphenol known to prevent comorbidities associated with cardiovascular disease and exerts an anti-inflammatory action. There is also an increasing body of evidence supporting the role of curcumin, a polyphenol from the curcuminoid family, as a modulator of proinflammatory processes. Objective: The objectives of this study were to investigate the following: 1) the bioavailability of resveratrol consumed in combination with curcumin after consumption of a high-fat meal; and 2) the acute combined effects of this combination on the postprandial inflammatory response of subjects with abdominal obesity...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Masha Shulkin, Laura Pimpin, David Bellinger, Sarah Kranz, Wafaie Fawzi, Christopher Duggan, Dariush Mozaffarian
Background: Epidemiologic studies link maternal seafood and n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption with improved childhood cognitive development; trials show mixed results. Objective: We investigated effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on child cognitive and visual outcomes. Methods: We systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed randomized controlled trials of n-3 PUFA supplementation in mothers or infants (age ≤2 y) and evaluated standardized measures of cognitive or visual development up to age 18 y...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
James C Jackson, Dariush Mozaffarian, Amy J Graves, Nancy J Brown, Roberto Marchioli, Amy L Kiehl, E Wesley Ely
Background: Cognitive decline has been reported following cardiac surgery, leading to great interest in interventions to minimize its occurrence. Long-chain n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been associated with less cognitive decline in observational studies, yet no trials have tested the effects of n-3 PUFAs on cognitive decline after surgery. Objective: We sought to determine whether perioperative n-3 PUFA supplementation reduces postoperative cognitive decline in patients postcardiac surgery...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Kian F Wong, James Teng, Michael W L Chee, Kinjal Doshi, Julian Lim
Mindfulness based training (MBT) is becoming increasingly popular as a means to improve general wellbeing through developing enhanced control over metacognitive processes. In this preliminary study, we tested a cohort of 36 nurses (mean age = 30.3, SD = 8.52; 2 male) who participated in an 8-week MBT intervention to examine the improvements in sustained attention and its energetic costs that may result from MBT. Changes in sustained attention were measured using the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and electroencephalography (EEG) was collected both during PVT performance, and during a brief period of meditation...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Darren M Brenner, Ronald Fogel, Spencer D Dorn, Richard Krause, Paul Eng, Robert Kirshoff, Anhthu Nguyen, Robert A Crozier, Leslie Magnus, Patrick H Griffin
OBJECTIVES: Two identical, phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials evaluated the efficacy and safety of plecanatide in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). METHODS: Adults meeting Rome III criteria for IBS-C were randomized (1:1:1) to placebo or plecanatide (3 or 6 mg) for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was the percentage of overall responders (patients reporting ≥30% reduction from baseline in worst abdominal pain plus an increase of ≥1 complete spontaneous bowel movement (CSBM)/week from baseline in the same week for ≥6 of 12 treatment weeks)...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
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