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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353426/is-dipyrone-effective-as-a-preemptive-analgesic-in-third-molar-surgery-a-pilot-study
#1
Vinícius Tatsumoto Favarini, Carlos Alysson Aragão Lima, Rogério Almeida da Silva, Fábio Ricardo Loureiro Sato
PURPOSE: Studies on preemptive analgesia in maxillofacial surgery have shown several controversial clinical results, mainly due to the absence of a methodological standard, besides a wide variety of studied drugs. This study intended to answer the following hypothesis: Is the administration of dipyrone preemptively capable of decreasing trans- and postoperative pain in the third molar surgical extraction? METHODS: A pilot prospective double-blind placebo-controlled study was carried out with 25 patients submitted to the third molar surgical extraction at two moments, one side in each intervention...
January 20, 2018: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353350/clinical-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-evolocumab-a-pcsk9-inhibitor
#2
REVIEW
Sreeneeranj Kasichayanula, Anita Grover, Maurice G Emery, Megan A Gibbs, Ransi Somaratne, Scott M Wasserman, John P Gibbs
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) increases plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by decreasing expression of the LDL receptor on hepatic cells. Evolocumab is a human monoclonal immunoglobulin G2 that binds specifically to human PCSK9 to reduce LDL-C. Evolocumab exhibits nonlinear kinetics as a result of binding to PCSK9. Elimination is predominantly through saturable binding to PCSK9 at lower concentrations and a nonsaturable proteolytic pathway at higher concentrations. The effective half-life of evolocumab is 11-17 days...
January 20, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352770/concentration-dependent-effect-of-bleaching-agents-on-the-immunolabeling-of-interleukin-6-interleukin-17-and-cd5-positive-cells-in-the-dental-pulp
#3
F Benetti, J E Gomes-Filho, L L Ferreira, G Sivieri-Araújo, E Ervolino, A L F Briso, L T A Cintra
AIM: To evaluate lymphocyte-like cell activation (CD5-positive cells) and the expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-17 in the pulp after dental bleaching with two concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). METHODOLOGY: The right and left maxillary molars from 40 rats were treated randomly with bleaching gel with 20% H2 O2 (BLUE group, 1 application of 50 min), 35% H2 O2 (MAXX group, 3 applications of 15 min), or placebo gel (Control). After 2 and 30 days, the rats were killed (n=10), and the jaws were processed for histological and immunohistochemistry analysis of the pulp tissue...
January 20, 2018: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352714/effect-of-single-agent-daily-prednisone-on-outcomes-and-toxicities-in-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-pooled-analysis-of-prospective-studies
#4
REVIEW
Pooja Ghatalia, Gregory R Pond, Arnoud J Templeton, Guru Sonpavde
The clinical effect of prednisone in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is unknown. We performed a pooled analysis of control arms of randomized controlled trials that had or had not administered single-agent prednisone. Randomized controlled trials with a control arm that included single-agent placebo (or no anticancer therapy) or single-agent prednisone (with or without placebo) were eligible for analysis. Patients receiving prednisone combined with other agents in the control arm were excluded...
December 27, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352704/treatment-of-adult-chronic-indeterminate-chagas-disease-with-benznidazole-and-three-e1224-dosing-regimens-a-proof-of-concept-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#5
Faustino Torrico, Joaquim Gascon, Lourdes Ortiz, Cristina Alonso-Vega, María-Jesús Pinazo, Alejandro Schijman, Igor C Almeida, Fabiana Alves, Nathalie Strub-Wourgaft, Isabela Ribeiro
BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a major neglected vector-borne disease. In this study, we investigated the safety and efficacy of three oral E1224 (a water-soluble ravuconazole prodrug) regimens and benznidazole versus placebo in adult chronic indeterminate Chagas disease. METHOD: In this proof-of-concept, double-blind, randomised phase 2 clinical trial, we recruited adults (18-50 years) with confirmed diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection from two outpatient units in Bolivia...
January 15, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352477/benzodiazepines-for-antipsychotic-induced-tardive-dyskinesia
#6
REVIEW
Hanna Bergman, Paranthaman S Bhoopathi, Karla Soares-Weiser
BACKGROUND: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disfiguring movement disorder, often of the orofacial region, frequently caused by using antipsychotic drugs. A wide range of strategies have been used to help manage TD, and for those who are unable to have their antipsychotic medication stopped or substantially changed, the benzodiazepine group of drugs have been suggested as a useful adjunctive treatment. However, benzodiazepines are very addictive. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of benzodiazepines for antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia in people with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or other chronic mental illnesses...
January 20, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352461/clinical-and-microbiological-evaluation-of-the-effect-of-lactobacillus-reuteri-in-the-treatment-of-mucositis-and-peri-implantitis-a-triple-blind-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
M Galofré, D Palao, M Vicario, J Nart, D Violant
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Oral probiotics appear to improve the treatment of periodontal diseases but there is limited evidence on their efficacy in the treatment of peri-implant diseases. The objective of the present study was to evaluate, clinically and microbiologically, the effect of the oral probiotic, Lactobacillus reuteri Prodentis, as adjuvant to non-surgical mechanical therapy in implants with mucositis or peri-implantitis, placed in patients with a history of periodontal disease...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352454/decreased-opioid-consumption-and-enhance-recovery-with-the-addition-of-iv-acetaminophen-in-colorectal-patients-a-prospective-multi-institutional-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-study-dociva-study
#8
Amir H Aryaie, Sepehr Lalezari, Wallace K Sergent, Yana Puckett, Christopher Juergens, Craig Ratermann, Cari Ogg
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that administration of IV acetaminophen alone would reduce the opioid consumption in post-operative colorectal surgery and reduce the side effects of narcotics. METHODS: Patients were randomized to receive either IV acetaminophen or placebo in addition to opioid PCA. Primary endpoints evaluated were opioid consumption and pain visual analogue scale score (PVASS) during first 48 h post-operatively. Secondary endpoints evaluated were time of return of GI function (ROGIF), time to diet ordered (TTDO), length of hospital stay (LOHS), and occurrence of ileus...
January 19, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352029/dissociable-temporal-effects-of-bupropion-on-behavioural-measures-of-emotional-and-reward-processing-in-depression
#9
Annabel E L Walsh, Michael Browning, Wayne C Drevets, Maura Furey, Catherine J Harmer
Antidepressants remediate negative biases in emotional processing early in treatment, prior to mood improvement. However, the effects on reward processing potentially relevant to the treatment of anhedonia are less clear. Here we investigate the early and sustained effects of the dopamine and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor bupropion on behavioural measures of emotional and reward processing in currently depressed individuals. Forty-six currently depressed patients and 42 healthy controls participated in a repeated measures study, during which open-label bupropion was administered to only the patient group over a six week period without a placebo group...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351789/prevention-of-severe-infectious-complications-after-colorectal-surgery-using-preoperative-orally-administered-antibiotic-prophylaxis-precaution-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Tessa Mulder, Marjolein F Q Kluytmans-van den Bergh, Anne Marie G A de Smet, Nils E van 't Veer, Daphne Roos, Stavros Nikolakopoulos, Marc J M Bonten, Jan A J W Kluytmans
BACKGROUND: Colorectal surgery is frequently complicated by surgical site infections (SSIs). The most important consequences of SSIs are prolonged hospitalization, an increased risk of surgical reintervention and an increase in mortality. Perioperative intravenously administered antibiotic prophylaxis is the standard of care to reduce the risk of SSIs. In the last few decades, preoperative orally administered antibiotics have been suggested as additional prophylaxis to further reduce the risk of infection, but are currently not part of routine practice in most hospitals...
January 19, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351716/effect-of-metformin-on-glycemic-control-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#11
Haiyang Meng, Ailing Zhang, Yan Liang, Jie Hao, Xiaojian Zhang, Jingli Lu
BACKGROUND: For T1D patients, adding metformin to insulin therapies is thought to improve blood glucose levels, but current evidence does not support this clinical benefit. Additional data from large clinical trials are now available; therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies on assessing the efficacy and adverse effects of metformin. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases for data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
January 19, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351167/can-caffeine-intake-improve-neuromuscular-and-technical-tactical-performance-during-judo-matches
#12
Marina Saldanha da Silva Athayde, Rafael Lima Kons, Daniele Detanico
This study aimed to verify the effect of caffeine intake on blood lactate concentrations and neuromuscular and technical-tactical performance during simulated judo matches. Fourteen male judo athletes received capsules containing caffeine or placebo and were evaluated in both conditions. Before the baseline and 1 hour after the caffeine/placebo intake, athletes performed the countermovement jump test (CMJ), handgrip strength, judogi grip strength test (JGST), and blood samples were collected. Subsequently, the athletes were submitted to three 5 minute matches with 15 minute intervals...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351138/the-effect-of-melatonin-upon-postacute-withdrawal-among-males-in-a-residential-treatment-program-m-paws-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#13
Corry D Bondi, Khalid M Kamal, David A Johnson, Paula A Witt-Enderby, Vincent J Giannetti
OBJECTIVE: Assess the effect of melatonin (5 mg) compared with placebo as an adjuvant treatment along with current behavioral and pharmacotherapy for 28 days on weekly self-reported severity of anxiety, depression, stress, and sleep complaints, and also how sleep is affecting daily life in males 18 years of age and older in recovery from substance use at a residential program in south-western Pennsylvania. BACKGROUND: Individuals in recovery experience a variety of symptoms including, but are not limited to, anxiety, depression, sleep difficulties, and stress...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350569/practice-pearl-liraglutide-and-cardiovascular-and-renal-events-in-type-2-diabetes
#14
Robert Guthrie
Review of: Marso S, Daniels G, Brown-Frandsen K, et al. Liraglutide and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med 2016; 375: 311-322. Mann J, Orsted D, Brown-Frandsen K, et al. Liraglutide and Renal Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med 2017; 377: 839-848. This comprehensive research project, LEADER, led to two reports, one focusing on the effect of liraglutide on cardiovascular events, and the second one reporting on the renal effects on the same study population. The study group included 9340 patients with type 2 diabetes...
January 19, 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350249/efficacy-of-phloroglucinol-for-treatment-of-abdominal-pain-a-systematic-review-of-literature-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials-versus-placebo
#15
REVIEW
Clara Blanchard, Denis Pouchain, Paul Vanderkam, Marie-Christine Perault-Pochat, Rémy Boussageon, Hélène Vaillant-Roussel
AIM: Phloroglucinol is a musculotropic anti-spasmodic drug. It is frequently prescribed in many European countries with a considerable cost for health services. The purpose of this study was to review the existing randomised controlled trials (RCT) comparing the efficacy of phloroglucinol treating abdominal pain versus placebo. METHODS: A literature search was carried out up to May 2017 to select RCT comparing the effect of phloroglucinol versus placebo with intensity of abdominal pain as an endpoint...
January 19, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349829/physicians-perspective-on-the-clinical-meaningfulness-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-trial-results-an-international-organization-for-the-study-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-ioibd-survey
#16
P Olivera, W J Sandborn, J Panés, C Baumann, G D'Haens, S Vermeire, S Danese, L Peyrin-Biroulet
BACKGROUND: Several novel compounds are being developed for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In addition, biosimilar drugs are being approved. An increasing number of head-to-head, superiority and non-inferiority trials in patients with IBD are expected in the future. The clinical relevance of the magnitude of the effect size is often debated. AIM: To better understand physicians' perspectives on the clinical meaningfulness of IBD trial results. METHODS: We conducted an online survey among all IOIBD (International Organization for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases) members, asking their opinion on the clinical relevance of the results of IBD trials...
January 19, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348727/efficacy-and-safety-of-panax-ginseng-berry-extract-on-glycemic-control-a-12-wk-randomized-double-blind-and-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#17
Han Seok Choi, Sunmi Kim, Min Jung Kim, Myung-Sunny Kim, Juewon Kim, Chan-Woong Park, Daebang Seo, Song Seok Shin, Sang Woo Oh
Background: Antihyperglycemic effects of Panax ginseng berry have never been explored in humans. The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy and safety of a 12-wk treatment with ginseng berry extract in participants with a fasting glucose level between 100 mg/dL and 140 mg/dL. Methods: This study was a 12-wk, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. A total of 72 participants were randomly allocated to two groups of either ginseng berry extract or placebo, and 63 participants completed the study...
January 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348711/efficacy-of-empirical-therapy-with-combined-ciprofloxacin-versus-topical-drops-alone-in-patients-with-tubotympanic-chronic-suppurative-otitis-media-a-randomized-double-blind-controlled-trial
#18
Maisam Abbas Onali, Syeda Beenish Bareeqa, Sadaf Zia, Syed Ijlal Ahmed, Asneha Owais, Ahmad Nawaz Ahmad
Background: One of the prevailing otologic infections in our country is chronic suppurative otitis media, especially the tubotympanic type for which various treatment protocols are followed. Usually, oral and topical antibiotics (mainly quinolones) are given alone or in combination. There is a lack of consensus as to whether topical drops alone are effective or a combined oral and systemic therapy should be prescribed. In our study, we have attempted to observe the efficacy of empirical therapy with combined ciprofloxacin versus topical drops only in patients with tubotympanic chronic suppurative otitis media for control of infection...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Ear, Nose and Throat
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348651/depressive-mood-ratings-are-reduced-by-mdma-in-female-polydrug-ecstasy-users-homozygous-for-the-l-allele-of-the-serotonin-transporter
#19
K P C Kuypers, R de la Torre, M Farre, L Xicota, E B de Sousa Fernandes Perna, E L Theunissen, J G Ramaekers
MDMA exerts its main effects via the serotonergic system and the serotonin transporter. The gene coding for this transporter determines the expression rate of the transporter. Previously it was shown that healthy individuals with the short allelic variant ('s-group') of the 5-HTTLPR-polymorphism displayed more anxiety and negative mood, and had a lower transcriptional efficiency compared to individuals who are homozygous for the l-allele ('l-group'). The present study aimed to investigate the role of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in MDMA-induced mood effects...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348609/effects-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-inflammatory-markers-in-heart-failure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#20
Alexander J Rodriguez, Aya Mousa, Peter R Ebeling, David Scott, Barbora de Courten
Vitamin D is reported to have anti-inflammatory properties; however the effects of vitamin D supplementation on inflammation in patients with heart failure (HF) have not been established. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis examining effects of vitamin D supplementation on inflammatory markers in patients with HF. MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, All EBM, and Clinical Trials registries were systematically searched for RCTs from inception to 25 January 2017. Two independent reviewers screened all full text articles (no date or language limits) for RCTs reporting effects of vitamin D supplementation (any form, route, duration, and co-supplementation) compared with placebo or usual care on inflammatory markers in patients with heart failure...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
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