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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156815/the-effect-of-aspirin-on-circulating-netrin-1-levels-in-humans-is-dependent-on-the-inflammatory-status-of-the-vascular-endothelium
#1
Kerry Layne, Timothy Goodman, Albert Ferro, Gabriella Passacquale
In atherosclerotic animal models, the cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-inhibitor aspirin counteracts downregulation of endothelial-derived netrin-1, thus reducing arterial inflammation. We here explored the effect of aspirin on netrin-1 in healthy subjects undergoing influenza immunisation, which is an established experimental model of inflammation-related endothelial dysfunction. Our data showed that netrin-1 undergoes reduction (-29.25% from baseline; p=0.0017) in the presence of endothelial activation (VCAM-1 rose by 9...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156603/adding-an-artificial-tail-anchor-to-a-peptide-based-hiv-1-fusion-inhibitor-for-improvement-of-its-potency-and-resistance-profile
#2
Shan Su, Zhenxuan Ma, Chen Hua, Weihua Li, Lu Lu, Shibo Jiang
Peptides derived from the C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope protein transmembrane subunit gp41, such as T20 (enfuvirtide), can bind to the N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR) of gp41 and block six-helix bundle (6-HB) formation, thus inhibiting HIV-1 fusion with the target cell. However, clinical application of T20 is limited because of its low potency and genetic barrier to resistance. HP23, the shortest CHR peptide, exhibits better anti-HIV-1 activity than T20, but the HIV-1 strains with E49K mutations in gp41 will become resistant to it...
November 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156455/-the-overrated-impact-of-inhaled-substances-laba-lama-ics-on-exacerbation-rates-in-copd
#3
D Köhler, D Dellweg
Numerous studies have shown that exacerbation rates in COPD can be significantly reduced by long acting beta-2-agonists (LABA), long acting anticholinergic agents (LAMA) and inhaled steroids (ICS). Elaborate and extensive investigations however failed to prove that the reduction in exacerbation rates leads to life prolongation. As opposed to this, numerous studies have shown a reduction in life expectancy with increasing number and severity of exacerbations.This review aimed at comparing these studies and to elaborate the relevance and reduction of exacerbations rates by LABA, LAMA and ICS application through effect size calculation by means of Cohens' d...
November 20, 2017: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156343/native-and-exotic-oysters-in-brazil-comparative-tolerance-to-hypercapnia
#4
Anthony Moreira, Etelvina Figueira, Iracy L Pecora, Amadeu M V M Soares, Rosa Freitas
Environmental hypercapnia in shallow coastal marine ecosystems can be exacerbated by increasing levels of atmospheric CO2. In these ecosystems organisms are expected to become increasingly subjected to pCO2 levels several times higher than those inhabiting ocean waters (e.g.: 10,000µatm), but still our current understanding on different species capacity to respond to such levels of hypercapnia is limited. Oysters are among the most important foundation species inhabiting these coastal ecosystems, although natural oyster banks are increasingly threatened worldwide...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156331/may-humic-acids-or-mineral-fertilisation-mitigate-arsenic-mobility-and-availability-to-carrot-plants-daucus-carota-l-in-a-volcanic-soil-polluted-by-as-from-irrigation-water
#5
Antonio G Caporale, Paola Adamo, Shah M G G Azam, Maria A Rao, Massimo Pigna
Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is a widely consumed root vegetable, whose growth and safety might be threatened by growing-medium arsenic (As) contamination. By this work, we evaluated the effects of humic acids from Leonardite and NPK mineral fertilisation on As mobility and availability to carrot plants grown for 60 days in a volcanic soil irrigated with As-contaminated water - representing the most common scenario occurring in As-affected Italian areas. As expected, the irrigation with As-contaminated water caused a serious toxic effect on plant growth and photosynthetic rate; the highest rate of As also inhibited soil enzymatic activity...
November 9, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156267/using-dynamic-flux-chambers-to-estimate-the-natural-attenuation-rates-in-the-subsurface-at-petroleum-contaminated-sites
#6
Iason Verginelli, Roberto Pecoraro, Renato Baciocchi
In this work, we introduce a screening method for the evaluation of the natural attenuation rates in the subsurface at sites contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. The method is based on the combination of the data obtained from standard source characterization with dynamic flux chambers measurements. The natural attenuation rates are calculated as difference between the flux of contaminants estimated with a non-reactive diffusive model starting from the concentrations of the contaminants detected in the source (soil and/or groundwater) and the effective emission rate of the contaminants measured using dynamic flux chambers installed at ground level...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156266/seabirds-as-regional-biomonitors-of-legacy-toxicants-on-an-urbanized-coastline
#7
Corey A Clatterbuck, Rebecca L Lewison, Nathan G Dodder, Catherine Zeeman, Kenneth Schiff
Seabirds are often cited as sentinels of the marine environment, but are rarely used in traditional ocean and coastal contaminant monitoring. Four classes of persistent organic pollutants (POPs, n=68) and three trace elements (mercury, selenium, and arsenic) were measured in the eggs of California least terns (Sterna antillarum browni), caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia), double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), and western gulls (Larus occidentalis) that nest in the Southern California Bight. Building on a periodic five year regional monitoring program, we measured contaminant exposure and assessed the utility of seabirds as regional contaminant biomonitors...
November 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156098/technical-note-penumbral-width-trimming-in-solid-lung-dose-profiles-for-0-9-t-and-1-5-t-mri-linac-prototypes
#8
Sarah J Alnaghy, Jarrad Begg, Trent Causer, Thahabah Alharthi, Laura Glaubes, Bin Dong, Armia George, Lois Holloway, Peter Metcalfe
PURPOSE: Longitudinal magnetic fields narrow beam penumbra and tighten lateral spread of secondary electrons in air cavities, including lung tissue. Gafchromic(®) EBT3 film was used to investigate differences between penumbra in solid water and solid lung, without a magnetic field (0 T) and with two field strengths (0.9 T and 1.5 T). METHODS: The first prototype of the Australian MRI-linac consisted of a 1.5 T Siemens Sonata MRI and Varian industrial linatron (nominal 4 MV)...
November 20, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156083/toward-ecologically-realistic-predictions-of-species-distributions-a-cross-time-example-from-tropical-montane-cloud-forests
#9
Lázaro Guevara, Beth E Gerstner, Jamie M Kass, Robert P Anderson
There is an urgent need for more ecologically realistic models for better predicting the effects of climate change on species' potential geographic distributions. Here we build ecological niche models using MAXENT and test whether selecting predictor variables based on biological knowledge and selecting ecologically realistic response curves can improve cross-time distributional predictions. We also evaluate how the method chosen for extrapolation into nonanalog conditions affects the prediction. We do so by estimating the potential distribution of a montane shrew (Mammalia, Soricidae, Cryptotis mexicanus) at present and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM)...
November 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155969/reducing-barriers-to-consulting-a-general-practitioner-in-patients-at-increased-risk-of-lung-cancer-a-qualitative-evaluation-of-the-chest-australia-intervention
#10
Sonya R Murray, Yvonne Kutzer, Emily Habgood, Peter Murchie, Fiona M Walter, Danielle Mazza, Shaouli Shahid, Jon D Emery
Background: Lung cancer has one of the lowest survival outcomes of any cancer because over two-thirds of patients are diagnosed when curative treatment is no longer possible, partly due to later presentation with symptoms to a healthcare provider. Objective: To explore the theoretical underpinning of the Scottish CHEST intervention in participants randomized to the intervention group within the CHEST Australia trial. Methods: A purposive maximum variation sample of participants who received the intervention in the CHEST trial in Perth, Western Australia (N = 13) and Melbourne, Victoria, (N = 7) were interviewed...
November 16, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155876/docking-analysis-and-the-possibility-of-prediction-efficacy-for-an-anti-il-13-biopharmaceutical-treatment-with-tralokinumab-and-lebrikizumab-for-bronchial-asthma
#11
Yutaka Nakamura, Aki Sugano, Mika Ohta, Yutaka Takaoka
Interleukin-13 (IL-13) is associated with allergic airway inflammation and airway remodeling. Our group found a variant with a single nucleotide polymorphism in the IL13 gene at position +2044G>A (rs20541) that was expected to result in the non-conservative replacement of a positively charged arginine (R) with a neutral glutamine (Q) at position 144. IL-13Q144 was associated with augmented allergic airway inflammation and bronchial asthma remodeling. There is some indication that anti-IL-13 monoclonal antibodies can demonstrate a positive effect on the clinical course of refractory asthmatic patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155843/the-relation-between-statistical-power-and-inference-in-fmri
#12
Henk R Cremers, Tor D Wager, Tal Yarkoni
Statistically underpowered studies can result in experimental failure even when all other experimental considerations have been addressed impeccably. In fMRI the combination of a large number of dependent variables, a relatively small number of observations (subjects), and a need to correct for multiple comparisons can decrease statistical power dramatically. This problem has been clearly addressed yet remains controversial-especially in regards to the expected effect sizes in fMRI, and especially for between-subjects effects such as group comparisons and brain-behavior correlations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155826/programmatic-factors-associated-with-the-limited-impact-of-community-directed-treatment-with-ivermectin-to-control-onchocerciasis-in-three-drainage-basins-of-south-west-cameroon
#13
Christian Tetteh Duamor, Fabrice Roberto Datchoua-Poutcheu, Winston Patrick Chounna Ndongmo, Aldof Tah Yoah, Ernest Njukang, Emmanuel Kah, Mary Sheena Maingeh, Jonas Arnaud Kengne-Ouaffo, Dizzle Bita Tayong, Peter A Enyong, Samuel Wanji
INTRODUCTION: The CDTI model is known to have enhanced community participation in planning and resource mobilization toward the control of onchocerciasis. These effects were expected to translate into better individual acceptance of the intervention and hence high Treatment Coverage, leading to a sustainable community-led strategy and reduction in the disease burden. A survey revealed that after 10-12 rounds of treatment, prevalence of onchocerciasis was still high in three drainage basins of South West Cameroon and transmission was going on...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155804/efficacy-of-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-in-the-absence-of-side-effects-a-mega-analysis-of-citalopram-and-paroxetine-in-adult-depression
#14
F Hieronymus, A Lisinski, S Nilsson, E Eriksson
It has been suggested that the superiority of antidepressants over placebo in controlled trials is merely a consequence of side effects enhancing the expectation of improvement by making the patient realize that he/she is not on placebo. We explored this hypothesis in a patient-level post hoc-analysis including all industry-sponsored, Food and Drug Administration-registered placebo-controlled trials of citalopram or paroxetine in adult major depression that used the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and included a week 6 symptom assessment (n=15)...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155789/efficient-generation-and-editing-of-feeder-free-ipscs-from-human-pancreatic-cells-using-the-crispr-cas9-system
#15
Anjali Nandal, Barbara Mallon, Bhanu P Telugu
Embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells can self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell types of the body. The pluripotent cells are thus coveted for research in regenerative medicine and are currently in clinical trials for eye diseases, diabetes, heart diseases, and other disorders. The potential to differentiate into specialized cell types coupled with the recent advances in genome editing technologies including the CRISPR/Cas system have provided additional opportunities for tailoring the genome of iPSC for varied applications including disease modeling, gene therapy, and biasing pathways of differentiation, to name a few...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155773/dna-magnetic-particle-binding-analysis-by-dynamic-and-electrophoretic-light-scattering
#16
Yazan Haddad, Simona Dostalova, Jiri Kudr, Ondrej Zitka, Zbynek Heger, Vojtech Adam
Isolation of DNA using magnetic particles is a field of high importance in biotechnology and molecular biology research. This protocol describes the evaluation of DNA-magnetic particles binding via dynamic light scattering (DLS) and electrophoretic light scattering (ELS). Analysis by DLS provides valuable information on the physicochemical properties of particles including particle size, polydispersity, and zeta potential. The latter describes the surface charge of the particle which plays major role in electrostatic binding of materials such as DNA...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155606/a-new-framework-for-analysis-of-coevolutionary-systems-directed-graph-representation-and-random-walks
#17
Siang Yew Chong, Peter Tiňo, Jun He, Xin Yao
Studying coevolutionary systems in the context of simplified models (i.e. games with pairwise interactions between coevolving solutions modelled as self plays) re-mains an open challenge since the rich underlying structures associated with pairwise-comparison-based fitness measures are often not taken fully into account. Although cyclic dynamics have been demonstrated in several contexts (such as intransitivity in coevolutionary problems), there is no complete characterization of cycle structures and their effects on coevolutionary search...
November 20, 2017: Evolutionary Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155558/correlated-absorption-and-scattering-spectroscopy-of-individual-pt-decorated-au-nanorods-reveals-strong-excitation-enhancement-in-the-non-plasmonic-metal
#18
Anneli Joplin, Seyyed Ali Hosseini Jebeli, Eric Sung, Nathan Diemler, Patrick J Straney, Mustafa Yorulmaz, Wei-Shun Chang, Jill E Millstone, Stephan Link
Bimetallic nanocatalysts have the potential to surmount current limitations in industrial catalysis if their electronic and optical properties can be effectively controlled. However, improving the performance of bimetallic photocatalysts requires a functional understanding of how the intricacies of their morphology and composition dictate every element of their optical response. In this work, we examine Au and Pt-decorated Au nanorods on a single particle level to ascertain how Pt influences the plasmon resonance of the bimetallic nanostructure...
November 20, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155552/reliably-modeling-the-mechanical-stability-of-rigid-and-flexible-metal-organic-frameworks
#19
Sven M J Rogge, Michel Waroquier, Veronique Van Speybroeck
Over the past two decades, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have matured from interesting academic peculiarities toward a continuously expanding class of hybrid, nanoporous materials tuned for targeted technological applications such as gas storage and heterogeneous catalysis. These oft-times crystalline materials, composed of inorganic moieties interconnected by organic ligands, can be endowed with desired structural and chemical features by judiciously functionalizing or substituting these building blocks...
November 20, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155274/polysaccharides-from-the-south-african-medicinal-plant-artemisia-afra-structure-and-activity-studies
#20
Paula Marie Braünlich, Kari Tvete Inngjerdingen, Marit Inngjerdingen, Quinton Johnson, Berit Smestad Paulsen, Wilfred Mabusela
Artemisia afra (Jacq. Ex. Willd), is an indigenous plant in South Africa and other parts of the African continent, where it is used as traditional medicine mostly for respiratory conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the structural features of the polysaccharides from the leaves of this plant, as well as the biological activities of the polysaccharide fractions against the complement assay. Leaves of Artemisia afra were extracted sequentially with organic solvents (dichloromethane and methanol), 50% aqueous ethanol, and water at 50 and 100°C respectively...
November 15, 2017: Fitoterapia
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