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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356459/costs-of-immune-responses-are-related-to-host-body-size-and-lifespan
#1
Amber J Brace, Marc J Lajeunesse, Daniel R Ardia, Dana M Hawley, James S Adelman, Katherine L Buchanan, Jeanne M Fair, Jennifer L Grindstaff, Kevin D Matson, Lynn B Martin
A central assumption in ecological immunology is that immune responses are costly, with costs manifesting directly (e.g., increases in metabolic rate and increased amino acid usage) or as tradeoffs with other life processes (e.g., reduced growth and reproductive success). Across taxa, host longevity, timing of maturity, and reproductive effort affect the organization of immune systems. It is reasonable, therefore, to expect that these and related factors should also affect immune activation costs. Specifically, species that spread their breeding efforts over a long lifetime should experience lower immune costs than those that mature and breed quickly and die comparatively early...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356385/3d-electronic-channels-wrapped-large-sized-na3-v2-po4-3-as-flexible-electrode-for-sodium-ion-batteries
#2
Qiao Ni, Ying Bai, Yu Li, Liming Ling, Limin Li, Guanghai Chen, Zhaohua Wang, Haixia Ren, Feng Wu, Chuan Wu
The development of portable and wearable electronics has aroused the increasing demand for flexible energy-storage devices, especially for the characteristics of high energy density, excellent mechanical properties, simple synthesis process, and low cost. However, the development of flexible electrodes for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) is still limited due to the intricate production methods and the relatively high-cost of current collectors such as graphene/graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes. Here, the hierarchical 3D electronic channels wrapped large-sized Na3 V2 (PO4 )3 is designed and fabricated by a simple electrospinning technique...
January 22, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356354/functional-differentiation-of-three-pores-for-effective-sulfur-confinement-in-li-s-battery
#3
Qian Wang, Minghui Yang, Zhen-Bo Wang, Chao Li, Da-Ming Gu
Shuttle effect of the dissolved intermediates is regarded as the primary cause that leads to fast capacity degradation of Li-S battery. Herein, a microporous carbon-coated sulfur composite with novel rambutan shape (R-S@MPC) is synthesized from microporous carbon-coated rambutan-like zinc sulfide (R-ZnS@MPC), via an in situ oxidation process. The R-ZnS is employed as both template and sulfur precursor. The carbon frame of R-S@MPC composite possesses three kinds of pores that are distinctly separated from each other in space and are endowed with the exclusive functions...
January 22, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356345/four-days-of-simulated-shift-work-reduces-insulin-sensitivity-in-humans
#4
R Bescos, M J Boden, M L Jackson, A J Trewin, E C Marin, I Levinger, A Garnham, D S Hiam, F Falcao-Tebas, F Conte, J A Owens, D J Kennaway, G K McConell
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of four consecutive simulated night shifts on glucose homeostasis, mitochondrial function and central and peripheral rhythmicity compared with a simulated day shift schedule. METHODS: Seventeen healthy adults (8M:9F) matched for sleep, physical activity, and dietary/fat intake participated in this study (night shift work n= 9; day shift work n= 8). Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity before and after 4 nights of shift work were measured by an intravenous glucose tolerance test and a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, respectively...
January 22, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356225/combining-synthetic-controls-and-interrupted-time-series-analysis-to-improve-causal-inference-in-program-evaluation
#5
Ariel Linden
RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Interrupted time series analysis (ITSA) is an evaluation methodology in which a single treatment unit's outcome is studied over time and the intervention is expected to "interrupt" the level and/or trend of the outcome. The internal validity is strengthened considerably when the treated unit is contrasted with a comparable control group. In this paper, we introduce a robust evaluation framework that combines the synthetic controls method (SYNTH) to generate a comparable control group and ITSA regression to assess covariate balance and estimate treatment effects...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355997/effect-of-body-mass-index-on-survival-after-sudden-cardiac-arrest
#6
Sayna Matinrazm, Adetola Ladejobi, Deepak Kumar Pasupula, Awais Javed, Asad Durrani, Shahzad Ahmad, Muhammad Bilal Munir, Evan Adelstein, Sandeep K Jain, Samir Saba
BACKGROUND: Although elevated body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor for cardiac disease, patients with elevated BMI have better survival in the context of severe illness, a phenomenon termed the "obesity paradox." HYPOTHESIS: Higher BMI is associated with lower mortality in sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) survivors. METHODS: Data were collected on 1433 post-SCA patients, discharged alive from the hospitals of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center between 2002 and 2012...
January 22, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355914/intraoperative-imaging-technology-to-maximise-extent-of-resection-for-glioma
#7
REVIEW
Michael D Jenkinson, Damiano Giuseppe Barone, Andrew Bryant, Luke Vale, Helen Bulbeck, Theresa A Lawrie, Michael G Hart, Colin Watts
BACKGROUND: Extent of resection is considered to be a prognostic factor in neuro-oncology. Intraoperative imaging technologies are designed to help achieve this goal. It is not clear whether any of these sometimes very expensive tools (or their combination) should be recommended as standard care for people with brain tumours. We set out to determine if intraoperative imaging technology offers any advantage in terms of extent of resection over standard surgery and if any one technology was more effective than another...
January 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355869/gold-nanorods-decorated-with-a-cancer-drug-for-multimodal-imaging-and-therapy
#8
Resmi V Nair, Hema Santhakumar, Ramapurath S Jayasree
Cancer, a condition with uncontrolled cell division, is the second leading cause of death worldwide. The currently available techniques for the imaging and treatment of cancer have their own limitations and hence a combination of more than one modality is expected to increase the efficacy of both diagnosis and treatment. In the present study, we have developed a multimodal imaging and therapeutic system by incorporating a chemotherapeutic drug, mitoxantrone (MTX) onto PEG coated gold nanorods (GNR). Strong absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) and visible regions qualifies GNR as an efficient photothermal (PTT) agent upon irradiation with either a NIR or visible laser...
January 22, 2018: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355810/successful-covered-stent-usage-for-carotid-artery-injury-with-active-medial-projecting-extravasation
#9
Nobuhiko Arai, Hiroshi Kagami, Tomohiro Funabiki, Yutaka Mine, Makoto Inaba
BACKGROUND: Non-traumatic carotid artery injury with active extravasation, or carotid blowout syndrome (CBS), is relatively rare and highly difficult to treat because it is difficult to approach the lesions due to anatomical factors. It also involves quick progression and cerebral embolization risk caused by thrombi and carotid artery occlusion. Recently, covered stents were revealed to be effective for CBS. However, they have several disadvantages, such as their costs, rebleeding complications, or cerebral embolic risks...
January 17, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355800/surgical-approaches-for-the-treatment-of-multilevel-cervical-ossification-of-the-posterior-longitudinal-ligament-results-of-a-decision-analysis
#10
Nikhil R Nayak, Matthew Piazza, Andrew Milby, Jayesh P Thawani, Lachlan J Smith, Sherman C Stein, Neil R Malhotra
BACKGROUND: Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) often leads to cervical myelopathy. While multiple procedures have been shown to be effective in the treatment of OPLL, outcomes are less predictable than in degenerative cervical myelopathy and surgery is associated with high rates of complications and re-operation which affect quality of life. In this study, we perform a decision analysis utilizing post-operative complication data and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) utility scores to assess the average expected health utility and 5-year quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) associated with the most common surgical approaches for multilevel cervical OPLL...
January 16, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355649/diminished-choice-effect-on-anticipating-improbable-rewards
#11
Weiran Chen, Qi Li, Shuting Mei, Wei Yi, Guochun Yang, Shiyu Zhou, Xun Liu, Ya Zheng
Previous research found that the neural substrates underlying perceived control highly overlap those of reward system, especially during reward anticipation stage. The current event-related potential study examined whether the experience of choice by which individuals exercise control is modulated by reward probability during reward anticipation stage as indexed by the stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN). Thirty participants performed a cued gambling task during which choices could be made either by themselves (a choice condition) or by a computer (a no-choice condition) with three levels of reward probability (low, medium, and high) while their EEG was recording...
January 16, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355547/%C3%AE-blockers-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-cohort-study-from-the-tonado%C3%A2-research-programme
#12
François Maltais, Roland Buhl, Andrea Koch, Valeria C Amatto, Jim Reid, Lars Grönke, Ulrich Bothner, Florian Voß, Lorcan McGarvey, Gary T Ferguson
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is a frequent co-morbidity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Many clinicians, particularly pulmonologists, are reluctant to use β-adrenoceptor blocking agents (β-blockers) in patients with COPD, despite their proven effectiveness in preventing cardiovascular events. METHODS: The large (5,162 patients) phase III TONADO® 1 and 2 studies assessed lung function and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients with moderate to very severe COPD receiving long-acting bronchodilator treatment over 1 year...
January 16, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355538/cooperative-folding-transition-in-the-sequence-space-facilitates-function-driven-evolution-of-protein-families
#13
Akira R Kinjo
In the protein sequence space, natural proteins form clusters of families which are characterized by their unique native folds whereas the great majority of random polypeptides are neither clustered nor foldable to unique structures. Since a given polypeptide can be either foldable or unfoldable, a kind of "folding transition" is expected at the boundary of a protein family in the sequence space. By Monte Carlo simulations of a statistical mechanical model of protein sequence alignment that coherently incorporates both short-range and long-range interactions as well as variable-length insertions to reproduce the statistics of the multiple sequence alignment of a given protein family, we demonstrate the existence of such transition between natural-like sequences and random sequences in the sequence subspaces for 15 domain families of various folds...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355339/the-downside-of-downtime-the-prevalence-and-work-pacing-consequences-of-idle-time-at-work
#14
Andrew Brodsky, Teresa M Amabile
Although both media commentary and academic research have focused much attention on the dilemma of employees being too busy, this paper presents evidence of the opposite phenomenon, in which employees do not have enough work to fill their time and are left with hours of meaningless idle time each week. We conducted six studies that examine the prevalence and work pacing consequences of involuntary idle time. In a nationally representative cross-occupational survey (Study 1), we found that idle time occurs frequently across all occupational categories; we estimate that employers in the United States pay roughly $100 billion in wages for time that employees spend idle...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355231/pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-negative-persons-with-partners-living-with-hiv-uptake-use-and-effectiveness-in-an-open-label-demonstration-project-in-east-africa
#15
Renee Heffron, Kenneth Ngure, Josephine Odoyo, Nulu Bulya, Edna Tindimwebwa, Ting Hong, Lara Kidoguchi, Deborah Donnell, Nelly R Mugo, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Elly Katabira, Stephen Asiimwe, Jennifer Morton, Susan Morrison, Harald Haugen, Andrew Mujugira, Jessica E Haberer, Norma C Ware, Monique A Wyatt, Mark A Marzinke, Lisa M Frenkel, Connie Celum, Jared M Baeten
Introduction: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can provide high protection against HIV infection and is a recommended intervention for HIV-negative persons with substantial HIV risk, such as individuals with a partner living with HIV.  Demonstration projects of PrEP have been conducted in diverse settings worldwide to illustrate practical examples of how PrEP can be delivered.  Methods: We evaluated delivery of PrEP for HIV-negative partners within heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couples in an open-label demonstration project in East Africa...
November 6, 2017: Gates Open Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355169/sex-and-gender-disparities-in-the-epidemiology-and-outcomes-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#16
REVIEW
Juan Jesus Carrero, Manfred Hecking, Nicholas C Chesnaye, Kitty J Jager
Improved understanding of sex and gender-specific differences in the aetiology, mechanisms and epidemiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD) could help nephrologists better address the needs of their patients. Population-based studies indicate that CKD epidemiology differs by sex, affecting more women than men, especially with regard to stage G3 CKD. The effects of longer life expectancy on the natural decline of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with age, as well as potential overdiagnosis of CKD through the inappropriate use of GFR equations, might be in part responsible for the greater prevalence of CKD in women...
January 22, 2018: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354825/linear-humidity-response-of-carbon-dot-modified-molybdenum-disulfide
#17
Guili He, Da Huang, Zhi Yang, Yutong Han, Jun Hu, Nantao Hu, Yanjie Su, Zhihua Zhou, Yafei Zhang, Yan Zhang
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)-based humidity sensors suffer from low sensitivity and long response time. Herein, this problem has been effectively solved by modifying MoS2 nanosheets using carbon dots (CDs) with abundant functional groups via a convenient and facile hydrothermal method. The mechanism for the enhanced humidity response of CD-modified MoS2 has been proposed through the characterization of physical and chemical properties of the as-prepared composites. The introduction of CDs is expected to enhance the adsorption of water molecules by increasing the specific surface area and surface active sites of the MoS2 nanosheets...
January 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354378/unveiling-the-role-of-atp-in-amplification-of-intrinsic-peroxidase-like-activity-of-gold-nanoparticles
#18
Juhi Shah, Sanjay Singh
Peroxidase enzyme-like activity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is currently being investigated for the potential application in the several realms of biomedicines. However, little is explored about the peroxidase activity of AuNPs decorated with different surface charges. It is well-documented that the catalytic activity and the interaction with mammalian cells are significantly different among AuNPs carrying different surface charges. We have recently reported that ATP enhances the peroxidase-like activity of AuNPs and iron oxide nanoparticles...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354279/evaluation-of-a-multiple-encounter-in-situ-simulation-for-orientation-of-staff-to-a-new-paediatric-emergency-service-a-single-group-pretest-post-test-study
#19
Michelle Davison, Frances B Kinnear, Paul Fulbrook
Aim: To assess the utility of a multiple-encounter in-situ (MEIS) simulation as an orientation tool for multidisciplinary staff prior to opening a new paediatric emergency service. Methods: A single-group pretest/post-test study was conducted. During the MEIS simulation, multidisciplinary staff with participant or observer roles managed eight children (mannequins) who attended triage with their parent/guardians (clinical facilitators) for a range of emergency presentations (structured scenarios designed to represent the expected range of presentations plus test various clinical pathways/systems)...
October 2017: BMJ Simul Technol Enhanc Learn
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354257/drought-effects-on-the-tissue-and-cell-specific-cytokinin-activity-in-poplar
#20
Shanty Paul, Henning Wildhagen, Dennis Janz, Andrea Polle
Climate change with increasing periods of drought is expected to reduce the yield of biomass crops such as poplars. To combat yield loss, it is important to better understand the molecular mechanisms that control growth under drought. Here, the goal was to resolve the drought-induced changes of active cytokinins, a main growth hormone in plants, at the tissue level in different cell types and organs of poplars (Populus × canescens) in comparison with growth, biomass, leaf shedding, photosynthesis and water potential...
February 2018: AoB Plants
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