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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351128/nanoparticles-of-titanium-and-zinc-oxides-as-novel-agents-in-tumor-treatment-a-review
#1
Janusz Bogdan, Joanna Pławińska-Czarnak, Joanna Zarzyńska
Cancer has become a global problem. On all continents, a great number of people are diagnosed with this disease. In spite of the progress in medical care, cancer still ends fatal for a great number of the ill, either as a result of a late diagnosis or due to inefficiency of therapies. The majority of the tumors are resistant to drugs. Thus, the search for new, more effective therapy methods continues. Recently, nanotechnology has been attributed with big expectations in respect of the cancer fight. That interdisciplinary field of science creates nanomaterials (NMs) and nanoparticles (NPs) that can be applied, e...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351116/management-of-people-with-early-or-very-early-stage-hepatocellular-carcinoma-an-attempted-network-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Avik Majumdar, Davide Roccarina, Douglas Thorburn, Brian R Davidson, Emmanuel Tsochatzis, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (primary liver cancer) is classified in many ways. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) group staging classifies the cancer based on patient's life expectancy. People with very early- or early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma have single tumour or three tumours of maximum diameter of 3 cm or less, Child-Pugh status A to B, and performance status 0 (fully functional). Management of hepatocellular carcinoma is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To assess the comparative benefits and harms of different interventions used in the treatment of early or very early hepatocellular carcinoma through a network meta-analysis and to generate rankings of the available interventions according to their safety and efficacy...
March 28, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350853/impacts-of-120-years-of-fertilizer-addition-on-a-temperate-grassland-ecosystem
#3
Jonathan Kidd, Peter Manning, Janet Simkin, Simon Peacock, Elizabeth Stockdale
The widespread application of fertilizers has greatly influenced many processes and properties of agroecosystems, and agricultural fertilization is expected to increase even further in the future. To date, most research on fertilizer impacts has used short-term studies, which may be unrepresentative of long-term responses, thus hindering our capacity to predict long-term impacts. Here, we examined the effects of long-term fertilizer addition on key ecosystem properties in a long-term grassland experiment (Palace Leas Hay Meadow) in which farmyard manure (FYM) and inorganic fertilizer treatments have been applied consistently for 120 years in order to characterize the experimental site more fully and compare ecosystem responses with those observed at other long-term and short-term experiments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350831/post-term-growth-and-cognitive-development-at-5-years-of-age-in-preterm-children-evidence-from-a-prospective-population-based-cohort
#4
Laure Simon, Simon Nusinovici, Cyril Flamant, Bertrand Cariou, Valérie Rouger, Géraldine Gascoin, Dominique Darmaun, Jean-Christophe Rozé, Matthieu Hanf
While the effects of growth from birth to expected term on the subsequent development of preterm children has attracted plentiful attention, less is known about the effects of post-term growth. We aimed to delineate distinct patterns of post-term growth and to determine their association with the cognitive development of preterm children. Data from a prospective population-based cohort of 3,850 surviving infants born at less than 35 weeks of gestational age were used. Growth was assessed as the Body Mass Index (BMI) Z-scores at 3, 9, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350829/spatio-temporal-variation-of-fish-taxonomic-composition-in-a-south-east-asian-flood-pulse-system
#5
Heng Kong, Mathieu Chevalier, Pascal Laffaille, Sovan Lek
The Tonle Sap Lake (TSL) is a flood-pulse system. It is the largest natural lake in South-East Asia and constitutes one of the largest fisheries over the world, supporting the livelihood of million peoples. Nonetheless, the Mekong River Basin is changing rapidly due to accelerating water infrastructure development (hydropower, irrigation, flood control, and water supply) and climate change, bringing considerable modifications to the annual flood-pulse of the TSL. Such modifications are expected to have strong impacts on fish biodiversity and abundance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350828/clustering-of-four-major-lifestyle-risk-factors-among-korean-adults-with-metabolic-syndrome
#6
Shin Ha, Hui Ran Choi, Yo Han Lee
The purpose of this study was to investigate the clustering pattern of four major lifestyle risk factors-smoking, heavy drinking, poor diet, and physical inactivity-among people with metabolic syndrome in South Korea. There were 2,469 adults with metabolic syndrome aged 30 years or older available with the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dataset. We calculated the ratio of the observed to expected (O/E) prevalence for the 16 different combinations and the prevalence odds ratios (POR) of four lifestyle risk factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350544/efimov-physics-a-review
#7
Pascal Naidon, Shimpei Endo
This article reviews theoretical and experimental advances in Efimov physics, an array of quantum few-body and many-body phenomena arising for particles interacting via short-range resonant interactions, that is based on the appearance of a scale-invariant three-body attraction theoretically discovered by Vitaly Efimov in 1970. This three-body effect was originally proposed to explain the binding of nuclei such as the triton and the Hoyle state of carbon-12, and later considered as a simple explanation for the existence of some halo nuclei...
March 28, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350502/complex-relationships-between-competing-guilds-along-large-scale-environmental-gradients
#8
Remi Vergnon, Mark K J Ooi, Robert P Freckleton
Despite much research over the past 30 years, there is still little general understanding of how the outcomes of interactions vary along environmental gradients, particularly at large geographic scales. A simple expectation is that decreasing environmental quality should reduce densities of competitors and hence the effects of competition should weaken in poorer environments. A counterintuitive consequence is that associations between densities of competitors might change from negative to positive as environments decrease in quality...
April 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346848/cardiovascular-protective-effects-and-clinical-applications-of-resveratrol
#9
Sanghyun Cho, Kyung Namkoong, Minji Shin, Jueun Park, Eunyeong Yang, Jinsoo Ihm, Vu Thi Thu, Hyoung Kyu Kim, Jin Han
Resveratrol is a naturally occurring phenol that is generated by plant species following injury or attack by bacterial and fungal pathogens. This compound was first described as the French Paradox in 1992. Later in 2003, resveratrol was reported to activate sirtuins in yeast cells. Recent experimental studies have found that resveratrol offers a variety of benefits that include both anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory effects in addition to the ability to reverse obesity, attenuate hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, protect heart and endothelial function, and increase the life span...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346816/child-adult-differences-in-using-dual-task-paradigms-to-measure-listening-effort
#10
Erin M Picou, Lauren M Charles, Todd A Ricketts
Purpose: The purpose of the project was to investigate the effects modifying the secondary task in a dual-task paradigm to measure objective listening effort. To be specific, the complexity and depth of processing were increased relative to a simple secondary task. Method: Three dual-task paradigms were developed for school-age children. The primary task was word recognition. The secondary task was a physical response to a visual probe (simple task), a physical response to a complex probe (increased complexity), or word categorization (increased depth of processing)...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346808/patient-reported-outcomes-1-year-after-immediate-breast-reconstruction-results-of-the-mastectomy-reconstruction-outcomes-consortium-study
#11
Andrea L Pusic, Evan Matros, Neil Fine, Edward Buchel, Gayle M Gordillo, Jennifer B Hamill, Hyungjin M Kim, Ji Qi, Claudia Albornoz, Anne F Klassen, Edwin G Wilkins
Purpose The goals of immediate postmastectomy breast reconstruction are to minimize deformity and optimize quality of life as perceived by patients. We prospectively evaluated patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in women undergoing immediate implant-based or autologous reconstruction. Methods Women undergoing immediate postmastectomy reconstruction for invasive cancer and/or carcinoma in situ were enrolled at 11 sites. Women underwent implant-based or autologous tissue reconstruction. Patients completed the BREAST-Q, a condition-specific PRO measure for breast surgery patients, and Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System-29, a generic PRO measure, before and 1 year after surgery...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346335/apparent-interfacial-tension-effects-in-protein-stabilized-emulsions-prepared-with-microstructured-systems
#12
Carme Güell, Montserrat Ferrando, Alexandre Trentin, Karin Schroën
Proteins are mostly used to stabilize food emulsions; however, production of protein containing emulsions is notoriously difficult to capture in scaling relations due to the complex behavior of proteins in interfaces, in combination with the dynamic nature of the emulsification process. Here, we investigate premix membrane emulsification and use the Ohnesorge number to derive a scaling relation for emulsions prepared with whey protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and a standard emulsifier Tween 20, at various concentrations (0...
March 25, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346267/generalizing-study-results-a-potential-outcomes-perspective
#13
Catherine R Lesko, Ashley L Buchanan, Daniel Westreich, Jessie K Edwards, Michael G Hudgens, Stephen R Cole
Great care is taken in epidemiologic studies to ensure the internal validity of causal effect estimates; however, external validity has received considerably less attention. When the study sample is not a random sample of the target population, the sample average treatment effect, even if internally valid, cannot usually be expected to equal the average treatment effect in the target population. The utility of an effect estimate for planning purposes and decision making will depend on the degree of departure from the true causal effect in the target population due to problems with both internal and external validity...
March 24, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346203/u-s-food-and-drug-administration-inspections-guide-to-a-successful-outcome-for-503a-sterile-compounding-pharmacies
#14
Doug Yoch
The reasons for which pharmaceutical compounding is the focus of intense state and federal scrutiny are now well known. Compounders are faced with an ever-increasing need to prove, by objective standards, the safety, purity, and potency of the formulations they dispense. They must also demonstrate their compliance with regulations often based on current good compounding practices designed for the pharmaceutical industry. In the U.S. today, rigorous unannounced state and federal inspections of compounding facilities are occurring more and more frequently...
March 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346143/action-of-cmg-with-strand-specific-dna-blocks-supports-an-internal-unwinding-mode-for-the-eukaryotic-replicative-helicase
#15
Lance D Langston, Mike E O'Donnell
Replicative helicases are ring-shaped hexamers that encircle DNA for duplex unwinding. The currently accepted view of hexameric helicase function is by steric exclusion, where the helicase encircles one DNA strand and excludes the other, acting as a wedge with an external DNA unwinding point during translocation. Accordingly, strand specific blocks only affect these helicases when placed on the tracking strand, not the excluded strand. We examined the effect of blocks on the eukaryotic CMG and, contrary to expectations, blocks on either strand inhibit CMG unwinding...
March 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346097/an-optimized-3d-coculture-assay-for-preclinical-testing-of-pro-and-antiangiogenic-drugs
#16
Daniela Unterleuthner, Nina Kramer, Karoline Pudelko, Alexandra Burian, Markus Hengstschläger, Helmut Dolznig
Angiogenesis is a promising target for anticancer therapies, but also for treating other diseases with pathologic vessel development. Targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway did not proof as effective as expected due to emerging intrinsic resistance mechanisms, as well as stromal contributions leading to drug insensitivity. Therefore, alternative strategies affecting the interaction of endothelial cells (ECs) with other stromal cells seem to be more promising. Human preclinical in vitro angiogenesis models successfully recapitulating these interactions are rare, and two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures cannot mimic tissue architecture in vivo...
January 1, 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345946/objective-effects-of-knowledge-on-visual-perception
#17
Gary Lupyan
To what extent is what we perceive influenced by what we know? Although a large literature purports to show effects of knowledge, expectations, and other cognitive states on various aspects of perception, strong counterarguments have been advanced that these demonstrations are confounded by nonperceptual factors. For example, although letters are easier to recognize in meaningful words than meaningless letter strings, skepticism remains that such effects of knowledge on visual recognition mean that knowledge literally helps people see...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345941/the-roles-of-negative-affect-and-goal-adjustment-capacities-in-breast-cancer-survivors-associations-with-physical-activity-and-diurnal-cortisol-secretion
#18
Andree L Castonguay, Carsten Wrosch, Catherine M Sabiston
OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether within-person changes of breast cancer survivors' high-arousal negative affect (e.g., feeling scared, upset, anxious, or guilty) could predict high levels of diurnal cortisol secretion and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). In addition, goal adjustment capacities (goal disengagement and goal reengagement) were expected to buffer the effect of negative affect on cortisol and to increase its effect on MVPA. METHOD: High-arousal negative affect, self-reported MVPA, area-under-the-curve of diurnal cortisol secretion, and goal adjustment capacities were assessed in a longitudinal sample of 145 female breast cancer survivors...
April 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345764/the-tarsal-metatarsal-complex-of-caviomorph-rodents-anatomy-and-functional-adaptive-analysis
#19
Adriana M Candela, Nahuel A Muñoz, César M García-Esponda
Caviomorph rodents represent a major adaptive radiation of Neotropical mammals. They occupy a variety of ecological niches, which is also reflected in their wide array of locomotor behaviors. It is expected that this radiation would be mirrored by an equivalent disparity of tarsal-metatarsal morphology. Here, the tarsal-metatarsal complex of Erethizontidae, Cuniculidae, Dasyproctidae, Caviidae, Chinchillidae, Octodontidae, Ctenomyidae, and Echimyidae was examined, in order to evaluate its anatomical variation and functional-adaptive relevance in relation to locomotor behaviors...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345674/skeletal-muscle-pump-drives-control-of-cardiovascular-and-postural-systems
#20
Ajay K Verma, Amanmeet Garg, Da Xu, Michelle Bruner, Reza Fazel-Rezai, Andrew P Blaber, Kouhyar Tavakolian
The causal interaction between cardio-postural-musculoskeletal systems is critical in maintaining postural stability under orthostatic challenge. The absence or reduction of such interactions could lead to fainting and falls often experienced by elderly individuals. The causal relationship between systolic blood pressure (SBP), calf electromyography (EMG), and resultant center of pressure (COPr) can quantify the behavior of cardio-postural control loop. Convergent cross mapping (CCM) is a non-linear approach to establish causality, thus, expected to decipher nonlinear causal cardio-postural-musculoskeletal interactions...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
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