Read by QxMD icon Read

Expectation effects

Karen E Bowker, Alan R Noel, Sharon Tomaselli, Marie Attwood, Alasdair P MacGowan
Background: The pharmacodynamics of inhaled antimicrobials are poorly studied. Amikacin is being developed for inhalational therapy as BAY 41-6551. Objectives: We employed an in vitro pharmacokinetic model to study the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of amikacin. Methods: A dose-ranging design was used to establish fAUC/MIC and fCmax/MIC targets for static, -1 log drop and -2 log drop effects for strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Brener Santos Silva, Hiago Victor Coelho, Ricardo Bezerra Cavalcante, Valéria Conceição de Oliveira, Eliete Albano de Azevedo Guimarães
OBJECTIVE: To carry out the National Immunization Program Information System (SIPNI) accessability assessment (EA), considering the description of the intervention, the elaboration of the theoretical-logical model and the identification of the evaluative questions. METHOD: A single case study with a qualitative approach, based on the system of seven elements proposed by Thurston and Ramaliu (2005). The SIPNI and the context of analysis, the vaccination rooms, were defined as the case...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Jian Zeng, Dorian Garrick, Jack Dekkers, Rohan Fernando
Genomic prediction exploits single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the whole genome for predicting genetic merit of selection candidates. In most models for genomic prediction, e.g. BayesA, B, C, R and GBLUP, independence of SNP effects is assumed. However, SNP effects are expected to be locally dependent given the presence of a nearby QTL because SNPs surrounding the QTL do not segregate independently. A consequence of ignoring this dependence is that SNPs with small effects may be overly shrunk, e...
2018: PloS One
Joanna X Wu, Chad B Wilsey, Lotem Taylor, Gregor W Schuurman
Birds in U.S. national parks find strong protection from many longstanding and pervasive threats, but remain highly exposed to effects of ongoing climate change. To understand how climate change is likely to alter bird communities in parks, we used species distribution models relating North American Breeding Bird Survey (summer) and Audubon Christmas Bird Count (winter) observations to climate data from the early 2000s and projected to 2041-2070 (hereafter, mid-century) under high and low greenhouse gas concentration trajectories, RCP8...
2018: PloS One
Qiufeng Yan, Jianhui Zhang, Jun Huang, Ying Wang
Because little is known about the atomization theory of a micro-tapered aperture atomizer, we investigated the vibration characteristics of this type of atomizer. The atomization mechanism of a micro-tapered aperture atomizer was described, and the atomization rate equation was deduced. As observed via microscopy, the angle of the micro-tapered aperture changes with the applied voltage, which proved the existence of a dynamic cone angle. The forward and reverse atomization rates were measured at various voltages, and the influence of the micro-tapered aperture and its variation on the atomization rate was characterized...
March 21, 2018: Sensors
Melanie Lumbers
The appropriate choice of postoperative dressing supports effective wound healing by providing a moist wound environment and reducing the risk of surgical site infection and blistering. Wound management is complex and practitioners need to consider the location of the wound, method of wound closure, expected exudate level and length of time the dressing needs to remain in place when selecting a product. The correct dressing selection will have a positive impact wound healing and the patient's quality of life...
March 22, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Gang Seob Jung, Shanshan Wang, Zhao Qin, Francisco J Martin-Martinez, Jamie H Warner, Markus J Buehler
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) monolayer is a two-dimensional (2D) material, which is expected to provide the next generation of electronic devices together with graphene and other 2D materials. Due to its significance for future electronics applications, gaining a deep insight of the fundamental mechanisms upon MoS2 fracture is crucial to prevent mechanical failure towards reliable applications. Here, we report direct experimental observation and atomic modeling of the complex failure behaviors of bilayer MoS2 originating from highly variable interlayer frictions, elucidated with in-situ transmission electron microscopy and large-scale reactive molecular dynamics simulations...
March 21, 2018: ACS Nano
Hyun Woo Noh, Soon Moon Jeong, Junghyun Cho, Jung-Il Hong
Single crystalline ZnO nanoplatelet structures were synthesized via a hydrothermal process on the surface of GaN microparticles. Growth of ZnO seeded on the GaN surface promoted faster growth along the directions within the basal plane of the ZnO crystal structure, resulting in the formation of 2-dimensional nanoplates with a thickness less than a few tens of nanometers at most. Electrical conduction across an individual nanoplate was measured and found to be extremely sensitive to UV illumination and the surrounding atmospheric environment...
March 21, 2018: Nanoscale
J Keppner, J Schubert, M Ziegner, B Mogwitz, J Janek, C Korte
Interface strain and its influence on the ionic transport along hetero-interfaces has gained a lot of attention over the last decade and is controversially discussed. We investigate the relaxation of mismatch induced interfacial strain as a function of the degree of orientation/texture of the columnar crystallites and assess the impact on the oxygen ion conductivity in Er2O3/YSZ multilayer systems. Results from X-ray diffraction clearly show, that the width of the strained hetero-interface region increases with an increasing degree of orientation of the crystallites...
March 21, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Kate R Weinberger, Kipruto Kirwa, Melissa N Eliot, Julia Gold, Helen H Suh, Gregory A Wellenius
BACKGROUND: Climate change is expected to result in more heat-related, but potentially fewer cold-related, emergency department visits and deaths. The net effect of projected changes in temperature on morbidity and mortality remain incompletely understood. We estimated the change in temperature-related morbidity and mortality at two sites in southern New England, USA through the end of the 21st century. METHODS: We used distributed lag Poisson regression models to estimate the present-day associations between daily mean temperature and all-cause emergency department visits and deaths in Rhode Island and in Boston, Massachusetts...
March 16, 2018: Epidemiology
Seng Bum Michael Yoo, Brianna J Sleezer, Benjamin Y Hayden
Knowing whether core reward regions carry information about the positions of relevant objects is crucial for adjudicating between choice models. One limitation of previous studies, including our own, is that spatial positions can be consistently differentially associated with rewards, and thus, position can be confounded with attention, motor plans, or target identity. We circumvented these problems by using a task in which value-and thus choices-was determined solely by a frequently changing rule, which was randomized relative to spatial position on each trial...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Dorota Węgłowska, Paweł Perkowski, Maciej Chrunik, Michał Czerwiński
A series of achiral hockey stick-shaped molecules forming a tilted smectic I liquid crystal phase as well as one non-mesogenic chiral bistereogenic analogue were synthesized and characterized. Herein, we report an example of an achiral hockey stick-shaped compound exhibiting a smectic I phase with a direct transition to the isotropic phase for the first time. This occurrence was confirmed via polarized light microscopy, dielectric spectroscopy, and XRD studies. Homologues with an odd number of carbon atoms in the oligomethylene spacer chain exhibit a lower clearing point than members posessing an even number of carbon atoms in this chain; thus, a characteristic odd-even effect has been observed...
March 21, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Mengmeng Li, Ying Dai, Wei Wei, Baibiao Huang
Developing two-dimensional (2D) photocatalysts based on traditional layered materials provides new opportunities for photocatalytic applications. However, unlike van der Waals layered structures, the recently synthesized Bi2WO6 monolayer with unsaturated atoms showed more diverse photocatalytic performances. Here, a systematic study about the electronic and photocatalytic properties of monolayer, double-layer and bulk phase (MP, DP and BP) Bi2WO6 was carried out with first-principles calculations to disclose the origin of the superior photocatalytic activities of 2D Bi2WO6...
March 21, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Peter R Tentscher, Marc Bourgin, Urs von Gunten
Phenolic moieties are common functional groups in organic micropollutants and in dissolved organic matter, and are exposed to ozone during drinking water and wastewater ozonation. Although unsubstituted phenol is known to yield potentially genotoxic p-benzoquinone during ozonation, little is known about the effects of substitution of the phenol ring on transformation product formation. With batch experiments employing differing ozone/target compound ratios, it is shown that para-substituted phenols ( p-alkyl, p-halo, p-cyano, p-methoxy, p-formyl, p-carboxy) yield p-benzoquinones, p-substituted catechols, and 4-hydroxy-4-alkyl-cyclohexadien-1-ones as common ozonation products...
March 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Alexander von Eye, Wolfgang Wiedermann
Statistical models for the analysis of hypotheses that are compatible with direction dependence were originally specified based on the linear model. In these models, relations among variables reflected directional or causal hypotheses. In a number of causal theories, however, effects are defined as resulting from causes that did versus did not occur. To accommodate this type of theory, the present article proposes analyzing directional or causal hypotheses at the level of configurations. Causes thus have the effect that, in a particular sector of the data space, the density of cases increases or decreases...
March 21, 2018: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
Shabnam Sadeghi Esfahlani, Tommy Thompson, Ali Davod Parsa, Ian Brown, Silvia Cirstea
This paper proposes the use of a non-immersive virtual reality rehabilitation system "ReHabgame" developed using Microsoft Kinect™ and the Thalmic™ Labs Myo gesture control armband. The ReHabgame was developed based on two third-person video games that provide a feasible possibility of assessing postural control and functional reach tests. It accurately quantifies specific postural control mechanisms including timed standing balance, functional reach tests using real-time anatomical landmark orientation, joint velocity, and acceleration while end trajectories were calculated using an inverse kinematics algorithm...
February 2018: Heliyon
Kathleen Griffioen, Mark P Mattson, Eitan Okun
Huntington's disease (HD), an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive striatal and cortical atrophy, has been strongly linked with neuroinflammation. Toll-like receptors, a family of innate immune receptors, are a major pathway for neuroinflammation with pleiotropic effects on neuronal plasticity and neurodevelopment. We assessed whether deficiency for TLRs 2, 3 or 4 affects life expectancy in the N171-82Q mouse model of HD. Our data indicate that homozygous TLRs 2 and 3 as well as heterozygous TLR4 deficiency significantly extends the life expectancy of HD mice...
January 2018: Heliyon
M Vázquez-Gómez, C García-Contreras, L Torres-Rovira, S Astiz, C Óvilo, A González-Bulnes, B Isabel
Background: The aim of this study was to determine how maternal undernutrition during pregnancy and offspring birth-weight can affect the postnatal development of offspring under farm conditions, which may lead to consequences in its meat and carcass quality. The current study involved a total of 80 litters from Iberian sows fed a diet fulfilling daily requirements ( n  = 47; control) or providing 70% daily requirements ( n  = 33; underfed) from d 38 to d 90 of gestation when fetal tissue development begins...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Ashley C Rider, Chad S Kessler, Whitney W Schwarz, Gillian R Schmitz, Laura Oh, Michael D Smith, Eric A Gross, Hans House, Michael C Wadman, Bruce M Lo
Introduction: The goal of this study was to characterize current practices in the transition of care between the emergency department and primary care setting, with an emphasis on the use of the electronic medical record (EMR). Methods: Using literature review and modified Delphi technique, we created and tested a pilot survey to evaluate for face and content validity. The final survey was then administered face-to-face at eight different clinical sites across the country...
March 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Maaike Van Den Houte, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Ilse Van Diest, Katleen Bogaerts, Philippe Persoons, Jozef De Bie, Omer Van den Bergh
Background: Several studies have shown that patients with functional somatic syndromes (FSS) have, on average, deficient endogenous pain modulation (EPM), as well as elevated levels of negative affectivity (NA) and high comorbidity with depression and reduced resting heart rate variability (HRV) compared to healthy controls (HC). The goals of this study were (1) to replicate these findings and (2) to investigate the moderating role of NA, depression, and resting HRV in EPM efficiency within a patient group with fibromyalgia and/or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"