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Darwinian medicine

Qian Wang, Kirk Gosik, Sujuan Xing, Libo Jiang, Lidan Sun, Vernon M Chinchilli, Rongling Wu
Epigenetic reprogramming is thought to play a critical role in maintaining the normal development of embryos. How the methylation state of paternal and maternal genomes regulates embryogenesis depends on the interaction and coordination of the gametes of two sexes. While there is abundant research in exploring the epigenetic interactions of sperms and oocytes, a knowledge gap exists in the mechanistic quantitation of these interactions and their impact on embryo development. This review aims at formulating a modeling framework to address this gap through the integration and synthesis of evolutionary game theory and the latest discoveries of the epigenetic control of embryo development by next-generation sequencing...
November 9, 2016: Physics of Life Reviews
C I Edvard Smith
Darwinian selection is also applicable when antibiotics, the immune system or other host factors shape the repertoire of microorganisms, and similarly, clonal selection is the hallmark of tumor evolution. The ongoing revolution in new anti-cancer treatment modalities, combined with an unprecedented precision in characterizing malignant clones at the level below one percent, profoundly improves the understanding of repertoire-tuning mechanisms. There is no fundamental difference between selection of the tumor cells in the presence, or absence, of therapy...
November 16, 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
D W Green, G S Watson, J A Watson, D-J Lee, J-M Lee, H-S Jung
UNLABELLED: Regenerative medicine and biomaterials design are driven by biomimicry. There is the essential requirement to emulate human cell, tissue, organ and physiological complexity to ensure long-lasting clinical success. Biomimicry projects for biomaterials innovation can be re-invigorated with evolutionary insights and perspectives, since Darwinian evolution is the original dynamic process for biological organisation and complexity. Many existing human inspired regenerative biomaterials (defined as a nature generated, nature derived and nature mimicking structure, produced within a biological system, which can deputise for, or replace human tissues for which it closely matches) are without important elements of biological complexity such as, hierarchy and autonomous actions...
September 15, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Russell Powell
Liberal proponents of genetic engineering maintain that developing human germline modification technologies is morally desirable because it will result in a net improvement in human health and well-being. Skeptics of germline modification, in contrast, fear evolutionary harms that could flow from intervening in the human germline, and worry that such programs, even if well intentioned, could lead to a recapitulation of the scientifically and morally discredited projects of the old eugenics. Some bioconservatives have appealed as well to the value of retaining our "given" human biological nature as a reason for restraining the development and use of human genetic modification technologies even where they would tend to increase well-being...
December 2015: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
Alfonso Troisi
Medicalization of human behavioral diversity is a recurrent theme in the history of psychiatry, and the problem of defining what is a genuine mental disorder is an unresolved question since the origins of clinical psychopathology. Darwinian psychiatry can formulate a definition of mental disorder that is value free and based on factual criteria. From an evolutionary perspective, genuine mental disorders are maladaptive conditions. The ultimate function of an adaptation is gene propagation via maximization of survival and reproduction...
May 2015: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Tetsuichi Yoshizato, Bogdan Dumitriu, Kohei Hosokawa, Hideki Makishima, Kenichi Yoshida, Danielle Townsley, Aiko Sato-Otsubo, Yusuke Sato, Delong Liu, Hiromichi Suzuki, Colin O Wu, Yuichi Shiraishi, Michael J Clemente, Keisuke Kataoka, Yusuke Shiozawa, Yusuke Okuno, Kenichi Chiba, Hiroko Tanaka, Yasunobu Nagata, Takamasa Katagiri, Ayana Kon, Masashi Sanada, Phillip Scheinberg, Satoru Miyano, Jaroslaw P Maciejewski, Shinji Nakao, Neal S Young, Seishi Ogawa
BACKGROUND: In patients with acquired aplastic anemia, destruction of hematopoietic cells by the immune system leads to pancytopenia. Patients have a response to immunosuppressive therapy, but myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia develop in about 15% of the patients, usually many months to years after the diagnosis of aplastic anemia. METHODS: We performed next-generation sequencing and array-based karyotyping using 668 blood samples obtained from 439 patients with aplastic anemia...
July 2, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
Mark C Lloyd, Katarzyna A Rejniak, Joel S Brown, Robert A Gatenby, Emily S Minor, Marilyn M Bui
A major goal of modern medicine is increasing patient specificity so that the right treatment is administered to the right patient at the right time with the right dose. While current cancer studies have largely focused on identification of genetic or epigenetic properties of tumor cells, emerging evidence has clearly demonstrated substantial genetic heterogeneity between tumors in the same patient and within subclones of a single tumor. Thus, molecular analysis from populations of cells (either a whole tumor or small biopsy of that tumor) is, at best, an incomplete representation of the underlying biology...
July 2015: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
M Ignatiadis, S-J Dawson
Next-generation sequencing studies have provided further evidence to support the notion that cancer is a disease characterized by Darwinian evolution. Today, we often fail to capture this evolution and treatment decisions, even in the metastatic setting, are often based on analysis of primary tumor diagnosed years ago. Currently, this is considered a major reason for treatment failures in cancer care. Recent technological advances in the detection and characterization of circulating tumor cells and circulating tumor DNA might address this and allow for treatment tailoring based on real-time monitoring of tumor evolution...
December 2014: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
J Romaní de Gabriel
Darwinian medicine, or evolutionary medicine, regards some pathological conditions as attempts by the organism to solve a problem or develop defense mechanisms. At certain stages of human evolution, some diseases may have conferred a selective advantage. Psoriasis is a high-penetrance multigenic disorder with prevalence among whites of up to 3%. Psoriatic lesions have been linked with enhanced wound-healing qualities and greater capacity to fight infection. Leprosy, tuberculosis, and infections caused by viruses similar to human immunodeficiency virus have been postulated as environmental stressors that may have selected for psoriasis-promoting genes in some human populations...
April 2015: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
Bernard Crespi, Kevin Foster, Francisco Úbeda
We introduce the field of Hamiltonian medicine, which centres on the roles of genetic relatedness in human health and disease. Hamiltonian medicine represents the application of basic social-evolution theory, for interactions involving kinship, to core issues in medicine such as pathogens, cancer, optimal growth and mental illness. It encompasses three domains, which involve conflict and cooperation between: (i) microbes or cancer cells, within humans, (ii) genes expressed in humans, (iii) human individuals...
May 19, 2014: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Mark D Lucock, Charlotte E Martin, Zoe R Yates, Martin Veysey
Nutrient-gene research tends to focus on human disease, although such interactions are often a by-product of our evolutionary heritage. This review explores health in this context, reframing genetic variation/epigenetic phenomena linked to diet in the framework of our recent evolutionary past. This "Darwinian/evolutionary medicine" approach examines how diet helped us evolve among primates and to adapt (or fail to adapt) our metabolome to specific environmental conditions leading to major diseases of civilization...
January 2014: Journal of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine
A P Feinberg
The aim of this review is to summarize an evolution of thinking about the epigenetic basis of human cancer, from the earliest studies of altered DNA methylation in cancer to the modern comprehensive epigenomic era. Converging data from epigenetic studies of primary cancers and from experimental studies of chromatin in development and epithelial-mesenchymal transition suggest a role for epigenetic stochasticity as a driving force of cancer, with Darwinian selection of tumour cells at the expense of the host...
July 2014: Journal of Internal Medicine
Angel A Román-Franco
Medicine's cardinal diagnostic and therapeutic resource is the clinical encounter. Over the last two centuries and particularly over the last five decades the function of the clinical encounter has been eroded to the point of near irrelevance because of the atomized and atomizing influence of technology and microspecialization. Meanwhile, over the past five decades the exceptionalist view of Homo sapiens inherent in the social and religious traditions of the West has similarly undergone radical changes. H. sapiens is now best understood as a microecosystem integrated into a much broader ecosystem: the biosphere...
September 2013: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Robert A Gatenby, Olya Grove, Robert J Gillies
Cancer therapy, even when highly targeted, typically fails because of the remarkable capacity of malignant cells to evolve effective adaptations. These evolutionary dynamics are both a cause and a consequence of cancer system heterogeneity at many scales, ranging from genetic properties of individual cells to large-scale imaging features. Tumors of the same organ and cell type can have remarkably diverse appearances in different patients. Furthermore, even within a single tumor, marked variations in imaging features, such as necrosis or contrast enhancement, are common...
October 2013: Radiology
Dan Mishmar
Complex disorders are common in the human population and are caused by interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Therefore the quest for the genetic basis of such disorders has much similarity to deciphering the genetic basis of macro-evolutionary processes, such as speciation. Here I discuss conceptual connections between the principles underlying and processes occurring in disease and evolution. Special focus is given to the tremendous mitochondrial genetic variability in the population and within individuals and the impact of both types of variability on evolutionary processes and diseases...
July 2010: Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal
Arthur Saniotis
The advent of evolutionary medicine in the last two decades has provided new insights into the causes of human disease and possible preventative strategies. One of the strengths of evolutionary medicine is that it follows a multi-disciplinary approach. Such an approach is vital to future biomedicine as it enables for the infiltration of new ideas. Although evolutionary medicine uses Darwinian evolution as a heuristic for understanding human beings' susceptibility to disease, this is not necessarily in conflict with Islamic medicine...
2012: Journal of IMA
Richard V Lee
The landscape of medical practice and health care has been transformed by specialization over the past Century. There has been an extraordinary acceleration in the proliferation of specialty practice, coincident with rapid growth in technological devices and their clinical applications during the past fifty years. Medicine and medical care are evolving rapidly, a process that has similarities to biologic evolution. Medical educators, policy makers, and practitioners might find a Darwinian overview of medicine and health care of interest...
February 2013: Revista Médica de Chile
Michael E Hochberg, Frédéric Thomas, Eric Assenat, Urszula Hibner
Evolutionary theory predicts that once an individual reaches an age of sufficiently low Darwinian fitness, (s)he will have reduced chances of keeping cancerous lesions in check. While we clearly need to better understand the emergence of precursor states and early malignancies as well as their mitigation by the microenvironment and tissue architecture, we argue that lifestyle changes and preventive therapies based in an evolutionary framework, applied to identified high-risk populations before incipient neoplasms become clinically detectable and chemoresistant lineages emerge, are currently the most reliable way to control or eliminate early tumours...
January 2013: Evolutionary Applications
Marc Billaud
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2012: Médecine Sciences: M/S
S Craig Roberts, Mark van Vugt, Robin I M Dunbar
An evolutionary approach is a powerful framework which can bring new perspectives on any aspect of human behavior, to inform and complement those from other disciplines, from psychology and anthropology to economics and politics. Here we argue that insights from evolutionary psychology may be increasingly applied to address practical issues and help alleviate social problems. We outline the promise of this endeavor, and some of the challenges it faces. In doing so, we draw parallels between an applied evolutionary psychology and recent developments in Darwinian medicine, which similarly has the potential to complement conventional approaches...
2012: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
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