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Sen Gao, Shikai Liu, Jun Yao, Ning Li, Zihao Yuan, Tao Zhou, Qi Li, Zhanjiang Liu
BACKGROUND: Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) live in turbid waters with limited visibility to chase prey within a certain distance. This can be compensated through detecting specific water-soluble substances by the olfactory receptors (ORs) and trace amine associated receptors (TAARs) expressed on the olfactory epithelium. METHODS: We identified the OR and TAAR repertoires in channel catfish, and characterized the genomic organizations of these two gene families by data mining available genomic resources...
October 20, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Verónica María Corrales-Carvajal, Aldo A Faisal, Carlos Ribeiro
Internal states can profoundly alter the behavior of animals. A quantitative understanding of the behavioral changes upon metabolic challenges is key to a mechanistic dissection of how animals maintain nutritional homeostasis. We used an automated video tracking setup to characterize how amino acid and reproductive states interact to shape exploitation and exploration decisions taken by adult Drosophila melanogaster. We find that these two states have specific effects on the decisions to stop at and leave proteinaceous food patches...
October 22, 2016: ELife
Wei Zhang, Arun Wanchoo, Almudena Ortiz-Urquiza, Yuxian Xia, Nemat O Keyhani
Insects interact with the surrounding environment via chemoreception, and in social insects such as ants, chemoreception functions to mediate diverse behaviors including food acquisition, self/non-self recognition, and intraspecific communication. The invasive red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, has spread worldwide, displaying a remarkable environmental adaptability. Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are chemical compound carriers, involved in diverse physiological processes including odor detection and chemical transport...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Mario Cherubino, Paolo Battaglia, Mario Turri-Zenoni, Federico Tamborini, Marco Giudice, Davide Sallam, Martina Corno, Giacomo Pietrobon, Luigi Valdatta, Paolo Castelnuovo
The nose is a functionally complex organ implicated in breathing, olfaction, and phonation, with a critical role also in the aesthetic appearance of a person. This latter aspect should be carefully considered whenever a total or subtotal rhinectomy is performed for resection of locally advanced nasal cancer. To reconstruct large nasal defects, several techniques were described, including the use of cartilaginous grafts, bony grafts, local flaps, and free flaps. In cases of extensive full-thickness resections, free flaps probably represent the most adequate option...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Stefan Dippel, Martin Kollmann, Georg Oberhofer, Alice Montino, Carolin Knoll, Milosz Krala, Karl-Heinz Rexer, Sergius Frank, Robert Kumpf, Joachim Schachtner, Ernst A Wimmer
BACKGROUND: The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is an emerging insect model organism representing the largest insect order, Coleoptera, which encompasses several serious agricultural and forest pests. Despite the ecological and economic importance of beetles, most insect olfaction studies have so far focused on dipteran, lepidopteran, or hymenopteran systems. RESULTS: Here, we present the first detailed morphological description of a coleopteran olfactory pathway in combination with genome-wide expression analysis of the relevant gene families involved in chemoreception...
October 17, 2016: BMC Biology
Long-Wa Zhang, Ke Kang, Shi-Chang Jiang, Ya-Nan Zhang, Tian-Tian Wang, Jing Zhang, Long Sun, Yun-Qiu Yang, Chang-Chun Huang, Li-Ya Jiang, De-Gui Ding
Hyphantria cunea (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) is an invasive insect pest which, in China, causes unprecedented damage and economic losses due to its extreme fecundity and wide host range, including forest and shade trees, and even crops. Compared to the better known lepidopteran species which use Type-I pheromones, little is known at the molecular level about the olfactory mechanisms of host location and mate choice in H. cunea, a species using Type-II lepidopteran pheromones. In the present study, the H...
2016: PloS One
Maximilian L Allen, Heiko U Wittmer, Endro Setiawan, Sarah Jaffe, Andrew J Marshall
Intraspecific communication is integral to the behavioural ecology of solitary carnivores, but observing and quantifying their communication behaviours in natural environments is difficult. Our systematic literature review found that basic information on scent marking is completely lacking for 23% of all felid species, and information on 21% of other felid species comes solely from one study of captive animals. Here we present results of the first systematic investigation of the scent marking behaviours of Sunda clouded leopards in the wild...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sawa Horie, Akiko Yamaki, Shigeru Takami
Although several lines of evidence have suggested that sex steroids influence olfaction, little is known about the cellular basis of steroid-metabolizing enzymes in the olfactory system. Thus, we aimed to examine gene expression and immunolocalization of four sex steroid-metabolizing enzymes in the olfactory mucosa (OM) of albino rats; steroid side chain-cleaving enzyme (P450scc), 17β -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17β -HSD-1), 17β -HSD type 2 (17β -HSD-2), and aromatase. P450scc is known to catalyze conversion from cholesterol to pregnenolone...
October 13, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Sophia C Poletti, Islam Batashev, Jens Reden, Thomas Hummel
Limited olfactory improvement after topical steroid therapy in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients might result from restricted drug access to the olfactory cleft. The aim of our study was to investigate the difference between two methods to topically administer steroids with respect to olfaction: (1) conventional nasal spray and (2) a device using pressure and vibration to distribute steroid aerosol endonasally. A prospective study was performed in patients with olfactory impairment due to chronic rhinosinusitis with and without nasal polyps...
October 11, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Michael Lawton, Michele T M Hu, Fahd Baig, Claudio Ruffmann, Eilidh Barron, Diane M A Swallow, Naveed Malek, Katherine A Grosset, Nin Bajaj, Roger A Barker, Nigel Williams, David J Burn, Thomas Foltynie, Huw R Morris, Nicholas W Wood, Margaret T May, Donald G Grosset, Yoav Ben-Shlomo
BACKGROUND: Impaired olfaction is an important feature in Parkinson's disease (PD) and other neurological diseases. A variety of smell identification tests exist such as "Sniffin' Sticks" and the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). An important part of research is being able to replicate findings or combining studies in a meta-analysis. This is difficult if olfaction has been measured using different metrics. We present conversion methods between the: UPSIT, Sniffin' 16, and Brief-SIT (B-SIT); and Sniffin' 12 and Sniffin' 16 odour identification tests...
September 25, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Sophia C Poletti, Elisabeth Michel, Thomas Hummel
BACKGROUND: Repeated short-term exposure to odors is known to improve olfaction in patients with acquired olfactory dysfunction. The aim was to find out whether differences in molecular weight of odors used for olfactory training influences olfaction. We hypothesized a greater improvement following training with light weight molecule (LWM) odors. METHODS: A prospective study was performed in patients with posttraumatic (PTOL) and postviral olfactory loss (PVOL)...
October 4, 2016: Perception
Shiori Nakano, Saho Ayabe-Kanamura
When we sequentially evaluate the characteristics of sensory stimuli, our evaluation of a current stimulus is influenced by those preceding it. One such effect is called hedonic contrast, whereby stimuli are rated more negatively (negative contrast) or positively (positive contrast) if they are preceded by more or less pleasant stimuli. The present study investigated the characteristics of hedonic contrast for olfaction and compared these characteristics with those of a more oft-studied modality, vision. The results from two experiments indicated that both positive and negative contrasts occurred in the sequential rating of picture pleasantness, whereas only negative contrast occurred for olfactory ratings...
October 3, 2016: Perception
Toshiharu Namba, Mutsuo Taniguchi, Yoshihiro Murata, Jia Tong, Yujie Wang, Fumino Okutani, Masahiro Yamaguchi, Hideto Kaba
Olfaction plays an important role in social recognition in most mammals. Central arginine vasopressin (AVP) plays a role in this olfaction-based recognition. The high level of expression of AVP receptors in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) at the first relay of the vomeronasal system highlights the importance of AVP signaling at this stage. We therefore analyzed the effects of AVP on the synaptic plasticity of glutamatergic transmission from mitral cells to granule cells in AOB slices from male mice. To monitor the strength of the glutamatergic transmission, we measured the maximal initial slope of the lateral olfactory tract-evoked field potential, which represents the granule cell response to mitral cell activation...
September 30, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Hideru Togashi
Animal tissues are composed of multiple cell types arranged in complex and elaborate patterns. In sensory epithelia, including the auditory epithelium and olfactory epithelium, different types of cells are arranged in unique mosaic patterns. These mosaic patterns are evolutionarily conserved, and are thought to be important for hearing and olfaction. Recent progress has provided accumulating evidence that the cellular pattern formation in epithelia involves cell rearrangements, movements, and shape changes...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Immacolata Iovinella, Liping Ban, Limei Song, Paolo Pelosi, Francesca Romana Dani
In arthropods, the large majority of studies on olfaction have been focused on insects, where most of the proteins involved have been identified. In particular, chemosensing in insects relies on two families of membrane receptors, olfactory/gustatory receptors (ORs/GRs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs), and two classes of soluble proteins, odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs). In other arthropods, such as ticks and mites, only IRs have been identified, while genes encoding for OBPs and CSPs are absent...
September 29, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Gaurav S Ajmani, Helen H Suh, Kristen E Wroblewski, David W Kern, L Philip Schumm, Martha K McClintock, Jeff D Yanosky, Jayant M Pinto
OBJECTIVES: The olfactory nerve is anatomically susceptible to injury from pollution in inspired air, but there are no large-scale epidemiologic studies investigating this relationship. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a representative sample of home-dwelling US adults age 57-85 years. Olfactory function was tested using a validated 5-item odor identification test (Sniffin' Sticks). Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2...
September 29, 2016: Environmental Research
E Fatsini, R Bautista, M Manchado, N J Duncan
The aims of this study were the characterization of the upper olfactory epithelium of cultured and wild Senegalese sole mature males at histological and transcriptomic (using RNA-Seq) level. No significant differences in tissue structure, cell types and cellular distribution pattern (olfactory sensory neurons) were identified between cultured and wild specimens. Deep transcriptomic analysis showed 2387 transcripts were differentially expressed between cultured and wild groups. A detailed analysis identified the differentially expressed transcripts included some olfactory receptors (OR, TAAR and V2R-like) and transcripts related with the control of reproduction such as the brain aromatase cytochrome P450 and tachykinin-3...
September 20, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Emmanuelle Courtiol, Donald A Wilson
Olfactory perception and its underlying neural mechanisms are not fixed, but rather vary over time, dependent on various parameters such as state, task, or learning experience. In olfaction, one of the primary sensory areas beyond the olfactory bulb is the piriform cortex. Due to an increasing number of functions attributed to the piriform cortex, it has been argued to be an associative cortex rather than a simple primary sensory cortex. In fact, the piriform cortex plays a key role in creating olfactory percepts, helping to form configural odor objects from the molecular features extracted in the nose...
September 28, 2016: Perception
Magdalena Misiak, Rebeca Vergara Greeno, Beverly A Baptiste, Peter Sykora, Dong Liu, Stephanie Cordonnier, Evandro F Fang, Deborah L Croteau, Mark P Mattson, Vilhelm A Bohr
Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves the progressive degeneration of neurons critical for learning and memory. In addition, patients with AD typically exhibit impaired olfaction associated with neuronal degeneration in the olfactory bulb (OB). Because DNA base excision repair (BER) is reduced in brain cells during normal aging and AD, we determined whether inefficient BER due to reduced DNA polymerase-β (Polβ) levels renders OB neurons vulnerable to degeneration in the 3xTgAD mouse model of AD. We interrogated OB histopathology and olfactory function in wild-type and 3xTgAD mice with normal or reduced Polβ levels...
September 30, 2016: Aging Cell
Melanie Yvonne Denzer-Lippmann, Jonathan Beauchamp, Jessica Freiherr, Norbert Thuerauf, Johannes Kornhuber, Andrea Buettner
Olfactory tests are an important tool in human nutritional research for studying food preferences, yet comprehensive tests dedicated solely to food odors are currently lacking. Therefore, within this study, an innovative food-associated olfactory test (FAOT) system was developed. The FAOT comprises 16 odorant pens that contain representative food odors relating to different macronutrient classes. The test underwent a sensory validation based on identification rate, intensity, hedonic value, and food association scores...
September 28, 2016: Chemical Senses
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