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Olfaction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333792/reduced-suprathreshold-odor-identification-in-patients-with-pseudotumor-cerebri-a-non-randomized-prospective-study
#1
Gad Dotan, Eyal Cohen, Ainat Klein, Anat Kesler
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that olfaction is impaired in patients with pseudotumor cerebri (PTC). OBJECTIVES: To measure suprathreshold olfactory function by using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), assessing its usefulness for routine clinical use. METHODS: Forty PTC patients underwent USPIT olfactory testing. RESULTS: Twenty-nine out of 40 (73%) PTC patients (36 women, 4 men; mean age 34 years) had reduced suprathreshold smell sensation according to UPSIT scores: 19 (47%) had mild microsmia, 9 (23%) had moderate microsmia, and one (3%) was classified as having severe microsmia...
January 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332036/relationships-between-lower-olfaction-and-brain-white-matter-lesions-in-elderly-subjects-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#2
Juliette Heinrich, Jean-Sébastien Vidal, Axelle Simon, Anne-Sophie Rigaud, Olivier Hanon, Jacques Epelbaum, Cecile Viollet, Emmanuelle Duron
BACKGROUND: Olfactory impairment is reported in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is associated with hippocampal atrophy. In elderly people, dementia with AD neuropathology and white matter lesions (WML) is common. In this context, olfactory impairment could also depend on the presence of WML. OBJECTIVE: To assess the cross-sectional relationship between olfaction and WML in elderly subjects with MCI. METHODS: Consecutive subjects, >65 years old, diagnosed as MCI after a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment in an expert memory center, with a brain MRI performed within a year and without major depressive state, were included...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325013/effects-of-task-demands-on-olfactory-auditory-and-visual-event-related-potentials-suggest-similar-top-down-modulation-across-senses
#3
Linus Andersson, Petra Sandberg, Jonas Olofsson, Steven Nordin
A widely held view is that top-down modulation of sensory information relies on an amodal control network that acts through the thalamus to regulate incoming signals. Olfaction lacks a direct thalamic projection, which suggests that it may differ from other modalities in this regard. We investigated the late positive complex (LPC) amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERP) from 28 participants, elicited by intensity-matched olfactory, auditory and visual stimuli, during a condition of focused attention, a neutral condition, and a condition in which stimuli were to be actively ignored...
January 8, 2018: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324046/gustatory-processing-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#4
Kristin Scott
The ability to identify nutrient-rich food and avoid toxic substances is essential for an animal's survival. Although olfaction and vision contribute to food detection, the gustatory system acts as a final checkpoint control for food acceptance or rejection. The vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster tastes many of the same stimuli as mammals and provides an excellent model system for comparative studies of taste detection. The relative simplicity of the fly brain and behaviors, along with the molecular genetic and functional approaches available in this system, allow the examination of gustatory neural circuits from sensory input to motor output...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317716/a-quantum-biomimetic-electronic-nose-sensor
#5
Ashlesha Patil, Dipankar Saha, Swaroop Ganguly
We propose a technologically feasible one-dimensional double barrier resonant tunneling diode (RTD) as electronic nose, inspired by the vibration theory of biological olfaction. The working principle is phonon-assisted inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS), modeled here using the Non-Equilibrium Green Function formalism for quantum transport. While standard IETS requires low-temperature operation to obviate the thermal broadening of spectroscopic peaks, we show that quantum confinement in the well of the RTD provides electron energy filtering in this case and could thereby allow room-temperature operation...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317353/the-sensory-equipment-of-a-spider-a-morphological-survey-of-different-sensilla-types-in-both-sexes-of-argiope-bruennichi-araneae-araneidae
#6
Anne-Sarah Ganske, Gabriele Uhl
Spiders show a wide range of sensory capabilities as evidenced by behavioural observations. Accordingly, spiders possess diverse sensory structures like mechano-, hygro-, thermo- or chemoreceptive sensilla. As to chemoreceptive structures, only trichoid tip-pore sensilla were found so far that were tested for gustation. That spiders are also able to receive airborne signals is corroborated by numerous behavioural experiments but the responsible structures have not been determined yet. Here, we provide sensilla distribution maps of pedipalps and walking legs of both sexes of the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi whose biology and mating system is well explored...
January 6, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311371/author-response-olfaction-and-risk-of-dementia-in-a-biracial-cohort-of-older-adults
#7
Daniel Freimer, Kristine Yaffe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311370/reader-response-olfaction-and-risk-of-dementia-in-a-biracial-cohort-of-older-adults
#8
Esme Fuller-Thomson, Sydney A Jopling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311369/editors-note-olfaction-and-risk-of-dementia-in-a-biracial-cohort-of-older-adults
#9
Megan Alcauskas, Steven Galetta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306960/decreased-electrogustometric-taste-sensitivity-in-patients-with-acquired-olfactory-dysfunction
#10
P Han, M Georgi, M Cuevas, A Haehner, V Gudziol, T Hummel
BACKGROUND: Cross-modal chemosensory dysfunction between olfaction and gustation is not well known. METHODOLOGY: 180 participants were classified into three groups (60 with olfactory dysfunction, 60 with gustatory dysfunction and 60 healthy controls without chemosensory dysfunction). Olfactory functions were obtained with Sniffin Sticks; gustatory function was measured by suprathreshold gustatory stimuli (taste sprays) and a quasi-threshold measure of taste function (taste strips) for five taste qualities (sweet, salty, sour, bitter and umami)...
January 7, 2018: Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306957/analysis-of-taste-function-in-patients-before-and-after-cochlear-implant-surgery
#11
U Walliczek-Dworschak, C M Knauer, D Murbe, A Mainka, T Hummel
BACKGROUND: Cochlear implantation (CI), the standard therapy for rehabilitation of severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss, exhibits taste dysfunction as a possible postoperative complication. This study aimed to investigate possible postoperative changes in taste and in addition baseline taste function in CI candidates. METHODOLOGY: We included 61 patients (32 male, 29 female) planned to undergo CI surgery and 23 healthy controls (8 male, 15 female). Gustatory function was measured using a chemosensory quasi-threshold test (taste strips) and electrogustometry (EGM)...
January 7, 2018: Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305318/behavioral-phenotyping-of-calcium-channel-cacn-subunit-%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-3-knockout-mice-consequences-of-sensory-cross-modal-activation
#12
Julia Landmann, Franziska Richter, Joseph Classen, Angelika Richter, Josef M Penninger, Ingo Bechmann
Sensory cross-activation is still ill-defined and research concerning the consequences of sensory mergence on normal brain function is very limited. Human studies describe behavioral benefits of people with synesthesia- a peculiar form of perception possibly due to cross-modal activation- regarding sensory and memory abilities. Here, we studied behavioral alterations in calcium channel (CACN) subunit α2δ3 knockout (KO) mice exhibiting pain-induced cortical cross-modal activation. Knockout mice exhibited an increased response upon touch of a pinna and impaired audition, while elementary olfaction, vision, somatosensation and motor function were not altered...
January 2, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304134/identification-of-chemosensory-genes-from-the-antennal-transcriptome-of-indian-meal-moth-plodia-interpunctella
#13
Xiaojian Jia, Xiaofang Zhang, Hongmin Liu, Rongyan Wang, Tao Zhang
Olfaction plays an indispensable role in mediating insect behavior, such as locating host plants, mating partners, and avoidance of toxins and predators. Olfactory-related proteins are required for olfactory perception of insects. However, very few olfactory-related genes have been reported in Plodia interpunctella up to now. In the present study, we sequenced the antennae transcriptome of P. interpunctella using the next-generation sequencing technology, and identified 117 candidate olfactory-related genes, including 29 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), 15 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), three sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 47 odorant receptors (ORs), 14 ionotropic receptors (IRs) and nine gustatory receptors (GRs)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301613/testing-olfactory-function-and-mapping-the-structural-olfactory-networks-in-the-brain
#14
Alexander Fjældstad
We perceive the world through our senses. The dependence on these sensory stimuli becomes obvious when we see a visually impaired individual with a guide dog or an individual using sign language. However, individuals with olfactory deficits suffer from a more concealed impairment without any opportunity for diagnostics or treatment in the Danish healthcare system. Around a fifth of the population experience olfactory deficits, of which 1-2% are functionally anosmic. The personal consequences for anosmics can be extensive, lacking not only in hedonic yield related to eating and drinking, but also the socialization during dinners can become niggling...
January 2018: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301263/applications-and-advances-in-bioelectronic-noses-for-odour-sensing
#15
REVIEW
Tran Thi Dung, Yunkwang Oh, Seon-Jin Choi, Min-Kyu Oh, Moonil Kim, Il-Doo Kim
A bioelectronic nose, an intelligent chemical sensor array system coupled with bio-receptors to identify gases and vapours, resembles mammalian olfaction by which many vertebrates can sniff out volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sensitively and specifically even at very low concentrations. Olfaction is undertaken by the olfactory system, which detects odorants that are inhaled through the nose where they come into contact with the olfactory epithelium containing olfactory receptors (ORs). Because of its ability to mimic biological olfaction, a bio-inspired electronic nose has been used to detect a variety of important compounds in complex environments...
January 1, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300892/olfaction-philosophy-and-the-missing-object
#16
Bernd Lindemann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 30, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289691/the-bioelectronic-nose-and-tongue-using-olfactory-and-taste-receptors-analytical-tools-for-food-quality-and-safety-assessment
#17
REVIEW
Manki Son, Tai Hyun Park
Food intake is the primary method for obtaining energy and component materials in the human being. Humans evaluate the quality of food by combining various facets of information, such as an item of food's appearance, smell, taste, and texture in the mouth. Recently, bioelectronic noses and tongues have been reported that use human olfactory and taste receptors as primary recognition elements, and nanoelectronics as secondary signal transducers. Bioelectronic sensors that mimic human olfaction and gustation have sensitively and selectively detected odor and taste molecules from various food samples, and have been applied to food quality assessment...
December 28, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288083/poly-ethylene-co-vinyl-alcohol-is-a-suitable-substrate-for-human-olfactory-neuroepithelial-cell-differentiation-in-vitro-through-a-defined-regulatory-pathway
#18
Sheng-Tien Li, Tai-Horng Young, Tsung-Wei Huang
Olfactory dysfunction significantly influences patients' life quality, but currently has no adequate treatment. Poly (ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVAL) mediates cell adhesion, growth and modulates differentiation of neural stem cells. However, whether EVAL is a suitable substrate to establish an in vitro culture system that can promote development and differentiation of human olfactory neuroepithelial cells (HONCs) remains unexplored. This study isolates and cultures HONCs on controls and EVAL films for 21 days...
December 26, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288070/neonatal-erythropoietin-mitigates-impaired-gait-social-interaction-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-abnormalities-in-a-rat-model-of-prenatal-brain-injury
#19
Shenandoah Robinson, Christopher J Corbett, Jesse L Winer, Lindsay A S Chan, Jessie R Maxwell, Christopher V Anstine, Tracylyn R Yellowhair, Nicholas A Andrews, Yirong Yang, Laurel O Sillerud, Lauren L Jantzie
Children who are born preterm are at risk for encephalopathy of prematurity, a leading cause of cerebral palsy, cognitive delay and behavioral disorders. Current interventions are limited and none have been shown to reverse cognitive and behavioral impairments, a primary determinant of poor quality of life for these children. Moreover, the mechanisms of perinatal brain injury that result in functional deficits and imaging abnormalities in the mature brain are poorly defined, limiting the potential to target interventions to those who may benefit most...
December 26, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283943/can-tumor-size-be-a-predictive-factor-of-olfactory-dysfunction-after-endoscopic-endonasal-trans-sphenoidal-approach
#20
Do Hyun Kim, Yong Kil Hong, Sin-Soo Jeun, Jae-Sung Park, Soo Whan Kim, Jin Hee Cho, Yong Jin Park, Jang-Won Jeong, Sung Won Kim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between tumor size, nasal symptoms including olfactory function, and posoperative atrophic mucosal changes after the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach (EETSA). METHODS: This was a retrospective review of the medical records of 112 patients who underwent the 2 nostrils/4 hands EETSA with bilateral modified nasoseptal rescue flaps between February 2009 and January 2016...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
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