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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776605/g-protein-coupled-receptor-resensitization-paradigms
#1
Manveen K Gupta, Maradumane L Mohan, Sathyamangla V Naga Prasad
Cellular responses to extracellular milieu/environment are driven by cell surface receptors that transmit the signal into the cells resulting in a synchronized and measured response. The ability to provide such exquisite responses to changes in external environment is mediated by the tight and yet, deliberate regulation of cell surface receptor function. In this regard, the seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of cell surface receptors that regulate responses like cardiac contractility, vision, and olfaction including platelet activation...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776545/evolution-of-clinical-and-environmental-health-applications-of-exhaled-breath-research-review-of-methods-and-instrumentation-for-gas-phase-condensate-and-aerosols
#2
REVIEW
M Ariel Geer Wallace, Joachim D Pleil
Human breath, along with urine and blood, has long been one of the three major biological media for assessing human health and environmental exposure. In fact, the detection of odor on human breath, as described by Hippocrates in 400 BC, is considered the first analytical health assessment tool. Although less common in comparison to contemporary bio-fluids analyses, breath has become an attractive diagnostic medium as sampling is non-invasive, unlimited in timing and volume, and does not require clinical personnel...
September 18, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772542/regulation-of-feeding-behavior-in-drosophila-through-the-interplay-of-gustation-physiology-and-neuromodulation
#3
Bhumika S, Arvind Kumar Singh
One of the most fundamental behaviors in all the organisms, in order to achieve a satiated state and internal energy homeostasis is feeding. The action of feeding in any being whether be it any vertebrate or an invertebrate involves the perception of the external environment along with the gamut of decision making processes to eat or to not eat. The feeding decision along with chemosensation through gustation and olfaction leads to intake of food with proper nutrient balance along with avoidance of bitter and toxic substances...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769308/ca-2-activated-cl-currents-in-the-murine-vomeronasal-organ-enhance-neuronal-spiking-but-are-dispensable-for-male-male-aggression
#4
Jonas Münch, Gwendolyn Billig, Christian A Huebner, Trese Leinders-Zufall, Frank Zufall, Thomas J Jentsch
Ca2+-activated Cl- currents have been observed in many physiological processes, including sensory transduction in mammalian olfaction. The olfactory vomeronasal (or Jacobson's) organ (VNO) detects molecular cues originating from animals of the same species or from predators. It then triggers innate behaviors such as aggression, mating, or flight. In the VNO, Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) are thought to amplify the initial pheromone-evoked receptor potential by mediating a depolarizing Cl- efflux. Here, we confirmed the co-localization of the Ca2+-activated Cl- channels anoctamin 1 (Ano1, also called TMEM16A) and Ano2 (TMEM16B) in microvilli of apically and basally located vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) and their absence in supporting cells of the VNO...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767353/influences-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-temporal-lobe-resection-on-olfaction
#5
Richard L Doty, Isabelle Tourbier, Jessica K Neff, Jonathan Silas, Bruce Turetsky, Paul Moberg, Taehoon Kim, John Pluta, Jaqueline French, Ashwini D Sharan, Michael J Sperling, Natasha Mirza, Anthony Risser, Gordon Baltuch, John A Detre
Although temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and resection (TLR) impact olfactory eloquent brain structures, their influences on olfaction remain enigmatic. We sought to more definitively assess the influences of TLE and TLR on olfaction using three well-validated olfactory tests and measuring  the tests' associations with the volume of numerous temporal lobe brain structures. The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test and an odor detection threshold test were administered to 71 TLE patients and 71 age- and sex-matched controls; 69 TLE patients and controls received an odor discrimination/memory test...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766650/social-communication-in-bats
#6
Gloriana Chaverri, Leonardo Ancillotto, Danilo Russo
Bats represent one of the most diverse mammalian orders, not only in terms of species numbers, but also in their ecology and life histories. Many species are known to use ephemeral and/or unpredictable resources that require substantial investment to find and defend, and also engage in social interactions, thus requiring significant levels of social coordination. To accomplish these tasks, bats must be able to communicate; there is now substantial evidence that demonstrates the complexity of bat communication and the varied ways in which bats solve some of the problems associated with their unique life histories...
May 15, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763790/the-language-of-smell-connecting-linguistic-and-psychophysical-properties-of-odor-descriptors
#7
Georgios Iatropoulos, Pawel Herman, Anders Lansner, Jussi Karlgren, Maria Larsson, Jonas K Olofsson
The olfactory sense is a particularly challenging domain for cognitive science investigations of perception, memory, and language. Although many studies show that odors often are difficult to describe verbally, little is known about the associations between olfactory percepts and the words that describe them. Quantitative models of how odor experiences are described in natural language are therefore needed to understand how odors are perceived and communicated. In this study, we develop a computational method to characterize the olfaction-related semantic content of words in a large text corpus of internet sites in English...
May 12, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762752/variability-and-coupling-of-olfactory-identification-and-episodic-memory-in-older-adults
#8
Jamie E Knight, David A Bennett, Andrea M Piccinin
Objectives: To determine whether assessment-to-assessment fluctuations in episodic memory (EM) reflect fluctuations in olfaction over time. Methods: Within-person coupled variation in EM and the Brief Smell Identification Test (BSIT) was examined in 565 participants aged 58-106 with autopsy data from the Rush Memory and Aging Project. A growth model for up to 15 years of EM data, with BSIT as time-varying covariate, was estimated accounting for main effects of sex, education, ε4 allele, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, BSIT and time-varying BSIT, as well as the interaction between AD pathology and time-varying BSIT...
May 14, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759999/author-response-olfaction-and-incident-parkinson-disease-in-us-white-and-black-older-adults
#9
Honglei Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759998/reader-response-olfaction-and-incident-parkinson-disease-in-us-white-and-black-older-adults
#10
Philipp Mahlknecht, Stefan Kiechl, Johann Willeit, Werner Poewe, Klaus Seppi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759997/editors-note-olfaction-and-incident-parkinson-disease-in-us-white-and-black-older-adults
#11
Megan Alcauskas, Steven Galetta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756687/comparing-the-sniffing-behavior-of-great-apes
#12
Susann Jänig, Brigitte M Weiß, Anja Widdig
The importance of smell in humans is well established but we know little about it in regard to our closest relatives, the great apes, as systematic studies on their olfactory behavior are still lacking. Olfaction has long been considered to be of lesser importance in hominids given their relatively smaller olfactory bulbs, fewer functional olfactory receptor genes than other species and absence of a functional vomeronasal organ. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of olfaction in hominids...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741969/frequency-and-prognostic-factors-of-olfactory-dysfunction-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Mette Bratt, Toril Skandsen, Thomas Hummel, Kent G Moen, Anne Vik, Ståle Nordgård, Anne-S Helvik
OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency and factors associated with posttraumatic olfactory dysfunction, including anosmia, in a follow-up of patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: The setting was a cross-sectional study of patients that were consecutively included in the Trondheim TBI database, comprising injury-related variables. Eligible participants 18-65 years were contacted 9-104 months post trauma and asked olfactory-related questions...
May 9, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740738/role-of-plant-volatiles-in-host-plant-recognition-by-listronotus-maculicollis-coleoptera-curculionidae
#14
Olga S Kostromytska, Cesar Rodriguez-Saona, Hans T Alborn, Albrecht M Koppenhöfer
The annual bluegrass weevil (ABW), Listronotus maculicollis Kirby, is an economically important pest of short cut turfgrass. Annual bluegrass, Poa annua L., is the most preferred and suitable host for ABW oviposition, larval survival and development. We investigated the involvement of grass volatiles in ABW host plant preference under laboratory and field conditions. First, ovipositional and feeding preferences of ABW adults were studied in a sensory deprivation experiment. Clear evidence of involvement of olfaction in host recognition by ABW was demonstrated...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734670/depression-olfaction-and-quality-of-life-a-mutual-relationship
#15
REVIEW
Marion Rochet, Wissam El-Hage, Sami Richa, François Kazour, Boriana Atanasova
Olfactory dysfunction has been well studied in depression. Common brain areas are involved in depression and in the olfactory process, suggesting that olfactory impairments may constitute potential markers of this disorder. Olfactory markers of depression can be either state (present only in symptomatic phases) or trait (persistent after symptomatic remission) markers. This study presents the etiology of depression, the anatomical links between olfaction and depression, and a literature review of different olfactory markers of depression...
May 4, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731675/odor-enrichment-increases-hippocampal-neuron-numbers-in-mouse
#16
Zoltán Rusznák, Gulgun Sengul, George Paxinos, Woojin Scott Kim, YuHong Fu
The hippocampus and olfactory bulb incorporate new neurons migrating from neurogenic regions in the brain. Hippocampal atrophy is evident in numerous neurodegenerative disorders, and altered hippocampal neurogenesis is an early pathological event in Alzheimer's disease. We hypothesized that hippocampal neurogenesis is affected by olfactory stimuli through the neural pathway of olfaction-related memory. In this study, we exposed mice to novel pleasant odors for three weeks and then assessed the number of neurons, non-neuronal cells (mainly glia) and proliferating cells in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb, using the isotropic fractionator method...
April 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730147/development-of-an-international-odor-identification-test-for-children-the-universal-sniff-test
#17
Valentin A Schriever, Eduardo Agosin, Aytug Altundag, Hadas Avni, Helene Cao Van, Carlos Cornejo, Gonzalo de Los Santos, Gad Fishman, Claudio Fragola, Marco Guarneros, Neelima Gupta, Robyn Hudson, Reda Kamel, Antti Knaapila, Iordanis Konstantinidis, Basile N Landis, Maria Larsson, Johan N Lundström, Alberto Macchi, Franklin Mariño-Sánchez, Lenka Martinec Nováková, Eri Mori, Joaquim Mullol, Marie Nord, Valentina Parma, Carl Philpott, Evan J Propst, Ahmed Rawan, Mari Sandell, Agnieszka Sorokowska, Piotr Sorokowski, Lisa-Marie Sparing-Paschke, Carolin Stetzler, Claudia Valder, Jan Vodicka, Thomas Hummel
OBJECTIVE: To assess olfactory function in children and to create and validate an odor identification test to diagnose olfactory dysfunction in children, which we called the Universal Sniff (U-Sniff) test. STUDY DESIGN: This is a multicenter study involving 19 countries. The U-Sniff test was developed in 3 phases including 1760 children age 5-7 years. Phase 1: identification of potentially recognizable odors; phase 2: selection of odorants for the odor identification test; and phase 3: evaluation of the test and acquisition of normative data...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726890/olfactory-fmri-implications-of-stimulation-length-and-repetition-time
#18
Charalampos Georgiopoulos, Suzanne T Witt, Sven Haller, Nil Dizdar, Helene Zachrisson, Maria Engström, Elna-Marie Larsson
Studying olfaction with functional Magnetic Resonance imaging (fMRI) poses various methodological challenges. This study aimed to investigate the effects of stimulation length and repetition time (TR) on the activation pattern of four olfactory brain regions: the anterior and the posterior piriform cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex and the insula. 22 healthy participants with normal olfaction were examined with fMRI, with two stimulation lengths (6 seconds and 15 seconds) and two TRs (0.901 seconds and 1.34 seconds)...
May 3, 2018: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725917/pain-headache-and-other-non-motor-symptoms-in-myasthenia-gravis
#19
REVIEW
Olivia Tong, Leslie Delfiner, Steven Herskovitz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is traditionally conceptualized as a disease with purely motor manifestations. This paper reviews the supporting evidence and pathophysiology of non-motor symptoms in MG, including pain, headache, special sense and autonomic dysfunction, sleep disturbance, and cognitive and psychosocial issues. RECENT FINDINGS: Work in this area has been limited. Recent studies have identified bodily pain and headache as common complaints in patients with MG...
May 3, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719139/establishing-the-minimal-clinically-important-difference-for-the-questionnaire-of-olfactory-disorders
#20
Jose L Mattos, Rodney J Schlosser, Jess C Mace, Timothy L Smith, Zachary M Soler
BACKGROUND: Olfactory-specific quality of life (QOL) can be measured using the Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorders Negative Statements (QOD-NS). Changes in the QOD-NS after treatment can be difficult to interpret since there is no standardized definition of clinically meaningful improvement. METHODS: Patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) completed the QOD-NS. Four distribution-based methods were used to calculate the minimal clinically important difference (MCID): (1) one-half standard deviation (SD); (2) standard error of the mean (SEM); (3) Cohen's effect size (d) of the smallest unit of change; and (4) minimal detectable change (MDC)...
May 2, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
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