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Olfaction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914457/gross-brain-morphology-of-the-armoured-catfish-rineloricaria-heteroptera-isbr%C3%A3-cker-and-nijssen-1976-siluriformes-loricariidae-loricariinae-a-descriptive-and-quantitative-approach
#1
Arturo Angulo, Francisco Langeani
The gross morphology of the brain of Rineloricaria heteroptera and its relation to the sensory/behavioural ecology of the species is described and discussed. The sexual and ontogenetic intraspecific variation in the whole brain length and mass, as well as within/between the eight different brain subdivisions volumes, is also examined and discussed. Negative allometry for the whole brain length/mass and relative growth of the telencephalon and optic tecta was observed. Positive allometry was observed for the relative growth of the olfactory bulbs and medulla oblongata...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913314/olfactory-dysfunction-in-nasal-bone-fracture
#2
Sug Won Kim, Beom Park, Tae Geun Lee, Ji Ye Kim
BACKGROUND: All nasal bone fractures have the potential for worsening of olfactory function. However, few studies have studied the olfactory outcomes following reduction of nasal bone fractures. This study evaluates posttraumatic olfactory dysfunction in patients with nasal bone fracture before and after closed reduction. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted for all patients presenting with nasal bone fracture (n=97). Each patient consenting to the study underwent the Korean version of Sniffin' Sticks test (KVSS II) before operation and at 6 month after closed reduction...
June 2017: Arch Craniofac Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904337/toxoplasma-modulates-signature-pathways-of-human-epilepsy-neurodegeneration-cancer
#3
Huân M Ngô, Ying Zhou, Hernan Lorenzi, Kai Wang, Taek-Kyun Kim, Yong Zhou, Kamal El Bissati, Ernest Mui, Laura Fraczek, Seesandra V Rajagopala, Craig W Roberts, Fiona L Henriquez, Alexandre Montpetit, Jenefer M Blackwell, Sarra E Jamieson, Kelsey Wheeler, Ian J Begeman, Carlos Naranjo-Galvis, Ney Alliey-Rodriguez, Roderick G Davis, Liliana Soroceanu, Charles Cobbs, Dennis A Steindler, Kenneth Boyer, A Gwendolyn Noble, Charles N Swisher, Peter T Heydemann, Peter Rabiah, Shawn Withers, Patricia Soteropoulos, Leroy Hood, Rima McLeod
One third of humans are infected lifelong with the brain-dwelling, protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Approximately fifteen million of these have congenital toxoplasmosis. Although neurobehavioral disease is associated with seropositivity, causality is unproven. To better understand what this parasite does to human brains, we performed a comprehensive systems analysis of the infected brain: We identified susceptibility genes for congenital toxoplasmosis in our cohort of infected humans and found these genes are expressed in human brain...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899618/smell-and-taste-in-the-preterm-infant
#4
Frank H Bloomfield, Tanith Alexander, Mariana Muelbert, Friederike Beker
Olfaction and gustation are critical for the enjoyment of food but also have important metabolic roles, initiating the cephalic phase response that sets in train secretion of hormones important for metabolism and digestion before any food is actually ingested. Smell and taste receptors are functional in the fetus and there is evidence for antenatal learning of odours. Despite enteral nutrition and metabolism being major issues in the care of very preterm infants, often little consideration is given to the potential role of smell and taste in supporting these processes, or in the role they may have in encoding hypothalamic circuitry in a way that promotes healthy metabolism in the post‑neonatal period...
September 9, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894979/cuticular-hydrocarbons-of-tribolium-confusum-larvae-mediate-trail-following-and-host-recognition-in-the-ectoparasitoid-holepyris-sylvanidis
#5
Benjamin Fürstenau, Monika Hilker
Parasitic wasps which attack insects infesting processed stored food need to locate their hosts hidden inside these products. Their host search is well-known to be guided by host kairomones, perceived via olfaction or contact. Among contact kairomones, host cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) may provide reliable information for a parasitoid. However, the chemistry of CHC profiles of hosts living in processed stored food products is largely unknown. Here we showed that the ectoparasitoid Holepyris sylvanidis uses CHCs of its host Tribolium confusum, a worldwide stored product pest, as kairomones for host location and recognition at short range...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894232/antennal-transcriptome-and-expression-analyses-of-olfactory-genes-in-the-sweetpotato-weevil-cylas-formicarius
#6
Shu-Ying Bin, Meng-Qiu Qu, Xin-Hua Pu, Zhong-Zhen Wu, Jin-Tian Lin
The sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Fabricius), is a serious pest of sweetpotato. Olfaction-based approaches, such as use of synthetic sex pheromones to monitor populations and the bait-and-kill method to eliminate males, have been applied successfully for population management of C. formicarius. However, the molecular basis of olfaction in C. formicarius remains unknown. In this study, we produced antennal transcriptomes from males and females of C. formicarius using high-throughput sequencing to identify gene families associated with odorant detection...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893392/computational-modeling-and-validation-of-human-nasal-airflow-under-various-breathing-conditions
#7
Chengyu Li, Jianbo Jiang, Haibo Dong, Kai Zhao
The human nose serves vital physiological functions, including warming, filtration, humidification, and olfaction. These functions are based on transport phenomena that depend on nasal airflow patterns and turbulence. Accurate prediction of these airflow properties requires careful selection of computational fluid dynamics models and rigorous validation. The validation studies in the past have been limited by poor representations of the complex nasal geometry, lack of detailed airflow comparisons, and restricted ranges of flow rate...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884145/sensory-experience-shapes-the-integration-of-adult-born-neurons-into-the-olfactory-bulb
#8
Elizabeth Hanson, Jessica Swanson, Benjamin R Arenkiel
Olfaction is an ancient sensory modality which is heavily involved in viscerally-important tasks like finding food and identifying mates. Olfactory processing involves interpreting stimuli from a non-continuous odor space, and translating them into an organized pattern of neuronal activity in the olfactory bulb. Additionally, olfactory processing is rapidly modulated by behavioral states and vice versa. This implies strong bidirectional neuromodulation between the olfactory bulb and other brain regions that include the cortex, hippocampus, and basal forebrain...
August 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882981/characteristics-of-a-nationwide-cohort-of-patients-presenting-with-isolated-hypogonadotropic-hypogonadism-ihh
#9
Marco Bonomi, Valeria Vezzoli, Csilla Gabriella Krausz, Fabiana Guizzardi, Silvia Vezzani, Manuela Simoni, Ivan Bassi, Paolo Duminuco, Natascia Di Iorgi, Claudia Giavoli, Alessandro Pizzoccaro, Gianni Russo, Mirella Moro, Letizia Maria Fatti, Alberto Ferlin, Laura Mazzanti, Maria Chiara Zatelli, Salvatore Cannavò, Andrea M Isidori, Angela I Pincelli, Flavia Prodam, Antonio Mancini, Paolo Limone, Maria Laura Tanda, Rossella Gaudino, Mariacarolina Salerno, Francesca Pregnolato, Mohammad Maghnie, Mario Maggi, Luca Persani
OBJECTIVE: IHH is a rare disorder with pubertal delay, normal (normoosmic-IHH, nIHH) or defective sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome, KS). Other reproductive and non-reproductive anomalies might be present altough information on their frequency are scanty, particularly according to the age of presentation. DESIGN: Observational cohort study carried out between January 2008-June 2016 within a national network of academic or general hospitals Methods: We performed a detailed phenotyping of 503 IHH patients with: 1) manifestations of hypogonadism with low sex steroid hormone and low/normal gonadotropins; 2) absence of expansive hypothalamic/pituitary lesions or multiple pituitary hormone defects...
September 7, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882191/effects-of-sustained-i-c-v-infusion-of-lupus-csf-and-autoantibodies-on-behavioral-phenotype-and-neuronal-calcium-signaling
#10
Minesh Kapadia, Dunja Bijelić, Hui Zhao, Donglai Ma, Ljudmila Stojanovich, Milena Milošević, Pavle Andjus, Boris Šakić
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a potentially fatal autoimmune disease that is often accompanied by brain atrophy and diverse neuropsychiatric manifestations of unknown origin. More recently, it was observed that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients and lupus-prone mice can be neurotoxic and that acute administration of specific brain-reactive autoantibodies (BRAs) can induce deficits in isolated behavioral tasks. Given the chronic and complex nature of CNS SLE, the current study examines broad behavioral performance and neuronal Ca(2+) signaling in mice receiving a sustained infusion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from CNS SLE patients and putative BRAs (anti-NR2A, anti-ribosomal P, and anti-α-tubulin)...
September 7, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879861/integrating-exhaled-breath-diagnostics-by-disease-sniffing-dogs-with-instrumental-laboratory-analysis
#11
Joachim Pleil, Roger Giese
Dogs have been studied for many years as a medical diagnostic tool to detect a pre-clinical disease state by sniffing emissions directly from a human or an in vitro biological sample. Some of the studies report high sensitivity and specificity in blinded case-control studies. However, in these studies it is completely unknown as to which suites of chemicals the dogs detect and how they ultimately interpret this information amidst confounding background odors. Herein, we consider the advantages and challenges of canine olfaction for early (meaningful) detection of cancer, and propose an experimental concept to narrow the molecular signals used by the dog for sample classification to laboratory-based instrumental analysis...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879772/brain-membrane-proteome-and-phosphoproteome-reveal-molecular-basis-associating-with-nursing-and-foraging-behaviors-of-honeybee-workers
#12
Bin Han, Yu Fang, Mao Feng, Han Hu, Yue Hao, Chuan Ma, Xinmei Huo, Lifeng Meng, Xufeng Zhang, Fan Wu, Jianke Li
The brain is a vital organ in regulating complex social behaviors of honeybees including learning and memory. Knowledge of how brain membrane proteins and their phosphorylation underlie the age-related behavioral polyethism is still lacking. A hitherto age-resolved brain membrane proteome and phosphoproteome were reported in adult worker bees from two strains of honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica): Italian bee (ITB) and Royal Jelly bee (RJB), a line selected from ITB for increased RJ outputs over 4 decades...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878051/olfaction-and-incident-parkinson-disease-in-us-white-and-black-older-adults
#13
Honglei Chen, Srishti Shrestha, Xuemei Huang, Samay Jain, Xuguang Guo, Gregory J Tranah, Melissa E Garcia, Suzanne Satterfield, Caroline Phillips, Tamara B Harris
OBJECTIVE: To investigate olfaction in relation to incident Parkinson disease (PD) in US white and black older adults. METHODS: The study included 1,510 white (mean age 75.6 years) and 952 black (75.4 years) participants of the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study. We evaluated the olfaction of study participants with the Brief Smell Identification Test (BSIT) in 1999-2000. We retrospectively adjudicated PD cases identified through August 31, 2012, using multiple data sources...
September 6, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870428/retro-and-orthonasal-olfactory-function-in-relation-to-olfactory-bulb-volume-in-patients-with-hypogonadotrophic-hypogonadism
#14
Murat Salihoglu, Onuralp Kurt, Seyid Ahmet Ay, Kamil Baskoy, Aytug Altundag, Muzaffer Saglam, Ferhat Deniz, Hakan Tekeli, Arif Yonem, Thomas Hummel
INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (IHH) with an olfactory deficit is defined as Kallmann syndrome (KS) and is distinct from normosmic IHH. OBJECTIVE: Because olfactory perception not only consists of orthonasally gained impressions but also involves retronasal olfactory function, in this study we decided to comprehensively evaluate both retronasal and orthonasal olfaction in patients with IHH. METHODS: This case-control study included 31 controls and 45 IHH patients...
August 24, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866743/effects-of-oral-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-on-the-cerebral-processing-of-olfactory-input-in-healthy-non-addicted-subjects
#15
Carmen Walter, Bruno G Oertel, Lisa Felden, Ulrike Nöth, Johannes Vermehren, Ralf Deichmann, Jörn Lötsch
BACKGROUND: Considering the increasing acknowledgment of the human sense of smell as a significant component of the quality of life, olfactory drug effects gain potential clinical importance. A recent observation in a human experimental context indicated that Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) impaired the subject's performance in olfactory tests. To further analyze the role of THC in human olfaction, the present report addresses its effects on the central processing of olfactory stimuli...
September 2, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866668/emerging-roles-of-kisspeptin-in-sexual-and-emotional-brain-processing
#16
Alexander N Comninos, Waljit S Dhillo
<br>The emergence of kisspeptin as a crucial regulator of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis over the last 14 years has answered many questions as to the control of reproductive hormone secretion from the hypothalamus. More recently the role of kisspeptin outside the HPG axis has received increasing attention in the hope of delineating the pathways linking various sensory and social behaviours to reproduction. These studies, in a range of species from zebrafish to humans, have identified a role for kisspeptin in behavioural networks related to reproduction including olfaction, audition, fear, anxiety, mood and sexual arousal...
August 31, 2017: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863008/olfactory-dysfunction-associated-with-neuro-beh%C3%A3-et-disease
#17
Remzi Doğan, Burak Ertaş, Berke Özücer, Erkingul Birday, Orhan Özturan, Bayram Veyseller
INTRODUCTION: Neurologic involvement associated with Behçet disease (BD) is defined as a different entity: Neuro-Behçet disease (NBD). Behçet disease presents with olfactory dysfunction. It is not known whether this is the consequence of mucosal involvement or neurologic involvement. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether olfactory dysfunction was further aggravated as the result of neurologic involvement. METHODS: Sixteen patients diagnosed with NBD and 16 healthy control patients with similar demographic characteristics were recruited as the healthy control group...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862008/-olfactory-function-in-patients-undergoing-fess-for-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#18
Zdeněk Knížek, Jan Vodička, Pavlína Brothánková, Hana Shejbalová
Patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) often suffer from loss of olfactory function. Rhinosinusitis can be treated either by medical therapy or surgically (FESS). Postoperative outcome in terms of improving sense of smell has been controversial so far. The aim of our study was to determine the patients who would have better postoperative outcomes in terms of improving olfactory function. We collected data of patients undergoing FESS for chronic rhinosinusitis (either with or without nasal polyps) at our department during the years 2012-2015...
2017: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861229/influence-of-olfactory-and-visual-cover-on-nest-site-selection-and-nest-success-for-grassland-nesting-birds
#19
Dillon T Fogarty, R Dwayne Elmore, Samuel D Fuhlendorf, Scott R Loss
Habitat selection by animals is influenced by and mitigates the effects of predation and environmental extremes. For birds, nest site selection is crucial to offspring production because nests are exposed to extreme weather and predation pressure. Predators that forage using olfaction often dominate nest predator communities; therefore, factors that influence olfactory detection (e.g., airflow and weather variables, including turbulence and moisture) should influence nest site selection and survival. However, few studies have assessed the importance of olfactory cover for habitat selection and survival...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860658/modification-of-the-response-of-olfactory-receptors-to-acetophenone-by-cyp1a2
#20
Masashi Asakawa, Yosuke Fukutani, Aulaphan Savangsuksa, Keiich Noguchi, Hiroaki Matsunami, Masafumi Yohda
Olfaction is mediated by the binding of odorant molecules to olfactory receptors (ORs). There are numerous proteins in the nasal mucus, and they contribute to olfaction through various mechanisms. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) family members are known to be present in the olfactory epithelium and are thought to affect olfaction by enzymatic conversion of odorant molecules. In this study, we examined the effects of CYPs on the ligand responses of ORs in heterologous cells. Among the CYPs tested, co-expression of CYP1a2 significantly affected the responses of various ORs, including MOR161-2, to acetophenone...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
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