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Olfaction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644375/gaden-a-3d-gas-dispersion-simulator-for-mobile-robot-olfaction-in-realistic-environments
#1
Javier Monroy, Victor Hernandez-Bennets, Han Fan, Achim Lilienthal, Javier Gonzalez-Jimenez
This work presents a simulation framework developed under the widely used Robot Operating System (ROS) to enable the validation of robotics systems and gas sensing algorithms under realistic environments. The framework is rooted in the principles of computational fluid dynamics and filament dispersion theory, modeling wind flow and gas dispersion in 3D real-world scenarios (i.e., accounting for walls, furniture, etc.). Moreover, it integrates the simulation of different environmental sensors, such as metal oxide gas sensors, photo ionization detectors, or anemometers...
June 23, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638084/identification-and-expression-analysis-of-chemosensory-receptor-genes-in-an-aphid-endoparasitoid-aphidius-gifuensis
#2
Zhi-Wei Kang, Hong-Gang Tian, Fang-Hua Liu, Xiang Liu, Xiang-Feng Jing, Tong-Xian Liu
Olfaction and gustation play critical roles during the host-location search process of insects. Several chemosensory receptor genes are thought to be involved in providing specificity to the olfactory sensory neuron responses. The aphid endoparasitoid, Aphidius gifuensis, has been used as a biological control agent against a variety of aphid species; this parasitoid is able to detect its target host(s) effectively during the parasitic process. To understand the mechanism of host detection in A. gifuensis, we assembled specific antennal transcriptomes of each sex through next generation sequencing technology to identify the major chemosensory receptor genes...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637956/cd36-involvement-in-the-olfactory-perception-of-oleic-aldehyde-an-odour-active-volatile-compound-in-mice
#3
Shinhye Lee, Tsuzuki Satoshi, Takahiko Amitsuka, Daisaku Masuda, Shizuya Yamashita, Kazuo Inoue
Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) is a broadly expressed transmembrane receptor that has multiple ligands. It has been found to occur abundantly on the surface of the olfactory epithelium in mice and postulated to play a role in mammalian olfaction. However, there have been no ethological analyses of the mammalian behaviour showing CD36 involvement in the olfactory perception of a distinct odour-active volatile compound. In this study, we aimed to assess whether mammals perceive oleic aldehyde, an odour-active volatile that serves as a potential CD36 ligand, and if so, whether CD36 is involved in the sensing by following measurements using CD36-knockout mice and their wild-type littermates...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637374/facial-emotion-recognition-in-parkinson-s-disease-association-with-age-and-olfaction
#4
S Kalampokini, E Lyros, M Luley, J Schöpe, J Spiegel, J Bürmann, U Dillmann, K Fassbender, M M Unger
OBJECTIVE: The ability to recognize facial emotion expressions has been reported to be impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD), yet previous studies showed inconsistent findings. The aim of this study was to further investigate facial emotion recognition (FER) in PD patients and its association with demographic and clinical parameters (including motor and nonmotor symptoms). METHOD: Thirty-four nondemented PD patients and 24 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) underwent clinical neurological and neuropsychological assessment, standardized olfactory testing with Sniffin' Sticks, and the Ekman 60 Faces Emotion Recognition Test...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635219/-olfactory-function-in-children-with-adenoid-hypertrophy-who-underwent-adenotonsillectomy-during-pre-and-post-operative-period
#5
H G Pan, H Yang, G W Chen, L Li, Z B Wu, J M Wang
Objective: To assess the olfactory function in children with adenoid hypertrophy and investigate the changes of both olfactory function and appetite in children with adenoid hypertrophy before and after adenoidectomy. Methods: Forty-four children with adenoid hypertrophy admitted for adenoidectomy, aged 7-12 years, mean age (10.0±2.0) years were tested by Sniffin' Sticks test and visual analog scale(VAS) of the children's appetite preoperatively between March and August 2015.In a appointment 6 months after operation, all of them returned and were tested again...
June 7, 2017: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622437/detection-of-halitosis-in-breath-between-the-past-present-and-future
#6
Morad K Nakhleh, Marceau Quatredeniers, Hossam Haick
In order to develop a new generation of diagnostics for halitosis, replacing the subjective organoleptic assessment, a series of exhaled breath analyzers has been developed and assessed. All three devices rely on the assessment of exhaled Volatile Sulfuric Compounds (VSCs), which are mainly generated in and emitted from the oral cavity, contributing to the malodor. Portable, on-site and easy to use, these devices have potential for non-invasive diagnosis of halitosis. However, global assessment of exhaled VSCs alone has two main drawbacks: (1) the absence of VCSs does not rule out halitosis; (2) non-sulfuric volatile compounds that could be biomarkers of systemic diseases, found in up to 15% of halitosis cases, are neglected...
June 16, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616959/smelling-seeing-tasting-old-senses-for-new-sensing
#7
Luca Guerrini, Eduardo Garcia-Rico, Nicolas Pazos-Perez, Ramon A Alvarez-Puebla
The senses are the physiological mechanisms of perception that enable an organism to interact with the surrounding media. For centuries, humans have utilized these senses in science; vision and olfaction have been used the most extensively in laboratories followed by gustation and somatosensation, whereas audition has only rarely been employed. Most of these applications of senses were developed spontaneously based on the natural behavior of the chemistry of the reactants producing changes in scent, taste, or color...
June 15, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614384/antennal-transcriptome-analysis-of-the-piercing-moth-oraesia-emarginata-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#8
Bo Feng, Qianshuang Guo, Kaidi Zheng, Yuanxia Qin, Yongjun Du
The piercing fruit moth Oraesia emarginata is an economically significant pest; however, our understanding of its olfactory mechanisms in infestation is limited. The present study conducted antennal transcriptome analysis of olfactory genes using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis (RT-qPCR). We identified a total of 104 candidate chemosensory genes from several gene families, including 35 olfactory receptors (ORs), 41 odorant-binding proteins, 20 chemosensory proteins, 6 ionotropic receptors, and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602240/olfactory-learning-and-chemical-ecology-of-olfaction-in-disease-vector-mosquitoes-a-life-history-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Eleanor K Lutz, Chloé Lahondère, Clément Vinauger, Jeffrey A Riffell
Mosquitoes transmit many debilitating diseases including malaria, dengue and Zika. Odors mediate behaviors that directly impact disease transmission (blood-feeding) as well as life history events that contribute to mosquito survival and fitness (mating and oviposition, nectar foraging, larval foraging and predator avoidance). In addition to innate olfaction-mediated behaviors, mosquitoes rely on olfactory experience throughout their life to inform advantageous choices in many of these important behaviors. Previous reviews have addressed either the chemical ecology of mosquitoes, or olfactory-driven behaviors including host-feeding or oviposition...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602239/effects-of-malaria-infection-on-mosquito-olfaction-and-behavior-extrapolating-data-to-the-field
#10
REVIEW
Nina M Stanczyk, Mark C Mescher, Consuelo M De Moraes
Vector-borne pathogens have been shown to influence behavioral and other traits of their hosts and vectors across multiple systems, frequently in ways that enhance transmission. In malaria pathosystems, Plasmodium parasites have been reported to alter mosquito physiology, fitness and host-seeking behavior. Such effects on vector behavior have obvious medical relevance given their potential to influence disease transmission. However, most studies detailing these effects have faced methodological limitations, including experiments limited to laboratory settings with model vector/pathogen systems...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598376/floral-volatiles-from-vigna-unguiculata-are-olfactory-and-gustatory-stimulants-for-oviposition-by-the-bean-pod-borer-moth-maruca-vitrata
#11
Bo Feng, Kai Qian, Yong-Jun Du
Abstract: We investigated the role of floral odors from cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), in mediating oviposition of the bean pod borer moth, Maruca vitrata, a serious pest of grain legumes that flies to host plants at the flowering stage and oviposits onto flowers and buds. The flower of the host plant V. unguiculata was a stimulus for egg-laying by M. vitrata in an oviposition bioassay. Commercial longifolene, β-caryophyllene, linalool, geraniol, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate were used as stimulus. Each one elicited dose-dependent electroantennogram responses in female M...
June 9, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596537/transcriptome-sequencing-of-tessaratoma-papillosa-antennae-to-identify-and-analyze-expression-patterns-of-putative-olfaction-genes
#12
Zhong-Zhen Wu, Meng-Qiu Qu, Xin-Hua Pu, Yang Cui, Wan-Yu Xiao, Hong-Xia Zhao, Shu-Ying Bin, Jin-Tian Lin
Studies on insect olfaction have increased our understanding of insect's chemosensory system and chemical ecology, and have improved pest control strategies based on insect behavior. In this study, we assembled the antennal transcriptomes of the lychee giant stink bug, Tessaratoma papillosa, by using next generation sequencing to identify the major olfaction gene families in this species. In total, 59 odorant receptors, 14 ionotropic receptors (8 antennal IRs), and 33 odorant binding proteins (28 classic OBPs and 5 plus-C OBPs) were identified from the male and female antennal transcriptomes...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596215/reproductive-and-metabolic-state-differences-in-olfactory-responses-to-amino-acids-in-a-mouth-brooding-african-cichlid-fish
#13
Alexandre A Nikonov, Julie M Butler, Karen E Field, John Caprio, Karen P Maruska
Olfaction mediates many crucial life-history behaviors such as prey detection, predator avoidance, migration, and reproduction. Olfactory function can also be modulated by an animal's internal physiological and metabolic states. While this is relatively well-studied in mammals, little is known about how internal state impacts olfaction in fishes, the largest and most diverse group of vertebrates. Here we apply electro-olfactograms (EOGs) in the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni to test the hypothesis that olfactory responses to food-related cues (i...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596128/sweetpotato-weevil-cylas-formicarius-fab-coleoptera-brentidae-avoids-its-host-plant-when-a-virulent-metarhizium-anisopliae-isolate-is-present
#14
Ronnie Dotaona, Bree A L Wilson, Gavin J Ash, Joanne Holloway, Mark M Stevens
Metarhizium anisopliae has a wide range of coleopteran hosts, including weevils. Some susceptible insects are known to modify their behavior to prevent infection, typically detecting virulent strains by olfaction, and avoiding physical contact with sources of infection. Laboratory olfactometer assays were conducted on the sweetpotato weevil Cylas formicarius to test the hypothesis that insects would avoid a more virulent strain of M. anisopliae when presented with a strain of low virulence or an untreated control...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594956/candidate-odorant-binding-proteins-and-chemosensory-proteins-in-the-larval-chemosensory-tissues-of-two-closely-related-noctuidae-moths-helicoverpa-armigera-and-h-assulta
#15
Hetan Chang, Dong Ai, Jin Zhang, Shuanglin Dong, Yang Liu, Guirong Wang
In order to acquire enough nutrients and energy for further development, larvae need to invest a large portion of their sensory equipments to identify food sources. Yet, the molecular basis of odor-driven behavior in larvae has been poorly investigated. Information on olfactory genes, particularly odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) which are involved in the initial steps of olfaction is very scarce. In this study, we have identified 26 OBP and 21 CSP genes from the transcriptomes of Helicoverpa armigera larval antennae and mouthparts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588400/quantum-effects-in-biology-golden-rule-in-enzymes-olfaction-photosynthesis-and-magnetodetection
#16
REVIEW
Jennifer C Brookes
Despite certain quantum concepts, such as superposition states, entanglement, 'spooky action at a distance' and tunnelling through insulating walls, being somewhat counterintuitive, they are no doubt extremely useful constructs in theoretical and experimental physics. More uncertain, however, is whether or not these concepts are fundamental to biology and living processes. Of course, at the fundamental level all things are quantum, because all things are built from the quantized states and rules that govern atoms...
May 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588085/an-adenosine-receptor-for-olfaction
#17
Annalisa M VanHook
Extracellular processing of ATP in the fish olfactory epithelium produces adenosine that is perceived by olfactory neurons.
June 6, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584858/a-longitudinal-population-study-of-the-impact-of-cataract-extraction-on-sleep-quality
#18
Yanjun Chen, David M Nondahl, Carla R Schubert, Dayna S Dalton, Adam J Paulsen, Barbara E K Klein, Ronald Klein, Karen J Cruickshanks
PURPOSE: To investigate the longitudinal effects of cataract extraction on sleep quality in two discrete population cohorts. METHODS: 301 participants who had senile cataract in both eyes at the baseline examination were selected from two large longitudinal epidemiologic studies of age-related eye disease, hearing, olfaction, and cognition. The participants were divided into two groups: one had cataract surgery (CS) in both eyes, and the other had no cataract surgery (NCS) in either eye by the follow up examination...
2017: Cogent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584273/antennal-and-abdominal-transcriptomes-reveal-chemosensory-gene-families-in-the-coconut-hispine-beetle-brontispa-longissima
#19
Shu-Ying Bin, Meng-Qiu Qu, Ke-Ming Li, Zheng-Qiang Peng, Zhong-Zhen Wu, Jin-Tian Lin
Antennal and abdominal transcriptomes of males and females of the coconut hispine beetle Brontispa longissima were sequenced to identify and compare the expression patterns of genes involved in odorant reception and detection. Representative proteins from the chemosensory gene families likely essential for insect olfaction were identified. These include 48 odorant receptors (ORs), 19 ionotropic receptors (IRs), 4 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 34 odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and 16 chemosensory proteins (CSPs)...
June 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582529/disrupted-olfactory-integration-in-schizophrenia-functional-connectivity-study
#20
Sara Kiparizoska, Toshikazu Ikuta
Background: Evidence for olfactory dysfunction in schizophrenia has been firmly established. However, in the typical understanding of schizophrenia, olfaction is not recognized to contribute to or interact with the illness. Despite the solid presence of olfactory dysfunction in schizophrenia, its relation to the rest of the illness remains largely unclear. Here, we aimed to examine functional connectivity of the olfactory bulb, olfactory tract, and piriform cortices and isolate the network that would account for the altered olfaction in schizophrenia...
June 3, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
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