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Olfaction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134611/exploring-white-matter-microstructure-and-olfaction-dysfunction-in-early-parkinson-disease-diffusion-mri-reveals-new-insight
#1
Soheila Sobhani, Farzaneh Rahmani, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi, Alireza Vafaei Sadr
Olfaction dysfunction is considered as a robust marker of prodromal Parkinson disease (PD). Measurement of olfaction function as a screening test is unsatisfactory due to long lead time interval and low specificity for detection of PD. Use of imaging markers might yield more accurate predictive values and provide bases for combined use of imaging and clinical markers for early PD. Diffusion MRI connectometry was conducted on 85 de novo PD patients in and 36 healthy controls to find: first, white matter tracts with significant difference in quantitative anisotropy between PD groups with various degrees of olfaction dysfunction and second, second fibers with correlation with University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) score in each group using a multiple regression analysis considering age, sex, GDS and MoCA score...
November 13, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133907/a-primacy-code-for-odor-identity
#2
Christopher D Wilson, Gabriela O Serrano, Alexei A Koulakov, Dmitry Rinberg
Humans can identify visual objects independently of view angle and lighting, words independently of volume and pitch, and smells independently of concentration. The computational principles underlying invariant object recognition remain mostly unknown. Here we propose that, in olfaction, a small and relatively stable set comprised of the earliest activated receptors forms a code for concentration-invariant odor identity. One prediction of this "primacy coding" scheme is that decisions based on odor identity can be made solely using early odor-evoked neural activity...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133804/antennal-transcriptome-analysis-and-expression-profiles-of-olfactory-genes-in-anoplophora-chinensis
#3
Jingzhen Wang, Ping Hu, Peng Gao, Jing Tao, Youqing Luo
Olfaction in insects is essential for host identification, mating and oviposition, in which olfactory proteins are responsible for chemical signaling. Here, we determined the transcriptomes of male and female adult antennae of Anoplophora chinensis, the citrus longhorned beetle. Among 59,357 unigenes in the antennal assembly, we identified 46 odorant-binding proteins, 16 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 44 odorant receptors, 19 gustatory receptors, 23 ionotropic receptors, and 3 sensory neuron membrane proteins...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132294/artificial-selection-for-odor-guided-behavior-in-drosophila-reveals-changes-in-food-consumption
#4
Elizabeth B Brown, Cody Patterson, Rayanne Pancoast, Stephanie M Rollmann
BACKGROUND: The olfactory system enables organisms to detect chemical cues in the environment and can signal the availability of food or the presence of a predator. Appropriate behavioral responses to these chemical cues are therefore important for organismal survival and can influence traits such as organismal life span and food consumption. However, understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying odor-guided behavior, correlated responses in other traits, and how these constrain or promote their evolution, remain an important challenge...
November 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127313/current-source-density-mapping-of-antennal-sensory-selectivity-reveals-conserved-olfactory-systems-between-tephritids-and-drosophila
#5
Vincent Jacob, Francesca Scolari, Hélène Delatte, Giuliano Gasperi, Emmanuelle Jacquin-Joly, Anna R Malacrida, Pierre-François Duyck
Ecological specialization of insects involves the functional and morphological reshaping of olfactory systems. Little is known about the degree to which insect sensitivity to odorant compounds is conserved between genera, tribes, or families. Here we compared the olfactory systems of six tephritid fruit fly species spanning two tribes and the distantly related Drosophila melanogaster at molecular, functional, and morphological levels. Olfaction in these flies is mediated by a set of olfactory receptors (ORs) expressed in different functional classes of neurons located in distinct antennal regions...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125586/an-investigation-into-spike-based-neuromorphic-approaches-for-artificial-olfactory-systems
#6
REVIEW
Anup Vanarse, Adam Osseiran, Alexander Rassau
The implementation of neuromorphic methods has delivered promising results for vision and auditory sensors. These methods focus on mimicking the neuro-biological architecture to generate and process spike-based information with minimal power consumption. With increasing interest in developing low-power and robust chemical sensors, the application of neuromorphic engineering concepts for electronic noses has provided an impetus for research focusing on improving these instruments. While conventional e-noses apply computationally expensive and power-consuming data-processing strategies, neuromorphic olfactory sensors implement the biological olfaction principles found in humans and insects to simplify the handling of multivariate sensory data by generating and processing spike-based information...
November 10, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124740/organizing-activity-of-fgf8-on-the-anterior-telencephalon
#7
Tatsuya Sato, Takako Kikkawa, Tetsuichiro Saito, Keiichi Itoi, Noriko Osumi
The anterior part of the embryonic telencephalon gives rise to several brain regions that are important for animal behavior, including the frontal cortex (FC) and the olfactory bulb. The FC plays an important role in decision-making behaviors, such as social and cognitive behavior, and the olfactory bulb is involved in olfaction. Here, we show the organizing activity of fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8) in the regionalization of the anterior telencephalon, specifically the FC and the olfactory bulb. Misexpression of Fgf8 in the most anterior part of the mouse telencephalon at embryonic day 11...
November 10, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121614/interaction-of-semiochemicals-with-model-lipid-membranes-a-biophysical-approach
#8
Sergio A Rodriguez, O A Pinto, Axel Hollmann
Unravelling the chemical language of insects has been the subject of intense research in the field of chemical ecology for the past five decades. Insect communication is mainly based on chemosensation due to the small body size of insects, which limits their ability to produce or perceive auditory and visual signals, especially over large distances. Chemicals involved in insect communication are called semiochemicals. These volatiles and semivolatiles compounds allow to Insects to find a mate, besides the oviposition site in reproduction and food sources...
November 2, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121272/chronic-cigarette-smoking-associates-directly-and-indirectly-with-self-reported-olfactory-alterations-analysis-of-the-2011-2014-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-nhanes
#9
Sarah-Grace Glennon, Tania Huedo-Medina, Shristi Rawal, Howard J Hoffman, Mark D Litt, Valerie B Duffy
Introduction: Population-based studies show inconsistent effects of cigarette smoking on olfactory function. We aimed to identify direct and indirect associations between measures of smoking exposure/nicotine dependence and altered olfaction in a nationally-representative sample of adults. Methods: NHANES 2011-2014 (n=7,418) participants (mean age=57.8±12.2 years) self-reported olfaction and related health and demographic risks. Affirmative answers to three questions defined altered olfaction (olfactory problems in past year; worse ability since age 25; phantom smells)...
November 7, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121184/barrel-cortical-neuron-integrates-triple-associated-signals-for-their-memory-through-receiving-epigenetic-mediated-new-synapse-innervations
#10
Jing Feng, Wei Lu, Dangui Wang, Ke Ma, Zhenhua Song, Na Chen, Yan Sun, Kaixin Du, Mengmeng Shen, Shan Cui, Jin-Hui Wang
Associative learning is common way for information acquisition. Associative memory is essential to logical reasoning and associative thinking. The storages of multiple associated signals in individual neurons facilitate their integration, expand memory volume, and strengthen cognition ability. Associative memory cells that encode multiple signals have been reported, however, the mechanisms underlying their recruitment and working principle remain to be addressed. We have examined the recruitment of associative memory cells that integrate and store triple sensory signals as well as the potential mechanism of their recruitment...
December 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119319/olfactory-stimulation-may-promote-oral-feeding-in-immature-newborn-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
H Cao Van, N Guinand, E Damis, A L Mansbach, A Poncet, T Hummel, B N Landis
Premature newborns have an increased mortality and morbidity due to respiratory immaturity and inefficient oral feeding performance. Transient assistance with feeding tubes until oral performance improves is required with consequent hospital admission. Based on a controlled and randomized study, we tested whether olfactory stimulation compared to odorless stimulation could accelerate the switch from feeding tube to satisfactory oral feeding. Fifty newborns were included and randomly assigned to either odorless or olfactory stimulation with anise or cinnamon...
November 8, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109236/history-dependent-odor-processing-in-the-mouse-olfactory-bulb
#12
Amit Vinograd, Yoav Livneh, Adi Mizrahi
In nature, animals normally perceive sensory information on top of backgrounds. Thus, the neural substrate to perceive under background conditions is inherent in all sensory systems. Where and how sensory systems process backgrounds is not fully understood. In olfaction, only few studies addressed the issue of odor coding on top of continuous odorous backgrounds. Here, we tested how background odors are encoded by mitral cells (MCs) in the olfactory bulb (OB) of male mice. Using in vivo two-photon calcium imaging we studied how MCs responded to odors in isolation versus their responses to the same odors on top of continuous backgrounds...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108100/association-between-diabetes-mellitus-and-olfactory-dysfunction-current-perspectives-and-future-directions
#13
REVIEW
H Zaghloul, M Pallayova, O Al-Nuaimi, K R Hovis, S Taheri
The increasing global prevalence of diabetes mellitus presents a significant challenge to healthcare systems today. Although diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy are well-established complications of diabetes, there is a paucity of research examining the impact of dysglycaemia on the olfactory system. Olfaction is an important sense, playing a role in the safety, nutrition and quality of life of an individual, but its importance is often overlooked when compared with the other senses. As a result, olfactory dysfunction is often underdiagnosed...
November 6, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107966/spinosaur-taxonomy-and-evolution-of-craniodental-features-evidence-from-brazil
#14
Marcos A F Sales, Cesar L Schultz
Fossil sites from Brazil have yielded specimens of spinosaurid theropods, among which the most informative include the cranial remains of Irritator, Angaturama, and Oxalaia. In this work some of their craniodental features are reinterpreted, providing new data for taxonomic and evolutionary issues concerning this particular clade of dinosaurs. The mesial-most tooth of the left maxilla of the holotype of Irritator is regarded as representing the third tooth position, which is also preserved in the holotype of Angaturama...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107844/the-mechanisms-underlying-olfactory-deficits-in-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice-focus-on-olfactory-epithelium-and-olfactory-bulb
#15
Jiajia Zhang, Caiyuan Hao, Jinxiang Jiang, Yangjian Feng, Xi Chen, Ying Zheng, Jiawei Liu, Zhilin Zhang, Cheng Long, Li Yang
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is highly expressed in the central nervous system including the olfactory epithelium (OE) and olfactory bulb (OB). ApoE induction is beneficial for Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatment, whereas ApoE deficiency results in impaired olfaction, but the timing and underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of these effects remain unclear. Uncovering the mechanisms underlying olfactory dysfunction in ApoE-deficient mice might provide a potential avenue for the early diagnosis of AD. We used an ApoE knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mouse model and a cookie-finding test to reveal an olfactory deficit in 3- to 5-month-old, but not 1- to 2-month-old, ApoE(-/-) mice...
October 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106509/fmri-based-neuronal-response-to-new-odorants-in-the-newborn-brain
#16
Alexandra Adam-Darque, Frédéric Grouiller, Lana Vasung, Russia Ha-Vinh Leuchter, Philippe Pollien, François Lazeyras, Petra S Hüppi
The sense of smell is one of the oldest and the most primitive senses mammals possess, it helps to evaluate the surrounding environment. From birth, smell is an important sensory modality, highly relevant for neonatal behavioral adaptation. Even though human newborns seem to be able to perceive and react to olfactory stimuli, there is still a lack of knowledge about the ontogeny of smell and the underlying central processing involved in odor perception in newborns. Brain networks involved in chemosensory perception of odorants are well described in adults, however in newborns there is no evidence that central olfaction is functional given the largely unmyelinated neonatal central nervous system...
July 6, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104561/among-early-appearing-non-motor-signs-of-parkinson-s-disease-alteration-of-olfaction-but-not-electroencephalographic-spectrum-correlates-with-motor-function
#17
Vitalii V Cozac, Bianca Auschra, Menorca Chaturvedi, Ute Gschwandtner, Florian Hatz, Antonia Meyer, Antje Welge-Lüssen, Peter Fuhr
Olfactory decline is a frequent and early non-motor symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD), which is increasingly used for diagnostic purposes. Another early appearing sign of PD consists in electroencephalographic (EEG) alterations. The combination of olfactory and EEG assessment may improve the identification of patients with early stages of PD. We hypothesized that olfactory capacity would be correlated with EEG alterations and motor and cognitive impairment in PD patients. To the best of our knowledge, the mutual influence of both markers of PD-olfactory decrease and EEG changes-was not studied before...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099864/assessing-olfactory-functions-in-patients-with-barth-syndrome
#18
Michele Dibattista, Simona Lobasso, Sebastiano Stramaglia, Angela Corcelli
Barth syndrome is a rare X-linked disease affecting less than 200 individuals worldwide. Several comorbidities have been associated with the pathology and, among those, cardiac myopathy and neutropenia are the most life threatening. The appropriate nutritive support is important to sustain the everyday life of Barth syndrome patients given the chronic fatigue they experience. Since they often prefer salty and fried food, and avoid vegetables and fruits, their eating habit and food preferences do not always provide the proper amount of vitamins and amino acids...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094070/course-of-olfaction-after-sinus-surgery-for-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#19
Boris R Haxel, Patrick Boessert, Veronika Weyer-Elberich, Kai Fruth
Background: The influence of surgery on olfaction in patients who suffer from chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is still not fully understood. Most particularly, the time course of the recovery is poorly studied. Methods: The prospective study describes the results of the Sniffin' Sticks identification test in 41 subjects before (V1), 2 weeks after (V2), and 6 months after (V3) endonasal sinus surgery (ESS). Influencing factors (gender, revision surgery, nasal polyposis, and initial olfactory score) on the changes of the smell testing were evaluated...
October 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094064/vibrational-detection-of-odorant-functional-groups-by-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
Klio Maniati, Katherine-Joanne Haralambous, Luca Turin, Efthimios M C Skoulakis
A remarkable feature of olfaction, and perhaps the hardest one to explain by shape-based molecular recognition, is the ability to detect the presence of functional groups in odorants, irrespective of molecular context. We previously showed that Drosophila trained to avoid deuterated odorants could respond to a molecule bearing a nitrile group, which shares the vibrational stretch frequency with the CD bond. Here, we reproduce and extend this finding by showing analogous olfactory responses of Drosophila to the chemically vastly different functional groups, thiols and boranes, that nevertheless possess a common vibration at 2600 cm(-1)...
September 2017: ENeuro
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