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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523222/olfaction-in-parkin-carriers-in-chinese-patients-with-parkinson-disease
#1
Ying Wang, Jian-Jun Wu, Feng-Tao Liu, Kui Chen, Chen Chen, Su-Shan Luo, Yi-Xuan Wang, Da-Ke Li, Rong-Yuan Guan, Yu-Jie Yang, Yu An, Jian Wang, Yi-Min Sun
BACKGROUND: Olfactory identification was reported to be better among PD (Parkinson disease) patients with Parkin mutations, but previous studies didn't eliminate the interference of other PD related genes on olfaction, and whether olfaction of Parkin mutations patients was better in Chinese population was still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess olfaction function among PD patients with Parkin mutations in Chinese population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 226 PD patients with a positive family history or an early-onset age (<50 years) were enrolled for genetic testing of PD related genes by target sequencing and multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522094/continuous-positive-air-pressure-improves-orthonasal-olfactory-function-of-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#2
Ute Walliczek-Dworschak, Werner Cassel, Luisa Mittendorf, Robert Pellegrino, Ulrich Koehler, Christian Güldner, Philipp Otto Georg Dworschak, Olaf Hildebrandt, Hanna Daniel, Thomas Günzel, Afshin Teymoortash, Thomas Hummel
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have suggested that patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) might be affected by olfactory impairment. However, more evidence is needed on the effect that OSA has on the chemical senses (olfaction and gustatory) of these patients, and whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment might help to reverse possible impairment. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with 44 OSA patients (17 female and 27 male, mean age 54 ± 9...
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28519966/understanding-the-relationship-between-olfactory-specific-quality-of-life-objective-olfactory-loss-and-patient-factors-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#3
Jose L Mattos, Rodney J Schlosser, Kristina A Storck, Zachary M Soler
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) significantly impacts olfaction. However, the relationship between objective olfaction and patient-reported olfactory-specific quality of life (QOL) is not well understood. Furthermore, objective olfactory testing can be time consuming, so we sought to determine if patient-reported olfactory QOL can be used as screening tool for olfactory dysfunction. METHODS: Olfactory dysfunction was evaluated in 109 patients with CRS using the Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorders-Negative Statements (QOD-NS) and the Sniffin' Sticks Test, assessing for olfactory threshold, discrimination, identification, and overall composite scores (TDI; composite score of threshold, discrimination, and identification)...
May 18, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508275/gross-olfaction-before-and-after-laparoscopic-gastric-bypass
#4
Carlos Zerrweck, Vannia Castañeda Gallardo, Carmen Calleja, Elisa Sepúlveda, Lizbeth Guilber
BACKGROUND: Obesity leads to olfaction alterations, and this can further impact food choices, appetite, and nutritional status. Bariatric procedures induce weight loss and change in taste and smell perception, but more information is needed, especially using objective olfaction tests. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted during 6 months, with candidates to laparoscopic gastric bypass at a single institution. A preoperative nasofibroscopy and gross smell identification test (The Pocket Smell Test ®) were performed in those meeting the inclusion criteria...
May 15, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506924/olfactory-and-gustatory-functions-in-bipolar-disorders-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Francois Kazour, Sami Richa, Thomas Desmidt, Mathieu Lemaire, Boriana Atanasova, Wissam Elhage
Olfactory and gustatory dysfunction have been described in different psychiatric disorders. Several studies have found gustatory and olfactory function change in Bipolar Disorders with various results. The aim of this study is to have a systematic review of studies evaluating gustatory and olfactory function in bipolar disorders. After a systematic search, 15 studies on olfaction and 5 studies on taste were included in this review. The UPSIT and Sniffin' Sticks were the most used tests to evaluate smell. Some studies on olfaction described dysfunction in smell identification as potential markers for Bipolar disorders...
May 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504111/olfactory-dysfunction-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-is-there-a-common-pathological-substrate
#6
REVIEW
Richard L Doty
In patients with neurodegenerative diseases, there is a spectrum of smell dysfunction ranging from severe loss, as seen in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, to relatively little loss, as seen in progressive supranuclear palsy. Given the ubiquitous but varying degrees of olfactory dysfunction among such diseases, it is conceivable that differential disruption of a common primordial neuropathological substrate causes these differences in olfactory function. For example, the amount of damage to forebrain neurotransmitter and neuromodulator circuits, most notably those involving cholinergic transmission, appears to be correlated with quantitative smell test scores across a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases...
June 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504103/detection-of-neurodegenerative-disease-using-olfaction
#7
Michael S Xydakis, Leonardo Belluscio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503989/intravenous-olfactory-test-latency-correlates-with-improvement-in-post-infectious-olfactory-dysfunction
#8
Kyohei Horikiri, Shu Kikuta, Kaori Kanaya, Yuya Shimizu, Hironobu Nishijima, Tatsuya Yamasoba, Kenji Kondo
CONCLUSION: This cohort study showed that onset latency in the intravenous olfactory test (IVO) may help predict when olfaction in patients with post-infectious olfactory dysfunction (PIOD) improves. OBJECTIVES: To identify factors that predict the olfactory improvement period in patients with PIOD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL: All consecutive patients presenting with PIOD in 1994-2014 who were followed up for 2 years were identified retrospectively...
May 14, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503895/quantitative-comparative-analysis-of-the-nasal-chemosensory-organs-of-anurans-during-larval-development-and-metamorphosis-highlights-the-relative-importance-of-chemosensory-subsystems-in-the-group
#9
Lucas David Jungblut, John O Reiss, Dante A Paz, Andrea G Pozzi
The anuran peripheral olfactory system is composed of a number of subsystems, represented by distinct neuroepithelia. These include the main olfactory epithelium and vomeronasal organ (found in most tetrapods) and three specialized epithelia of anurans: the buccal-exposed olfactory epithelium of larvae, and the olfactory recess and middle chamber epithelium of postmetamorphic animals. To better characterize the developmental changes in these subsystems across the life cycle, morphometric changes of the nasal chemosensory organs during larval development and metamorphosis were analyzed in three different anuran species (Rhinella arenarum, Hypsiboas pulchellus, and Xenopus laevis)...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502661/an-adenosine-receptor-for-olfaction-in-fish
#10
Noriko Wakisaka, Nobuhiko Miyasaka, Tetsuya Koide, Miwa Masuda, Towako Hiraki-Kajiyama, Yoshihiro Yoshihara
Nucleotides released from food sources into environmental water are supposed to act as feeding cues for many fish species. However, it remains unknown how fish can sensitively detect those nucleotides. Here we discover a novel olfactory mechanism for ATP sensing in zebrafish. Upon entering into the nostril, ATP is efficiently converted into adenosine through enzymatic reactions of two ecto-nucleotidases expressed in the olfactory epithelium. Adenosine subsequently activates a small population of olfactory sensory neurons expressing a novel adenosine receptor A2c that is unique to fishes and amphibians...
May 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499023/the-chilean-recluse-spider-araneae-sicariidae-displays-behavioral-responses-to-conspecific-odors-but-not-to-several-general-odorants
#11
Victor Manuel Calbiague, Jesus Olivares, Erick Olivares, Oliver Schmachtenberg
Spiders of the family Sicariidae pose a serious threat to affected populations, and Loxosceles laeta (Nicolet) is considered the most venomous species. Development of nontoxic olfaction-based spider repellents or traps is hindered by a current lack of knowledge regarding olfactory system function in arachnids. In the present study, general plant odorants and conspecific odors were tested for behavioral responses in L. laeta. Although general odorants triggered neither attraction nor aversion, conspecific odor of the opposite sex caused aversion in females, and attraction in males...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497195/olfaction-in-a-viscous-environment-the-color-of-sexual-smells-in-temora-longicornis
#12
Peter Hinow, J Rudi Strickler, Jeannette Yen
We investigate chemical aspects of mating in the marine copepod Temora longicornis (Copepoda, Calanoidea). Our emphasis is the female pheromone signaling in form of well-defined trails for males to follow, observed in Doall et al. (Phil Trans R Soc Lond B 353:681-689, 1998). The viscous environment and the properties of the odorants play important roles as the spread of the pheromone trail limits the time during which it is useful for tracing. A key observation from our earlier work is the ability of a searching male to detect the direction of the female and to correct its swimming direction if necessary...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495701/poor-human-olfaction-is-a-19th-century-myth
#13
REVIEW
John P McGann
It is commonly believed that humans have a poor sense of smell compared to other mammalian species. However, this idea derives not from empirical studies of human olfaction but from a famous 19th-century anatomist's hypothesis that the evolution of human free will required a reduction in the proportional size of the brain's olfactory bulb. The human olfactory bulb is actually quite large in absolute terms and contains a similar number of neurons to that of other mammals. Moreover, humans have excellent olfactory abilities...
May 12, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495272/pannexins-in-vision-hearing-olfaction-and-taste
#14
REVIEW
Paige Whyte-Fagundes, Ryan Siu, Cherie Brown, Georg Zoidl
In mammals, the pannexin gene family consists of three members (Panx1, 2, 3), which represent a class of integral membrane channel proteins sharing some structural features with chordate gap junction proteins, the connexins. Since their discovery in the early 21st century, pannexin expression has been detected throughout the vertebrate body including eye, ear, nose and tongue, making the investigation of the roles of this new class of channel protein in health and disease very appealing. The localization in sensory organs, coupled with unique channel properties and associations with major signaling pathways make Panx1, and its relative's, significant contributors for fundamental functions in sensory perception...
May 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486665/body-odor-trait-disgust-sensitivity-predicts-perception-of-sweat-biosamples
#15
Marco Tullio Liuzza, Jonas K Olofsson, Agnieszka Sabiniewicz, Agnieszka Sorokowska
Body odors are potent triggers of disgust and regulate social behaviors in many species. The role of olfaction in disgust-associated behaviors has received scant attention in the research literature, in part because olfactory disgust assessments have required laboratory testing with odors. We have devised the "Body Odor Disgust Scale" (BODS) to facilitate research on olfactory disgust. In this study, we evaluated whether individual differences in BODS scores would be associated with the perception of disgust for sweat samples in a laboratory setting...
May 9, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486407/identification-of-chinese-herbal-medicines-with-electronic-nose-technology-applications-and-challenges
#16
REVIEW
Huaying Zhou, Dehan Luo, Hamid GholamHosseini, Zhong Li, Jiafeng He
This paper provides a review of the most recent works in machine olfaction as applied to the identification of Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs). Due to the wide variety of CHMs, the complexity of growing sources and the diverse specifications of herb components, the quality control of CHMs is a challenging issue. Much research has demonstrated that an electronic nose (E-nose) as an advanced machine olfaction system, can overcome this challenge through identification of the complex odors of CHMs. E-nose technology, with better usability, high sensitivity, real-time detection and non-destructive features has shown better performance in comparison with other analytical techniques such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
May 9, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485741/olfaction-taste-and-chemoreception-scientific-evidence-replaces-essays-in-biopoetry
#17
EDITORIAL
Giovanni Appendino, Mark Brönstrup, Julia M Kubanek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473258/representational-specializations-of-the-hippocampus-in-phylogenetic-perspective
#18
REVIEW
Elisabeth A Murray, Steven P Wise, Kim S Graham
In a major evolutionary transition that occurred more than 520 million years ago, the earliest vertebrates adapted to a life of mobile, predatory foraging guided by distance receptors concentrated on their heads. Vision and olfaction served as the principal sensory systems for guiding their search for nutrients and safe haven. Among their neural innovations, these animals had a telencephalon that included a homologue of the hippocampus. Experiments on goldfish, turtles, lizards, rodents, macaque monkeys and humans have provided insight into the initial adaptive advantages provided by the hippocampus homologue...
May 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471462/the-role-of-metals-in-mammalian-olfaction-of-low-molecular-weight-organosulfur-compounds
#19
REVIEW
Eric Block, Victor S Batista, Hiroaki Matsunami, Hanyi Zhuang, Lucky Ahmed
Covering: up to the end of 2017While suggestions concerning the possible role of metals in olfaction and taste date back 50 years, only recently has it been possible to confirm these proposals with experiments involving individual olfactory receptors (ORs). A detailed discussion of recent experimental results demonstrating the key role of metals in enhancing the response of human and other vertebrate ORs to specific odorants is presented against the backdrop of our knowledge of how the sense of smell functions both at the molecular and whole animal levels...
May 10, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469524/olfactory-neuroepithelial-neural-progenitor-cells-from-subjects-with-bipolar-i-disorder
#20
Yonglin Gao, Welby Winstead, Zhenmin Lei, Chengliang Lu, Fred J Roisen, Rif S El-Mallakh
BACKGROUND: Research into the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) is limited by the inability to examine brain cellular processes in subjects with the illness. METHODS: Endoscopic biopsy was performed in subjects with bipolar I disorder to establish olfactory neural progenitor (ONP) cell lines. Olfactory function was assessed prebiopsy and postbiopsy using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). Cells were characterized to determine their lineage...
2017: Journal of Central Nervous System Disease
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