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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315996/olfactory-preferences-of-the-parasitic-nematode-howardula-aoronymphium-and-its-insect-host-drosophila-falleni
#1
James A Cevallos, Ryo P Okubo, Steve J Perlman, Elissa A Hallem
Many parasitic nematodes have an environmental infective stage that searches for hosts. Olfaction plays an important role in this process, with nematodes navigating their environment using host-emitted and environmental olfactory cues. The interactions between parasitic nematodes and their hosts are also influenced by the olfactory behaviors of the host, since host olfactory preferences drive behaviors that may facilitate or impede parasitic infection. However, how olfaction shapes parasite-host interactions is poorly understood...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315846/risk-factors-for-early-psychosis-in-pd-insights-from-the-parkinson-s-progression-markers-initiative
#2
Dominic H Ffytche, Joana B Pereira, Clive Ballard, K Ray Chaudhuri, Daniel Weintraub, Dag Aarsland
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's Disease (PD) psychosis refers to the spectrum of illusions, formed hallucinations and delusions that occur in PD. Visual hallucinations and illusions are thought to be caused by specific cognitive and higher visual function deficits and patients who develop such symptoms early in the disease course have greater rates of cognitive decline and progression to dementia. To date, no studies have investigated whether such deficits are found prior to the onset of PD psychosis...
April 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306729/a-cooperative-function-for-multisensory-stimuli-in-the-induction-of-approach-behavior-of-a-potential-mate
#3
Anders Ågmo, Eelke M S Snoeren
Intrasexual competition is an important element of natural selection in which the most attractive conspecific has a considerable reproductive advantage over the others. The conspecifics that are approached first often become the preferred mate partners, and could thus from a biological perspective have a reproductive advantage. This underlines the importance of the initial approach and raises the question of what induces this approach, or what makes a conspecific attractive. Identification of the sensory modalities crucial for the activation of approach is necessary for elucidating the central nervous processes involved in the activation of sexual motivation and eventually copulatory behavior...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302020/olfactory-loss-management-in-view-of-avicenna-focus-on-neuroprotective-plants
#4
Farnaz Sinaei, Seyed Ahmad Emami, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Behjat Javadi
BACKGROUND: Loss of olfaction can cause noticeable reduction in general quality of life. Only a small portion of patients with olfactory loss respond to current medications. Thus, development of novel therapeutic strategies seems to be necessary. Looking into traditional medical knowledge can be of great value in addressing useful remedies. Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) has been practiced in Persia for more than 2000 years. Avicenna is the most eminent Persian physician. OBJECTIVE: To survey Avicenna's views on etiology and management of olfactory loss and to search for relevant modern pharmacological data...
March 16, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301269/the-long-tale-of-the-calcium-activated-cl-channels-in-olfactory-transduction
#5
Michele Dibattista, Simone Pifferi, Anna Boccaccio, Anna Menini, Johannes Reisert
Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents have been implicated in many cellular processes in different cells, but for many years, their molecular identity remained unknown. Particularly intriguing are Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents in olfactory transduction, first described in the early 90s. Well characterized electrophysiologically, they carry most of the odorant-induced receptor current in the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). After many attempts to determine their molecular identity, TMEM16B was found to be abundantly expressed in the cilia of OSNs in 2009 and having biophysical properties like those of the native olfactory channel...
March 16, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289233/volatile-secondary-metabolites-as-aposematic-olfactory-signals-and-defensive-weapons-in-aquatic-environments
#6
Giuseppe Giordano, Marianna Carbone, Maria Letizia Ciavatta, Eleonora Silvano, Margherita Gavagnin, Mary J Garson, Karen L Cheney, I Wayan Mudianta, Giovanni Fulvio Russo, Guido Villani, Laura Magliozzi, Gianluca Polese, Christian Zidorn, Adele Cutignano, Angelo Fontana, Michael T Ghiselin, Ernesto Mollo
Olfaction is considered a distance sense; hence, aquatic olfaction is thought to be mediated only by molecules dissolved in water. Here, we challenge this view by showing that shrimp and fish can recognize the presence of hydrophobic olfactory cues by a "tactile" form of chemoreception. We found that odiferous furanosesquiterpenes protect both the Mediterranean octocoral Maasella edwardsi and its specialist predator, the nudibranch gastropod Tritonia striata, from potential predators. Food treated with the terpenes elicited avoidance responses in the cooccurring shrimp Palaemon elegans Rejection was also induced in the shrimp by the memory recall of postingestive aversive effects (vomiting), evoked by repeatedly touching the food with chemosensory mouthparts...
March 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285999/evolution-of-multiple-sensory-systems-drives-novel-egg-laying-behavior-in-the-fruit-pest-drosophila-suzukii
#7
Marianthi Karageorgi, Lasse B Bräcker, Sébastien Lebreton, Caroline Minervino, Matthieu Cavey, K P Siju, Ilona C Grunwald Kadow, Nicolas Gompel, Benjamin Prud'homme
The rise of a pest species represents a unique opportunity to address how species evolve new behaviors and adapt to novel ecological niches [1]. We address this question by studying the egg-laying behavior of Drosophila suzukii, an invasive agricultural pest species that has spread from Southeast Asia to Europe and North America in the last decade [2]. While most closely related Drosophila species lay their eggs on decaying plant substrates, D. suzukii oviposits on ripening fruit, thereby causing substantial economic losses to the fruit industry [3-8]...
March 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270774/distinct-roles-of-met-and-interacting-proteins-on-the-expressions-of-takeout-family-genes-in-brown-planthopper
#8
Xinda Lin, Ling Zhang, Yanyun Jiang
The takeout family genes encode relatively small proteins that are related to olfaction and are regulated by juvenile hormone (JH). The takeout genes modulate various physiological processes, such as behavioral plasticity in the migratory locust Locusta migraloria and feeding and courtship behaviors in Drosophila. Therefore, to understand the regulatory mechanism of these physiological processes, it is important to study the expressions of the takeout genes that are regulated by JH signaling. We used quantitative real-time PCR (qRTPCR) to study the role of JH signaling in the regulation of the takeout family genes in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (N...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262088/genome-wide-association-study-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-two-high-risk-populations
#9
Whitney E Melroy-Greif, Kirk C Wilhelmsen, Rachel Yehuda, Cindy L Ehlers
Mexican Americans (MAs) and American Indians (AIs) constitute conspicuously understudied groups with respect to risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), especially in light of findings showing racial/ethnic differences in trauma exposure and risk for PTSD. The purpose of this study was to examine genetic influences on PTSD in two minority cohorts. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) with sum PTSD symptoms for trauma-exposed subjects was run in each cohort. Six highly correlated variants in olfactory receptor family 11 subfamily L member 1 (OR11L1) were suggestively associated with PTSD in the MA cohort...
March 6, 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260189/behavioral-pieces-of-neuroethological-puzzles
#10
Kenneth C Catania
In this review, I give a first-person account of surprising insights that have come from the behavioral dimension of neuroethological studies in my laboratory. These studies include the early attempts to understand the function of the nose in star-nosed moles and to explore its representation in the neocortex. This led to the discovery of a somatosensory fovea that parallels the visual fovea of primates in several ways. Subsequent experiments to investigate the assumed superiority of star-nosed moles to their relatives when locating food led to the unexpected discovery of stereo olfaction in common moles...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243501/validation-of-olfactory-deficit-as-a-biomarker-of-alzheimer-disease
#11
Matthew R Woodward, Chaitanya V Amrutkar, Harshit C Shah, Ralph H B Benedict, Sanjanaa Rajakrishnan, Rachelle S Doody, Li Yan, Kinga Szigeti
BACKGROUND: We evaluated smell identification as a biomarker for Alzheimer disease (AD) by assessing its utility in differentiating normal aging from an amnestic disorder and determining its predictive value for conversion from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) to AD. METHODS: Cross-sectional study (AD = 262, aMCI = 110, controls = 194) measuring smell identification (University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test [UPSIT]) and cognitive status was performed, as well as longitudinal analysis of aMCI participants (n = 96) with at least 1 year follow-up (mean 477...
February 2017: Neurology. Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242521/a-systematic-review-of-smell-alterations-after-radiotherapy-for-head-and-neck-cancer
#12
REVIEW
M Álvarez-Camacho, S Gonella, S Campbell, R A Scrimger, W V Wismer
PURPOSE: To review the current knowledge on radiotherapy associated olfactory dysfunction among head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. METHODS: A systematic review of RT-related olfactory dysfunction in HNC was performed. Searches were conducted in several databases (Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, CAB Abstracts, SCOPUS, Proquest Dissertations and Theses, PROSPERO, ALLEBM Reviews - Cochrane DSR, ACP Journal Club, DARE, CCTR, CMR, HTA, and NHSEED). Publications investigating olfactory dysfunction as an explicit side effect of Radiotherapy (RT, or RT-chemo or RT-monoclonal antibodies) were eligible, no limits were applied...
March 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242255/olfactory-dysfunction-and-dementia-in-newly-diagnosed-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Magdalena Eriksson Domellöf, Karl-Fredrik Lundin, Mona Edström, Lars Forsgren
INTRODUCTION: Studies report that up to 90% of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) have olfactory dysfunction (hyposmia). Hyposmia has also been connected to cognitive impairment and dementia in PD, but no studies of newly diagnosed patients followed longer than three years exists. The present study investigates the prevalence of olfactory dysfunction at PD diagnosis, how it evolves over time and whether hyposmia increases the risk of dementia in Parkinson's disease. METHODS: Olfactory function was assessed with Brief Smell Identification Test (B-SIT) in 125 newly diagnosed patients with PD...
February 21, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238073/non-neurogenic-svz-like-niche-in-dolphins-mammals-devoid-of-olfaction
#14
Roberta Parolisi, Bruno Cozzi, Luca Bonfanti
Adult neurogenesis has been implicated in brain plasticity and brain repair. In mammals, it is mostly restricted to specific brain regions and specific physiological functions. The function and evolutionary history of mammalian adult neurogenesis has been elusive so far. The largest neurogenic site in mammals (subventricular zone, SVZ) generates neurons destined to populate the olfactory bulb. The SVZ neurogenic activity appears to be related to the dependence of the species on olfaction since it occurs at high rates throughout life in animals strongly dependent on this function for their survival...
February 25, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219971/predicting-human-olfactory-perception-from-chemical-features-of-odor-molecules
#15
Andreas Keller, Richard C Gerkin, Yuanfang Guan, Amit Dhurandhar, Gabor Turu, Bence Szalai, Joel D Mainland, Yusuke Ihara, Chung Wen Yu, Russ Wolfinger, Celine Vens, Leander Schietgat, Kurt De Grave, Raquel Norel, Gustavo Stolovitzky, Guillermo A Cecchi, Leslie B Vosshall, Pablo Meyer
It is still not possible to predict whether a given molecule will have a perceived odor or what olfactory percept it will produce. We therefore organized the crowd-sourced DREAM Olfaction Prediction Challenge. Using a large olfactory psychophysical data set, teams developed machine-learning algorithms to predict sensory attributes of molecules based on their chemoinformatic features. The resulting models accurately predicted odor intensity and pleasantness and also successfully predicted 8 among 19 rated semantic descriptors ("garlic," "fish," "sweet," "fruit," "burnt," "spices," "flower," and "sour")...
February 24, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216320/coordination-of-orofacial-motor-actions-into-exploratory-behavior-by-rat
#16
Anastasia Kurnikova, Jeffrey D Moore, Song-Mao Liao, Martin Deschênes, David Kleinfeld
The delineation of sensorimotor circuits that guide exploration begins with an understanding of the pattern of motor outputs [1]. These motor patterns provide a clue to the form of the underlying circuits [2-4] (but see [5]). We focus on the behaviors that rodents use to explore their peripersonal space through goal-directed positioning of their nose, head, and vibrissae. Rodents sniff in response to novel odors, reward expectation, and as part of social interactions [6-12]. Sniffing serves olfaction [13, 14], while whisking synchronized to sniffing serves vibrissa-based touch [6, 15, 16]...
March 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214751/structure-and-distribution-of-the-sensilla-on-the-antennae-of-tuta-absoluta-lepidoptera-gelechiidae
#17
Thomas Bawin, France Collard, Lara De Backer, Boni Barthélémy Yarou, Philippe Compère, Frédéric Francis, François J Verheggen
The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a widespread devastating pest that develops on tomato and other economically important solanaceous crops. Current semiochemically-based management strategies still fail to significantly reduce damages and need to be improved. Here we describe under scanning and transmission electron microscopy the structure and distribution of the sensilla that are displayed on adult antennae. These were similar in size between males (3424.4±135.3μm) and females (3292...
February 1, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211008/injected-amyloid-beta-in-the-olfactory-bulb-transfers-to-other-brain-regions-via-neural-connections-in-mice
#18
Baixuan He, Minying Zheng, Qiang Liu, Zhe Shi, Simei Long, Xilin Lu, Zhong Pei, Ti-Fei Yuan, Huanxing Su, Xiaoli Yao
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive neuronal degeneration and pathological accumulation of amyloid plaques in the brain. It has been proposed that the prion-like spreading of amyloid beta (Aβ) protein could contribute to the progression of the disease. Olfactory bulb (OB) is one of the earliest brain regions affected in AD and olfaction is easily impaired prior to cognitive symptoms. However, it remains unclear whether Aβ accumulation in the OB would spread along olfactory projections to other connected brain regions and trigger further neurodegeneration...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208068/altered-olfactory-processing-and-increased-insula-activity-in-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-an-fmri-study
#19
Heather A Berlin, Emily R Stern, Johnny Ng, Sam Zhang, David Rosenthal, Rachel Turetzky, Cheuk Tang, Wayne Goodman
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients show increased insula activation to disgust-inducing images compared to healthy controls (HC). We explored whether this disgust reactivity was also present in the olfactory domain by conducting the first fMRI study of olfaction in OCD. Neural activation in response to pleasant and unpleasant odors (vs. unscented air) was investigated in 15 OCD and 15 HC participants using fMRI. OCD participants (vs. HC) had increased left anterior insula activation to unpleasant odors (vs...
February 9, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198464/sublethal-doses-of-imidacloprid-disrupt-sexual-communication-and-host-finding-in-a-parasitoid-wasp
#20
Lars Tappert, Tamara Pokorny, John Hofferberth, Joachim Ruther
Neonicotinoids are widely used insecticides, but their use is subject of debate because of their detrimental effects on pollinators. Little is known about the effect of neonicotinoids on other beneficial insects such as parasitoid wasps, which serve as natural enemies and are crucial for ecosystem functioning. Here we show that sublethal doses of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid impair sexual communication and host finding in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. Depending on the dose, treated females were less responsive to the male sex pheromone or unable to use it as a cue at all...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
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