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Li Cheng, Jun Zhang, Xin-Yi Li, Li Yuan, Yan-Fang Pan, Xiao-Rong Chen, Tian-Ming Gao, Jian-Tian Qiao, Jin-Shun Qi
Amyloid β protein (Aβ) plays a critical role in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our previous studies indicated that the sequence 31-35 in Aβ molecule is an effective active center responsible for Aβ neurotoxicity in vivo and in vitro. In the present study, we prepared a novel antibody specifically targeting the sequence 31-35 of amyloid β protein, and investigated the neuroprotection of the anti-Aβ31-35 antibody against Aβ1-42 -induced impairments in neuronal viability, spatial memory, and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in rats...
October 26, 2016: Hippocampus
Patrizia Ferroni, Francesca Santilli, Francesco Cavaliere, Paola Simeone, Leopoldo Costarelli, Rossella Liani, Romina Tripaldi, Silvia Riondino, Mario Roselli, Giovanni Davi, Fiorella Guadagni
The hypothesis that increased oxidative stress in breast cancer (BC) patients could induce enhanced lipid peroxidation, which, in turn, would contribute to platelet activation and poor clinical outcome is attractive. To address this issue, we investigated pre-surgical urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin (PG)F2α (marker of in vivo oxidative stress) and 11-dehydro-thromboxane (TX)B2 (marker of in vivo platelet activation) levels in patients with primary BC (n=115) compared with control women paired for co-morbidities and their association with patients' metabolic profile and clinical prognostic factors...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Cyrill Wehling, Oliver Amon, Martin Bommer, Bernd Hoppe, Karim Kentouche, Gesa Schalk, Rolf Weimer, Michael Wiesener, Bernd Hohenstein, Burkhard Tönshoff, Rainer Büscher, Henry Fehrenbach, Ömer-Necmi Gök, Michael Kirschfink
Various complement-mediated renal disorders are currently treated with the complement inhibitor eculizumab. By blocking the cleavage of C5 this monoclonal antibody prevents cell damage caused by complement-mediated inflammation. We included 23 patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS, n=12), C3 glomerulopathies (C3G, n=9) and acute antibody-mediated renal graft rejection (AMR, n=2), treated with eculizumab in 12 hospitals in Germany. We explored the course of complement activation biomarkers and the benefit of therapeutic drug monitoring of eculizumab...
October 26, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
I Aumann, K Rozanski, K Damm, J-M Graf von der Schulenburg
Aim of the Study: Through the promotion of smoking cessation premature mortality can be prevented. Therefore it is necessary to provide effective and cost-effective smoking cessation interventions. In Germany the cost of pharmacological smoking cessation measures are not yet reimbursed by the statutory health insurance. The aim of this study is to present the evidence on the cost-effectiveness of already approved pharmacological smoking cessation therapies and to evaluate their quality. Method: A systematic literature research was conducted in the databases by DIMDI (Medline, Embase, etc...
October 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
Norihiro Suzuki, Yoshio Hirano, Taneto Tomiyasu, Yuya Esaki, Akiyoshi Uemura, Tsutomu Yasukawa, Munenori Yoshida, Yuichiro Ogura
Purpose: This study evaluates the retinal hemodynamics using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) before and after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy in patients with macular edema associated with retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Methods: Twelve patients (23 eyes; mean age, 64 years) were included (eight eyes with branch RVO, four with central RVO, and 11 unaffected fellow eyes. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central retinal thickness (CRT) were measured before and 6 months after treatment...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Eileen E Birch, Sarah E Morale, Reed M Jost, Angie De La Cruz, Krista R Kelly, Yi-Zhong Wang, Peter J Bex
Purpose: Suppression has a key role in the etiology of amblyopia, and contrast-balanced binocular treatment can overcome suppression and improve visual acuity. Quantitative assessment of suppression could have a role in managing amblyopia. We describe a novel eye chart to assess suppression in children. Methods: We enrolled 100 children (7-12 years; 63 amblyopic, 25 nonamblyopic with strabismus or anisometropia, 12 controls) in the primary cohort and 22 children (3-6 years; 13 amblyopic, 9 nonamblyopic) in a secondary cohort...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Matthew J Klebanoff, Jagpreet Chhatwal, Jacob D Nudel, Kathleen E Corey, Lee M Kaplan, Chin Hur
Importance: Severe obesity affects 4% to 6% of US youth and is increasing in prevalence. Bariatric surgery for the treatment of adolescents with severe obesity is becoming more common, but data on cost-effectiveness are limited. Objective: To assess the cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery for adolescents with obesity using recently published results from the Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery study. Design, Setting, and Patients: A state-transition model was constructed to compare 2 strategies: no surgery and bariatric surgery...
October 26, 2016: JAMA Surgery
Charles R Conway, Mark S George, Harold A Sackeim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Marta Ivars, Pedro Redondo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2016: JAMA Dermatology
Jonathan P Piccini, Eric D Peterson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
Tijana Simic, Carol Leonard, Laura Laird, Jennifer Cupit, Fiona Höbler, Elizabeth Rochon
Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the usability of delivering the Phonological Components Analysis treatment for anomia (Leonard, Rochon, & Laird, 2008) remotely via the Internet to individuals with chronic poststroke aphasia. A secondary aim was to probe the experiences and satisfaction of clinicians in administering treatment at a distance. Method: Six individuals with mild-moderate aphasia and 2 trained clinicians participated in this usability study. Participants and clinicians underwent approximately 6 hr of treatment under observation by an independent observer...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Ekkehard Grünig, Nicola Benjamin, Tobias J Lange, Ulrich Krueger, Hans Klose, Claus Neurohr, Heinrike Wilkens, Michael Halank, Hans-Jürgen Seyfarth, Matthias Held, Andrew Traube, Michelle Pernow, E Robert Grover, Benjamin Egenlauf, Felix Gerhardt, Thomas Viethen, Stephan Rosenkranz
BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous treprostinil has dose-dependent beneficial effects in patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension, but adverse effects like infusion site pain can lead to treatment discontinuation. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate safety, tolerability and clinical effects of a rapid up-titration dosing regimen of subcutaneous treprostinil using proactive infusion site pain management. METHODS: Effects of rapid up-titration dosing regimen on tolerability and clinical parameters were evaluated in this 16-week, open-label multi-centre study...
October 27, 2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Joong-Seok Kim, Si-Hoon Lee, Yoon-Sang Oh, Jeong-Wook Park, Jae-Young An, Hyun-Seok Choi, Kwang-Soo Lee
BACKGROUND: Pulse wave velocity is a marker of arterial stiffness and a surrogate marker of vascular damage. Autonomic abnormalities associated with blood pressure are relatively commonly observed in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare arterial stiffness between patients with PD and controls and investigate the associations between cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction and pulse wave velocity in PD. METHODS: One hundred twenty-five PD patients without diabetes mellitus were enrolled into this study, along with 22 age-matched controls...
October 27, 2016: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
Valerio Sansone, Pietro Romeo, Vito Lavanga
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2016: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
Richard Gale, Jean-Francois Korobelnik, Yit Yang, Tien Y Wong
PURPOSE: This retrospective review examined visual acuity (VA) in subjects with neovascular age-related macular degeneration and identified early and delayed response to ranibizumab. PROCEDURES: MARINA, ANCHOR, HARBOR, and CATT published data were examined for response with monthly versus individualized dosing and predictors of early versus delayed response. RESULTS: Data were available for 1,631 subjects; 18-29% were early gainers and 15-16% were delayed gainers...
October 27, 2016: Ophthalmologica. Journal International D'ophtalmologie
Peter Sandner, Peter Berger, Christoph Zenzmaier
Fibrotic diseases cause high rates of morbidity and mortality, and their incidence increases with age. Despite intense research and development efforts, effective and well-tolerated antifibrotic treatments are scarce. Transforming growth factor-β signaling, which is widely considered the most important profibrotic factor, causes a pro-oxidant shift in redox homeostasis and a concomitant decrease in nitric oxide (NO) signaling. The NO/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling cascade plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cell and organ function in whole-body hemostasis...
October 27, 2016: Gerontology
Jonatan Leffler, Zoltán Prohászka, Bálint Mikes, György Sinkovits, Katarzyna Ciacma, Péter Farkas, Marienn Réti, Kata Kelen, György S Reusz, Attila J Szabó, Myriam Martin, Anna M Blom
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) can stimulate thrombosis, and their degradation is decreased in several autoimmune disorders. It was recently reported that some patients with haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) also fail to degrade NETs and that neutrophils from Shiga toxin-associated HUS are primed to form NETs. METHOD: We used a well-characterized cohort of 74 thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) patients, with a subset also providing follow-up samples, and 112 age-matched controls to investigate NET degradation and serum nuclease activity in TMA before, during and after treatment...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Helen L MacLaughlin, Iain C Macdougall, Wendy L Hall, Tracy Dew, Konstantinos Mantzoukis, Jude A Oben
BACKGROUND: The outcomes of intragastric balloon (IGB) placement to achieve weight loss in obese patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have not been reported to date. This study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of the IGB as a weight-loss treatment among this patient population. METHODS: A prospective, single-arm, 'first in CKD' interventional study was conducted in patients with a body mass index >35 kg/m2 and CKD stages 3-4, referred for weight loss...
October 27, 2016: American Journal of Nephrology
David A Bushinsky, Patrick Rossignol, David M Spiegel, Wade W Benton, Jinwei Yuan, Geoffrey A Block, Christopher S Wilcox, Rajiv Agarwal
BACKGROUND: Persistent hyperkalemia (serum potassium (K) ≥5.5 mEq/l) is a common condition in hemodialysis (HD) patients, is associated with increased mortality, and treatment options are limited. The effect of patiromer, a gastrointestinal K binder, on serum K was examined in HD patients. METHODS: Six hyperkalemic HD patients (5 anuric) were admitted to clinical research units for 15 days (1 pretreatment week and 1 patiromer treatment week) and they received a controlled diet with identical meals on corresponding days of pretreatment and treatment weeks...
October 27, 2016: American Journal of Nephrology
Xin Zhou, Dewu Han, Ruiling Xu, Huiwen Wu, Chongxiao Qu, Feng Wang, Xiangyu Wang, Yuanchang Zhao
We set out to explore the hypothesis that glycine attenuates non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in rats and the possible mechanism by which is it does. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed a diet containing high fat and high sucrose (HSHF) for 24 weeks to induce NASH. Blood and liver tissues were sampled at selected time points throughout the study. Compared with control animals, the content of alanine transaminase (ALT), triglycerides (TGs), and free fatty acids (FFAs) in plasma and the TG and FFA content in the liver was increased from week 4 to 24...
October 23, 2016: Oncotarget
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