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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351238/telomeres-implications-for-cancer-development
#1
REVIEW
Aina Bernal, Laura Tusell
Telomeres facilitate the protection of natural ends of chromosomes from constitutive exposure to the DNA damage response (DDR). This is most likely achieved by a lariat structure that hides the linear telomeric DNA through protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. The telomere shortening associated with DNA replication in the absence of a compensatory mechanism culminates in unmasked telomeres. Then, the subsequent activation of the DDR will define the fate of cells according to the functionality of cell cycle checkpoints...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351152/ebola-infection-in-pregnancy-a-global-perspective-and-lessons-learned
#2
Lisa B Haddad, John Horton, Bruce S Ribner, Denise J Jamieson
The 2014 to 2016 Ebola outbreak, primarily based in 3 West African countries, had far-reaching global effects. Importantly, the crisis highlighted large gaps in reproductive health services in affected countries and inadequate health care system preparedness for obstetrical patients in the setting of highly contagious infectious diseases. We aim to review Ebola virus effects with a focus on the obstetrical implications in the context of this recent Ebola outbreak, discuss the lessons learned following this outbreak and propose current measures specific to obstetrics that should be considered in preparation for the next concerning emergent infectious disease...
March 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350713/hyponatremia-and-siadh-a-case-study-for-nursing-consideration
#3
Teri Tasler, Susan D Bruce
The leading cause of hyponatremia in patients with cancer is syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH); this oncologic emergency requires immediate intervention. Left untreated, it can result in increased mortality and morbidity. A sodium level less than 135 meq/L is an electrolyte irregularity and defined as hyponatremia. It is extremely critical that oncology nurses are knowledgeable and able to evaluate and determine when patients are in fluid and electrolyte crisis. Nurses should be aware of the specific cancers and treatments that put patients at risk for developing hyponatremia...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350539/effectiveness-and-safety-of-ct-guided-percutaneous-radiofrequency-ablation-of-adrenal-metastases
#4
Kang Zhou, Jie Pan, Ning Yang, Hai-Feng Shi, Jian Cao, Yu-Mei Li, Hong-Zhi Zhang, Ke-Fei Wang, Shao-Hui Chen
OBJECTIVE: The imaging-guided percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation of adrenal metastases is a relatively new treatment procedure, compared to the more widespread application of the technique for the treatment of liver and renal cancers, the present study aims to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of adrenal metastases in a cohort of patients. METHODS: Thirty-three patients with 38 adrenal metastases who received percutaneous CT-guided radiofrequency ablation between 2012 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed...
January 19, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350366/health-results-of-a-coup-attempt-evaluation-of-all-patients-admitted-to-hospitals-in-istanbul-due-to-injuries-sustained-during-the-july-15-2016-coup-attempt
#5
İsmail Tayfur, Mustafa Ahmet Afacan, Mehmet Özgür Erdoğan, Şahin Çolak, Özgür Söğüt, Burcu Genç Yavuz, Korkut Bozan
BACKGROUND: A coup attempt against the government took place in Turkey on July 15, 2016. This attempt caused serious injuries and deaths in the country. In this study, the data of patients referred to all hospitals in Istanbul during the attempt were evaluated, and differences between natural disasters, other terrorist actions, and coup attempts were analyzed. METHODS: In total, 1104 patients were injured in the abovementioned coup attempt. In this study, the demographic and health information of 882 coup victims who were admitted to all hospitals (state and private) in Istanbul on July 15 and 16, 2016 and registered at the Crisis Center of Istanbul Provincial Health Directorate was analyzed...
January 2018: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349836/evaluation-of-a-west-australian-residential-mental-health-respite-service
#6
Sue Gillieatt, Robyn Martin, Kate P Dorozenko, Adrian Munro
Family members continue to be the predominant providers of support, care and accommodation for loved ones with mental health issues, and empirical studies suggest that accessing mental health respite can be helpful for both carers and consumers. However, the availability of, and access to, this respite in Australia is far from optimal. Major issues have also been identified such as low utilisation, the inappropriate and inflexible nature of services and the inability of services to respond to situations where multiple needs exist...
January 18, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349762/advances-in-endocrine-therapy-for-postmenopausal-metastatic-breast-cancer
#7
Lisa E Flaum, William J Gradishar
A majority of breast cancers are hormone receptor (HR) positive and are responsive to various types of hormone manipulation. Endocrine therapy is the preferred first-line therapy for patients with advanced estrogen receptor (ER) positive, HER2-negative breast cancer who do not have symptomatic visceral disease. Endocrine therapy is often continued in the second- and third-line setting, with chemotherapy deferred until tumor becomes endocrine therapy refractory and/or a visceral crisis in imminent. Therapeutic options vary based on clinical presentation and include single-agent therapies such as tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors and fulvestrant, and combination therapies options...
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349359/resensitization-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-by-amoxapine-an-fda-approved-antidepressant
#8
Tyler J Wilson, Meghan S Blackledge, Patrick A Vigueira
The rapid increase in bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a global healthcare crisis. Non-antibiotic pharmaceuticals that have attained approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration have the potential to be repurposed as bacterial resistance-modifying agents and therefore could become valuable resources in our battle against antibiotic-resistant microbes. Amoxapine is a tetracyclic antidepressant used in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Here we demonstrate the ability of amoxapine to resensitize methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain ATCC 43300 to oxacillin in both agar diffusion and broth microdilution assays...
January 2018: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349295/a-triassic-jurassic-window-into-the-evolution-of-lepidoptera
#9
Timo J B van Eldijk, Torsten Wappler, Paul K Strother, Carolien M H van der Weijst, Hossein Rajaei, Henk Visscher, Bas van de Schootbrugge
On the basis of an assemblage of fossilized wing scales recovered from latest Triassic and earliest Jurassic sediments from northern Germany, we provide the earliest evidence for Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). The diverse scales confirm a (Late) Triassic radiation of lepidopteran lineages, including the divergence of the Glossata, the clade that comprises the vast multitude of extant moths and butterflies that have a sucking proboscis. The microfossils extend the minimum calibrated age of glossatan moths by ca...
January 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349293/experimenter-gender-and-replicability-in-science
#10
REVIEW
Colin D Chapman, Christian Benedict, Helgi B Schiöth
There is a replication crisis spreading through the annals of scientific inquiry. Although some work has been carried out to uncover the roots of this issue, much remains unanswered. With this in mind, this paper investigates how the gender of the experimenter may affect experimental findings. Clinical trials are regularly carried out without any report of the experimenter's gender and with dubious knowledge of its influence. Consequently, significant biases caused by the experimenter's gender may lead researchers to conclude that therapeutics or other interventions are either overtreating or undertreating a variety of conditions...
January 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348516/evidence-of-the-zanclean-megaflood-in-the-eastern-mediterranean-basin
#11
Aaron Micallef, Angelo Camerlenghi, Daniel Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel Cunarro Otero, Marc-André Gutscher, Giovanni Barreca, Daniele Spatola, Lorenzo Facchin, Riccardo Geletti, Sebastian Krastel, Felix Gross, Morelia Urlaub
The Messinian salinity crisis (MSC) - the most abrupt, global-scale environmental change since the end of the Cretaceous - is widely associated with partial desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea. A major open question is the way normal marine conditions were abruptly restored at the end of the MSC. Here we use geological and geophysical data to identify an extensive, buried and chaotic sedimentary body deposited in the western Ionian Basin after the massive Messinian salts and before the Plio-Quaternary open-marine sedimentary sequence...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348428/evaluation-of-quantitative-parameters-for-distinguishing-pheochromocytoma-from-other-adrenal-tumors
#12
Youichi Ohno, Masakatsu Sone, Daisuke Taura, Toshinari Yamasaki, Katsutoshi Kojima, Kyoko Honda-Kohmo, Yorihide Fukuda, Koji Matsuo, Toshihito Fujii, Akihiro Yasoda, Osamu Ogawa, Nobuya Inagaki
Adrenal tumors are increasingly found incidentally during imaging examinations. It is important to distinguish pheochromocytomas from other adrenal tumors because of the risk of hypertensive crisis. Although catecholamines and their metabolites are generally used to diagnose pheochromocytoma, false-positive test results are common. An effective screening method to distinguish pheochromocytoma from adrenal incidentalomas is needed. We analyzed 297 consecutive patients with adrenal incidentalomas. Our findings included 162 non-functioning tumors, 47 aldosterone-producing adenomas, 26 metastases, 22 cases of subclinical Cushing's syndrome, 21 pheochromocytomas, 12 cases of Cushing's syndrome, and 7 adrenocortical cancers...
January 18, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347991/the-benefits-and-tolerance-of-exercise-in-myasthenia-gravis-mgex-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Simone Birnbaum, Jean-Yves Hogrel, Raphael Porcher, Pierre Portero, Bernard Clair, Bruno Eymard, Sophie Demeret, Guillaume Bassez, Marcela Gargiulo, Estelle Louët, Sonia Berrih-Aknin, Asmaa Jobic, Philippe Aegerter, Philippe Thoumie, Tarek Sharshar
BACKGROUND: Research exploring the effects of physical exercise in auto-immune myasthenia gravis (MG) is scarce. The few existing studies present methodological shortcomings limiting the conclusions and generalisability of results. It is hypothesised that exercise could have positive physical, psychological as well as immunomodulatory effects and may be a beneficial addition to current pharmacological management of this chronic disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate the benefits on perceived quality of life (QOL) and physical fitness of a home-based physical exercise program compared to usual care, for patients with stabilised, generalised auto-immune MG...
January 18, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347720/extreme-events-in-the-forced-li%C3%A3-nard-system
#14
S Leo Kingston, K Thamilmaran, Pinaki Pal, Ulrike Feudel, Syamal K Dana
We observe extremely large amplitude intermittent spikings in a dynamical variable of a periodically forced Liénard-type oscillator and characterize them as extreme events, which are rare, but recurrent and larger in amplitude than a threshold. The extreme events occur via two processes, an interior crisis and intermittency. The probability of occurrence of the events shows a long-tail distribution in both the cases. We provide evidence of the extreme events in an experiment using an electronic analog circuit of the Liénard oscillator that shows good agreement with our numerical results...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347696/stochastic-dynamics-of-genetic-broadcasting-networks
#15
Davit A Potoyan, Peter G Wolynes
The complex genetic programs of eukaryotic cells are often regulated by key transcription factors occupying or clearing out of a large number of genomic locations. Orchestrating the residence times of these factors is therefore important for the well organized functioning of a large network. The classic models of genetic switches sidestep this timing issue by assuming the binding of transcription factors to be governed entirely by thermodynamic protein-DNA affinities. Here we show that relying on passive thermodynamics and random release times can lead to a "time-scale crisis" for master genes that broadcast their signals to a large number of binding sites...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347618/universality-of-oscillating-boiling-in-leidenfrost-transition
#16
Mohammad Khavari, Tuan Tran
The Leidenfrost transition leads a boiling system to the boiling crisis, a state in which the liquid loses contact with the heated surface due to excessive vapor generation. Here, using experiments of liquid droplets boiling on a heated surface, we report a phenomenon, termed oscillating boiling, at the Leidenfrost transition. We show that oscillating boiling results from the competition between two effects: separation of liquid from the heated surface due to localized boiling and rewetting. We argue theoretically that the Leidenfrost transition can be predicted based on its link with the oscillating boiling phenomenon and verify the prediction experimentally for various liquids...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347605/classical-many-particle-systems-with-unique-disordered-ground-states
#17
G Zhang, F H Stillinger, S Torquato
Classical ground states (global energy-minimizing configurations) of many-particle systems are typically unique crystalline structures, implying zero enumeration entropy of distinct patterns (aside from trivial symmetry operations). By contrast, the few previously known disordered classical ground states of many-particle systems are all high-entropy (highly degenerate) states. Here we show computationally that our recently proposed "perfect-glass" many-particle model [Sci. Rep. 6, 36963 (2016)10.1038/srep36963] possesses disordered classical ground states with a zero entropy: a highly counterintuitive situation ...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347477/early-warning-signal-for-interior-crises-in-excitable-systems
#18
Rajat Karnatak, Holger Kantz, Stephan Bialonski
The ability to reliably predict critical transitions in dynamical systems is a long-standing goal of diverse scientific communities. Previous work focused on early warning signals related to local bifurcations (critical slowing down) and nonbifurcation-type transitions. We extend this toolbox and report on a characteristic scaling behavior (critical attractor growth) which is indicative of an impending global bifurcation, an interior crisis in excitable systems. We demonstrate our early warning signal in a conceptual climate model as well as in a model of coupled neurons known to exhibit extreme events...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347332/linear-and-nonlinear-market-correlations-characterizing-financial-crises-and-portfolio-optimization
#19
Alexander Haluszczynski, Ingo Laut, Heike Modest, Christoph Räth
Pearson correlation and mutual information-based complex networks of the day-to-day returns of U.S. S&P500 stocks between 1985 and 2015 have been constructed to investigate the mutual dependencies of the stocks and their nature. We show that both networks detect qualitative differences especially during (recent) turbulent market periods, thus indicating strongly fluctuating interconnections between the stocks of different companies in changing economic environments. A measure for the strength of nonlinear dependencies is derived using surrogate data and leads to interesting observations during periods of financial market crises...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347097/extreme-and-superextreme-events-in-a-loss-modulated-co_-2-laser-nonlinear-resonance-route-and-precursors
#20
Cristian Bonatto, Antonio Endler
We investigate the occurrence of extreme and rare events, i.e., giant and rare light pulses, in a periodically modulated CO_{2} laser model. Due to nonlinear resonant processes, we show a scenario of interaction between chaotic bands of different orders, which may lead to the formation of extreme and rare events. We identify a crisis line in the modulation parameter space, and we show that, when the modulation amplitude increases, remaining in the vicinity of the crisis, some statistical properties of the laser pulses, such as the average and dispersion of amplitudes, do not change much, whereas the amplitude of extreme events grows enormously, giving rise to extreme events with much larger deviations than usually reported, with a significant probability of occurrence, i...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
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