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Kidney nephron. Hypertension diabetes albuminuria

Satoru Takashima, Hiroki Fujita, Hiromi Fujishima, Tatsunori Shimizu, Takehiro Sato, Tsukasa Morii, Katsushi Tsukiyama, Takuma Narita, Takamune Takahashi, Daniel J Drucker, Yutaka Seino, Yuichiro Yamada
The role of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy and its modification by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibition are uncertain. Therefore, we studied this independent of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) signaling using two Akita diabetic mouse models, the diabetic-resistant C57BL/6-Akita and diabetic-prone KK/Ta-Akita. Increased SDF-1 expression was found in glomerular podocytes and distal nephrons in the diabetic-prone mice, but not in kidneys from diabetic-resistant mice...
October 2016: Kidney International
Kerstin Amann, Kerstin Benz
Overweight, obesity, and associated diseases represent an emerging problem, not only in Western countries but also in the developing world. They are now characterized as epidemic diseases. Obesity is particularly serious because its incidence in children and adolescents increased dramatically: it is estimated that in the United States every eighth adolescent suffers from obesity, which in the long run may reduce life expectancy in the population. Apart from cardiovascular disease (ie, blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease), kidney diseases also have been shown to be associated with obesity...
January 2013: Seminars in Nephrology
I A Bondar', V V Klimontov, A I Simakova
Obesity and overweight are now characterized as epidemics. It is shown that body overweight is associated with functional and structural changes in the kidneys. The results of epidemiological studies indicate that obesity can be the risk factor of chronic kidney disease (CKD) irrespective of the presence or absence of diabetes, arterial hypertension and other comorbidities. Manifestations of renal pathology in obese persons include microalbuminuria and proteinuria, hyperfiltration or impaired renal function...
2011: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Youli Wang, Kathleen O Heilig, Andrew W Minto, Shenglin Chen, Minghui Xiang, David A Dean, Richard C Geiger, Anthony Chang, Dimitrina D Pravtcheva, Martin Schlimme, Dilip K Deb, Ying Wang, Charles W Heilig
Reduced nephron numbers may predispose to renal failure. We hypothesized that glucose transporters (GLUTs) may contribute to progression of the renal disease, as GLUTs have been implicated in diabetic glomerulosclerosis and hypertensive renal disease with mesangial cell (MC) stretch. The Os (oligosyndactyly) allele that typically reduces nephron number by approximately 50%, was repeatedly backcrossed from ROP (Ra/+ (ragged), Os/+ (oligosyndactyly), and Pt/+ (pintail)) Os/+ mice more than six times into the Fvb mouse background to obtain Os/+ and +/+ mice with the Fvb background for study...
January 2010: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Sadayoshi Ito, Tasuku Nagasawa, Michiaki Abe, Takefumi Mori
Albuminuria is closely associated with stroke and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) as well as the salt sensitivity of blood pressure (BP). Although albuminuria may reflect generalized endothelial dysfunction, there may be more specific hemodynamic mechanisms underlying these associations. Cerebral hemorrhage and infarction occur most frequently in the area of small perforating arteries that are exposed to high pressure and that have to maintain strong vascular tone in order to provide large pressure gradients from the parent vessels to the capillaries...
February 2009: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
N Koleganova, G Piecha, E Ritz
It has recently been increasingly recognised that disturbed intra-uterine development may impact on renal and cardiovascular risk in adult life, e.g. albuminuria and chronic kidney disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular events. According to Barker's hypothesis, when resources in utero are restricted, their allocation to the development of the kidney and pancreatic islets is restricted to guarantee appropriate development of the brain and heart. The underlying epigenetic mechanisms involve modification of gene expression by altered DNA methylation and histone acetylation as well as by allocation of stem cells...
2009: Blood Purification
Narisa Futrakul, Varaphon Vongthavarawat, Sasitorn Sirisalipotch, Tawatchai Chairatanarat, Prasit Futrakul, Sompongse Suwanwalaikorn
Altered renal function has been encountered in normoalbuminuric patient with type 2 diabetes. A search for alternative index that is more sensitive than microalbuminuria for early detection of diabetic nephropathy has been performed. In the present paper, compartmental functions of nephron namely creatinine clearance (CCr) reflecting glomerular function, fractional excretion of magnesium (FE Mg) reflecting tubular function and intrarenal hemodynamics reflecting vascular function were assessed in 40 type 2 diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria and in 10 type 2 diabetic patients with albuminuria...
2005: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Song Wang, Qing Chen, Theodore C Simon, Frank Strebeck, Lala Chaudhary, Jeremiah Morrissey, Helen Liapis, Saulo Klahr, Keith A Hruska
BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenic protein-7 (BMP-7), an essential developmental renal morphogen, is a secreted differentiation factor of the adult collecting duct. It activates receptors in the collecting duct, distal nephron, proximal tubule, and glomerulus. BMP-7 is therapeutic in tubulointerstitial nephritis raising the question of broader efficacy in chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: Diabetes was induced in 200 g rats by a single dose of streptozotocin. After 16 weeks, glomerular hypertrophy and proteinuria were established, and therapy with BMP-7 (10, 30, or 100 microg/kg intravenously twice a week), enalapril (20 mg/kg), or vehicle was begun and continued until 32 weeks...
June 2003: Kidney International
P Jacobsen, P Rossing, L Tarnow, P Hovind, H-H Parving
OBJECTIVES: Intrauterine growth retardation, as seen in individuals with low weight at birth, may give rise to a reduction in nephron number. Oligonephropathy has been linked to hypertension and renal disease in adult life. We tested the concept that low weight at birth acts as a risk factor for progression of diabetic nephropathy. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: We performed an observational follow-up study of 161 (97 men) type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy [mean age (SD): 35 (11) years, mean duration of diabetes: 22 (8) years]...
March 2003: Journal of Internal Medicine
K H Rahn, S Heidenreich, D Brückner
In human subjects, the assessment of renal function and of its changes by interventions is limited to the measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal blood flow and the estimation of proteinuria. In humans, GFR can be determined exactly by measuring the clearance of an ideal filtration marker, such as inulin. The classic method of measuring inulin clearance in humans includes constant intravenous infusion of the compound and timed collections of urine. In order to avoid the need for timed urine collections, a number of alternative procedures have been devised...
March 1999: Journal of Hypertension
F S Nielsen, M A Gall, H H Parving
Congenital or acquired nephron number reduction and diabetes mellitus both induce hyperfiltration and intrarenal hypertension. These hemodynamic factors have been suggested to play an important role in the initiation and progression of diabetic and nondiabetic glomerulopathies. In a prevalence cohort of all 50 albuminuric (> or = 300 mg/24 hr), non-insulin-dependent diabetic mellitus (NIDDM) patients (aged < 66 years) attending a diabetic clinic during 1987, we identified four patients with acquired oligonephropathy who had developed diabetic nephropathy...
December 1995: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
J A Bertolatus, M A Friedlander, C Scheidt, L G Hunsicker
Surgical ablation of renal tissue in animals leads to compensatory hyperfiltration, hypertension, and focal glomerular sclerosis in remnant nephrons, in association with albuminuria; the detection of slightly elevated urinary albumin (microalbuminuria) has been shown to predict later, more severe renal disease in diabetics. To determine whether unilateral nephrectomy in humans initiates a similar pathogenetic sequence, we measured urinary albumin excretion (UalbV), total protein excretion (UprotV), creatinine clearance (Ccreat) and blood pressure in 22 transplant donors before and at intervals up to 3 years after donor nephrectomy...
March 1985: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
R Zatz, B R Dunn, T W Meyer, S Anderson, H G Rennke, B M Brenner
Two groups of adult male Munich-Wistar rats and a third group of nondiabetic age-matched and weight-matched normal control rats underwent micropuncture study 1 mo, and morphologic studies 14 mo, after induction of streptozotocin diabetes or sham treatment. All animals were fed standard rat chow. Diabetic rats received daily ultralente insulin to maintain stable moderate hyperglycemia (approximately 350 mg/dl). In addition, one group of diabetic rats was treated with the angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitor, enalapril, 15 mg/liter of drinking water...
June 1986: Journal of Clinical Investigation
W F Keane, B E Shapiro
Nephron loss is a common progression of a diverse range of kidney diseases. Recent experimental models of chronic renal disease have suggested that hemodynamic and nonhemodynamic mechanisms play key roles in progressive renal injury. Extensive renal ablation in the rat was followed by development of altered glomerular hemodynamics. Albuminuria and histologic damage leading to focal glomerulosclerosis were preceded by the development of increased glomerular pressures and were prevented by interventions such as severe dietary protein restriction and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor therapy...
May 22, 1990: American Journal of Cardiology
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