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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775595/the-neuropeptide-tac2-controls-a-distributed-brain-state-induced-by-chronic-social-isolation-stress
#1
Moriel Zelikowsky, May Hui, Tomomi Karigo, Andrea Choe, Bin Yang, Mario R Blanco, Keith Beadle, Viviana Gradinaru, Benjamin E Deverman, David J Anderson
Chronic social isolation causes severe psychological effects in humans, but their neural bases remain poorly understood. 2 weeks (but not 24 hr) of social isolation stress (SIS) caused multiple behavioral changes in mice and induced brain-wide upregulation of the neuropeptide tachykinin 2 (Tac2)/neurokinin B (NkB). Systemic administration of an Nk3R antagonist prevented virtually all of the behavioral effects of chronic SIS. Conversely, enhancing NkB expression and release phenocopied SIS in group-housed mice, promoting aggression and converting stimulus-locked defensive behaviors to persistent responses...
May 17, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775507/-coming-from-a-different-place-partnerships-between-consumers-and-health-services-for-system-change
#2
Brett Scholz, Julia Bocking, Michelle Banfield, Chris Platania-Phung, Brenda Happell
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study is to explore whether and how the expectations of consumers to be 'representative' influences consumers' ability to contribute to health services partnerships. BACKGROUND: Health standards call for services to partner with consumers in service development and governance. While existing research criticises the assumption that individual mental health consumers working with mental health services must be representative of consumers more broadly, research has yet to explore whether this requirement exists for consumers of other health services...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774616/psychological-effects-of-belonging-to-a-facebook-weight-management-group-in-overweight-and-obese-adults-results-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Monica Jane, Jonathan Foster, Martin Hagger, Suleen Ho, Robert Kane, Sebely Pal
This study was conducted to test whether the weight outcomes in an online social networking group were mediated by changes to psychological outcome measures in overweight and obese individuals, following a weight management programme delivered via Facebook. The data analysed in this study were collected during a three-armed, randomised, controlled clinical weight management trial conducted with overweight and obese adults over 24 weeks. Two intervention groups were given the same weight management programme: one within a Facebook group, along with peer support from other group members (the Facebook Group); the other group received the same programme in a pamphlet (the Pamphlet Group)...
May 18, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773518/developmental-trajectories-of-brain-maturation-and-behavior-relevance-to-major-mental-illnesses
#4
REVIEW
Sedona Lockhart, Akira Sawa, Minae Niwa
Adverse events in childhood and adolescence, such as social neglect or drug abuse, are known to lead to behavioral changes in young adulthood. This is particularly true for the subset of people who are intrinsically more vulnerable to stressful conditions. Yet the underlying mechanisms for such developmental trajectory from early life insult to aberrant adult behavior remains elusive. Adolescence is a period of dynamic physiological, psychological, and behavioral changes, encompassing a distinct neurodevelopmental stage called the 'critical period'...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773148/personalized-treatment-outcomes-in-patients-with-somatoform-disorder-a-concept-mapping-study
#5
Sonja Klemm, Saskia van Broeckhuysen-Kloth, Sanne van Vliet, Lummy Oosterhuis, Rinie Geenen
OBJECTIVE: From a patient-centered perspective, treatment outcome measures in somatoform disorder need to be (1) personalized to the patient, (2) fit core problems that are targeted in therapy, and (3) reflect one's ability to adapt and self-manage anticipated deterioration. The aim of this study was to identify an encompassing set of treatment outcome variables in patients with somatoform disorder. METHODS: In-depth interviews yielded a comprehensive overview of 60 treatment outcomes that were sorted in a card sorting task according to similarity of meaning by 30 patients...
June 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772772/multiplicative-effects-of-social-and-psychological-risk-factors-on-college-students-suicidal-behaviors
#6
Shervin Assari
Less is known about the multiplicative effects of social and psychological risk and protective factors of suicidality on college campuses. The current study aimed to investigate the multiplicative effects of social (identifying oneself as gay/lesbian, financial difficulty, violence victimization, and religiosity) and psychological (anxiety, depression, problem alcohol use, drug use) and risk/protective factors on suicidal behaviors among college students in the United States. Using a cross-sectional design, the Healthy Mind Study (HMS; 2016⁻2017), is a national online survey of college students in the United States...
May 17, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772110/morphology-and-memory-toward-an-integrated-theory
#7
Ray Jackendoff, Jenny Audring
Framed in psychological terms, the basic question of linguistic theory is what is stored in memory, and in what form. Traditionally, what is stored is divided into grammar and lexicon, where grammar contains the rules and the lexicon is an unstructured list of exceptions. We develop an alternative view in which rules of grammar are simply lexical items that contain variables, and in which rules have two functions. In their generative function, they are used to build novel structures, just as in traditional generative linguistics...
May 17, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771834/family-functions-and-life-quality-of-parents-of-children-with-cleft-lip-and-palate
#8
Belma I Aslan, Ayşe Gülşen, Şadiye B Tirank, Kemal Findikçioğlu, F Deniz Uzuner, Hakan Tutar, Neslihan Üçüncü
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to identify variables affecting family functions and life quality of parents with cleft lip and/or palate children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Family Assesment Scale (FAS) and short form of World Health Organization quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF-TR) were used to measure family functions and life quality of parents. Questionnaire Forms were given to 146 parents: 74 having cleft lip and/or palate children (cleft-group), and the other 72 with healthy children (control-group)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771569/prestige-in-a-large-scale-social-group-predicts-longitudinal-changes-in-testosterone
#9
Joey T Cheng, Olga Kornienko, Douglas A Granger
In many social species, organisms adaptively fine-tune their competitive behavior in response to previous experiences of social status: Individuals who have prevailed in the past preferentially compete in the future, whereas those who have suffered defeat tend to defer and submit. A growing body of evidence suggests that testosterone functions as a "competition hormone" that coordinates this behavioral plasticity through its characteristic rise and fall following victory and defeat. Although well demonstrated in competitions underpinned by dominance (fear-based status derived from force and intimidation), this pattern has not been examined in status contests that depend solely on prestige-respect-based status derived from success, skills, and knowledge in locally valued domains, devoid of fear or antagonism...
June 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771555/the-quality-of-assessments-for-childhood-psychopathology-within-a-regional-medical-center
#10
Adam F Sattler, Jarrod M Leffler, Nicole L Harrison, Ewa D Bieber, Joseph J Kosmach, Leslie A Sim, Stephen P H Whiteside
Accurate assessment is essential to implementing effective mental health treatment; however, little research has explored child clinicians' assessment practices in applied settings. The current study thus examines practitioners' use of evidence-based assessment (EBA) instruments (i.e., self-report measures and structured interviews), specificity of identified diagnoses (i.e., use of specific diagnostic labels vs. nonstandardized labels, not otherwise specified [NOS] diagnoses, and adjustment disorder diagnoses), and documentation of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed...
May 17, 2018: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771553/culture-and-social-hierarchy-self-and-other-oriented-correlates-of-socioeconomic-status-across-cultures
#11
Yuri Miyamoto, Jiah Yoo, Cynthia S Levine, Jiyoung Park, Jennifer Morozink Boylan, Tamara Sims, Hazel Rose Markus, Shinobu Kitayama, Norito Kawakami, Mayumi Karasawa, Christopher L Coe, Gayle D Love, Carol D Ryff
Current theorizing on socioeconomic status (SES) focuses on the availability of resources and the freedom they afford as a key determinant of the association between high SES and stronger orientation toward the self and, by implication, weaker orientation toward others. However, this work relies nearly exclusively on data from Western countries where self-orientation is strongly sanctioned. In the present work, we predicted and found that especially in East Asian countries, where other-orientation is strongly sanctioned, high SES is associated with stronger other-orientation as well as with self-orientation...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770322/sociodemographic-and-medical-risk-factors-associated-with-antepartum-depression
#12
Giridhara R Babu, G V S Murthy, Neeru Singh, Anita Nath, Mohanbabu Rathnaiah, Nolita Saldanha, R Deepa, Sanjay Kinra
Background: The increasing recognition of antenatal depression is an emerging area of concern in developing countries. We conducted a study to estimate the prevalence of antenatal mental distress and its relation with sociodemographic factors, obstetric factors, and physiological wellbeing in pregnant women attending public health facilities in Bengaluru, South India. Methods: Nested within a cohort study, we assessed the mental status in 823 pregnant women in two public referral hospitals...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769551/slow-touch-targeting-ct-fibres-does-not-increase-prosocial-behaviour-in-economic-laboratory-tasks
#13
Lisa Anna Rosenberger, Anbjørn Ree, Christoph Eisenegger, Uta Sailer
Field studies have demonstrated that humans become more generous, helpful and compliant after having been touched by another person. Here, we explored whether these effects are larger for touch activating the C-tactile (CT) fibres, as it is ascribed a particular role in establishing and maintaining bonds and affiliative interactions. The role of CT-targeted and non-targeted touch on prosocial behaviour was investigated in three different experiments using a trust game and a task measuring individual differences in social value orientations (the SVO task)...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769115/lifestyle-choices-and-mental-health-a-longitudinal-survey-with-german-and-chinese-students
#14
Julia Velten, Angela Bieda, Saskia Scholten, André Wannemüller, Jürgen Margraf
BACKGROUND: A healthy lifestyle can be beneficial for one's mental health. Thus, identifying healthy lifestyle choices that promote psychological well-being and reduce mental problems is useful to prevent mental disorders. The aim of this longitudinal study was to evaluate the predictive values of a broad range of lifestyle choices for positive mental health (PMH) and mental health problems (MHP) in German and Chinese students. METHOD: Data were assessed at baseline and at 1-year follow-up...
May 16, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769106/peer-mentor-versus-teacher-delivery-of-a-physical-activity-program-on-the-effects-of-bmi-and-daily-activity-protocol-of-a-school-based-group-randomized-controlled-trial-in-appalachia
#15
Laureen H Smith, Rick L Petosa, Abigail Shoben
BACKGROUND: Rural Appalachian populations have poorer health and fewer positive health-related behaviors compared to other United States populations. Appalachians are the most sedentary U.S. population and teens are particularly sedentary. Obesity prevention through improving physical activity is a top priority in Rural Healthy People 2020. Obesity prevalence among Appalachian teens exceeds the national rates of 13.9% and has consistently been greater than 26%. Organized sports has not been effective at improving daily physical activity or health outcomes for Appalachian teens...
May 16, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768589/women-s-lives-in-times-of-zika-mosquito-controlled-lives
#16
Ana Rosa Linde, Carlos Eduardo Siqueira
Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of congenital brain abnormalities. Its consequences to pregnancies has made governments, national and international agencies issue advices and recommendations to women. There is a clear need to investigate how the Zika outbreak affects the decisions that women take concerning their lives and the life of their families, as well as how women are psychologically and emotionally dealing with the outbreak. We conducted a qualitative study to address the impact of the Zika epidemic on the family life of women living in Brazil, Puerto Rico, and the US, who were affected by it to shed light on the social repercussions of Zika...
May 10, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768072/an-integrated-developmental-four-year-medical-school-curriculum-in-palliative-care-a-longitudinal-content-evaluation-based-on-national-competency-standards
#17
Erin M Denney-Koelsch, Robert Horowitz, Timothy Quill, Constance D Baldwin
BACKGROUND: While palliative care (PC) competencies for medical school graduates have been defined, the lack of established curriculum models and assessment tools hampers curricular evaluation. OBJECTIVE: To describe the scope and content of the University of Rochester's longitudinal, integrated four-year PC curriculum after 17 years of implementation, review student evaluative responses, and compare the curriculum to national competency standards. DESIGN AND SETTING: Combining and reorganizing a published PC curriculum assessment tool and a list of medical school PC competencies, we created a novel nine-topic framework to assess the content coverage of our curriculum...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767910/preparation-for-motherhood-during-pregnancy-a-concept-analysis
#18
Jhon Henry Osorio-Castaño, Gloria Carvajal-Carrascal, María Rodríguez-Gázquez
OBJECTIVES: This work sought to identify the attributes of the concept of preparation for motherhood during pregnancy. METHODS: Concept analysis with the method by Walker and Avant, which conducted a literature review in databases and other sources. Inclusion criteria were defined and a database was created with the articles included for the analysis. The information was integrated, responding to the eight steps proposed in the method. RESULTS: The concept of preparation for motherhood during pregnancy is defined as an intermediate process of active and conscious participation defined by the cultural, social, and historical contexts, which favor lifestyle changes to optimize health and whose attributes are classified into physical and psychological preparation...
October 2017: Investigación y Educación en Enfermería
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767417/do-concordances-of-social-support-and-relationship-quality-predict-psychological-distress-and-well-being-of-cancer-patients-and-caregivers
#19
W K Hou, K M Lau, T C Y Shum, A C K Cheng, T M C Lee
This study examined concordances of cancer patients' received and caregivers' provided support and dyadic relationship quality, and their predictive utility in prospective psychological distress and well-being. A total of 83 Chinese cancer patient-caregiver dyads were recruited in two government-funded hospitals in Hong Kong. Participants reported received (patient)/provided (caregiver) emotional and instrumental support and dyadic relationship quality within 6 months after diagnosis (T1), and anxiety and depressive symptoms, positive affect and life satisfaction at both T1 and 6-month follow-up (T2)...
May 16, 2018: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767403/predicting-the-influence-of-situational-and-immigration-stress-on-latino-day-laborers-workplace-injuries-an-exploratory-structural-equation-model
#20
Maria Eugenia Fernández-Esquer, Kathryn R Gallardo, Pamela M Diamond
Latino day laborers are a socially and economically marginalized immigrant population with a high risk of occupational injury. These workers confront multiple social, psychological, and environmental hardships that increase their risk for adverse health outcomes. How these stressors interact and influence work-related injuries in this population remains unclear. We conducted an exploratory study with 327 Latino day laborers who completed a community survey. We developed a structural equation model, using cross-sectional data to explore the relationships among socioeconomic status, situational and immigration stress, depression, work risk exposure, and occupational injury...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
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