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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161707/a-novel-animal-model-simulating-the-beginning-of-combat-exposure
#1
Dongsoo Kim, Chang Yul Kim, Hyojin Koo, Yong Heo, Kicheol Cheon
OBJECTIVE: Predator stress, social defeat stress, and fear conditioning animal models have been applied to investigate combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, no animal model psychopharmacological studies have investigated prevention of somatization of increased mental stress and fatigue at the beginning of combat exposure. This study utilized a novel animal model simulating the beginning of combat exposure that aided specification of a set of biomarkers. METHODS: Psychological stress was induced by both inescapable electric foot shock and noise stimuli...
November 22, 2017: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161462/the-influence-of-coping-strategies-on-subsequent-well-being-in-older-patients-with-cancer-a-comparison-with-two-control-groups
#2
Abdelbari Baitar, Frank Buntinx, Tine De Burghgraeve, Laura Deckx, Dirk Schrijvers, Hans Wildiers, Marjan van den Akker
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate dispositional coping strategies as predictors for changes in well-being after one year in older patients with cancer (OCP) and two control groups. METHODS: OCP were compared with two control groups: middle-aged patients with cancer (MCP) (ageing effect) and older patients without cancer (ONC) (cancer effect). Patients were interviewed shortly after a cancer diagnosis and one year later. Dispositional coping was measured with the Short Utrecht Coping List...
November 21, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161388/critical-care-at-the-end-of-life-balancing-technology-with-compassion-and-agreeing-when-to-stop
#3
H Montgomery, M Grocott, M Mythen
Modern intensive care saves lives. However, the substantial related financial costs are, for many, married to substantial costs in terms of suffering. In the most sick, the experience of intensive care is commonly associated with the development of profound physical debility, which may last years after discharge. Likewise, the negative psychological impact commonly experienced by such patients during their care is now widely recognized, as is the persistence of psychological morbidity. Such issues become increasingly important as the population of the frail elderly increases, and the health and social care services face budgetary restriction...
December 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161195/successful-aging-the-role-of-cognitive-gerontology
#4
Alan Hartley, Lucie Angel, Alan Castel, André Didierjean, Lisa Geraci, Joellen Hartley, Eliot Hazeltine, Patrick Lemaire, François Maquestiaux, Eric Ruthruff, Laurence Taconnat, Catherine Thevenot, Dayna Touron
This commentary explores the relationships between the construct of successful aging and the experimental psychology of human aging-cognitive gerontology. What can or should cognitive gerontology contribute to understanding, defining, and assessing successful aging? Standards for successful aging reflect value judgments that are culturally and historically situated. Fundamentally, they address social policy; they are prescriptive. If individuals or groups are deemed to be aging successfully, then their characteristics or situations can be emulated...
November 21, 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159495/lifetime-trauma-and-depressive-symptomatology-among-older-american-indians-the-native-elder-care-study
#5
Ebru Çayır, Michael P Burke, Mindi Spencer, Mark B Schure, R Turner Goins
We examined the association between lifetime traumatic events with or without trauma response symptoms and depressive symptomatology in American Indians aged ≥ 55 years from a tribe in the Southeastern US (N = 362). Twenty-three percent of the sample experienced a traumatic event without trauma-response symptoms, whereas 14% experienced a traumatic event with at least one trauma-response symptom. After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and social support, participants who experienced a traumatic event with one or more trauma-response symptoms had higher odds of clinically relevant depressive symptomatology compared to (1) those who never experienced a traumatic event [odds ratio (OR) 3...
November 20, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159486/program-components-of-psychosocial-interventions-in-foster-and-kinship-care-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Jacqueline Kemmis-Riggs, Adam Dickes, John McAloon
Foster children frequently experience early trauma that significantly impacts their neurobiological, psychological and social development. This systematic review examines the comparative effectiveness of foster and kinship care interventions. It examines the components within each intervention, exploring their potential to benefit child and carer well-being, particularly focussing on child behaviour problems, and relational functioning. Systematic searches of electronic databases included PsycINFO, MEDLINE, Web of Science Core Collection, the Cochrane Collaborations Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Scopus to identify randomised or quasi-randomised trials of psychosocial foster/kinship care interventions, published between 1990 and 2016...
November 20, 2017: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159465/changes-in-disability-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-10-year-prospective-study
#7
David Conradsson, Charlotte Ytterberg, Lena von Koch, Sverker Johansson
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term course of disability in relation with disease severity in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). OBJECTIVE: To explore changes in a broad spectrum of disability over 10 years in relation with disease severity in PwMS. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal study of 155 PwMS who attended the MS Centre at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm. Disease severity was determined by the use of the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and classified as mild MS (EDSS score 0-3...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159182/a-psychological-perspective-on-preterm-children-the-influence-of-contextual-factors-on-quality-of-family-interactions
#8
Michela Gatta, Marina Miscioscia, Lorenza Svanellini, Chiara Peraro, Alessandra Simonelli
Preterm birth has a critical influence on interactive, communicative, and expressive child behaviour, particularly during the first years of life. Few studies have stressed the assessment of mother-father-child interaction in families with preterm children, generating contradictory results. The present study wished to develop these fields: (i) comparing the quality of family interactions between families with preterm children and families with children born at full term; (ii) observing the development of family interactions after six months in the families with children born preterm; (iii) assessing family and contextual factors, as parental stress and social support, in parents of preterm children in order to observe their influence on the quality of family interactions...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158888/initial-evidence-that-non-clinical-autistic-traits-are-associated-with-lower-income
#9
William J Skylark, Simon Baron-Cohen
Among non-clinical samples, autistic traits correlate with a range of educational and social outcomes. However, previous work has not investigated the relationship between autistic traits and income, a key determinant of socio-economic status and well-being. In five studies (total N = 2491), we recruited participants without a diagnosis of autism from the general US population via an online platform and administered the short-form Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) as well as asked a range of demographic questions...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158774/psychosocial-factors-in-children-s-obesity-examples-from-an-innovative-line-of-inquiry
#10
Amanda W Harrist, Glade L Topham, Laura Hubbs-Tait, Lenka H Shriver, Taren M Swindle
In recent years, researchers and policymakers have recognized that obesity in childhood is not simply a medical problem, but is a complex social and psychological phenomenon. Our research team used an interpersonal and intrapersonal risk model to examine the psychosocial aspects of obesity among rural children. In this article, we describe how the global study of children's obesity has broadened over the last 10 to 15 years, and we present our model of interpersonal and intrapersonal risk factors, which includes complex pathways with many psychosocial variables...
December 2017: Child Development Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157846/definition-of-traumatic-brain-injury-neurosurgery-trauma-orthopedics-neuroimaging-psychology-and-psychiatry-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
REVIEW
Mubashir Pervez, Ryan S Kitagawa, Tiffany R Chang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) disrupts the normal function of the brain. This condition can adversely affect a person's quality of life with cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and physical symptoms that limit interpersonal, social, and occupational functioning. Although many systems exist, the simplest classification includes mild, moderate, and severe TBI depending on the nature of injury and the impact on the patient's clinical status. Patients with TBI require prompt evaluation and multidisciplinary management...
February 2018: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157366/culling-from-the-actors-perspectives-decision-making-criteria-for-culling-in-qu%C3%A3-bec-dairy-herds-enrolled-in-a-veterinary-preventive-medicine-program
#12
Denis Haine, Roger Cue, Asheber Sewalem, Kevin Wade, René Lacroix, Daniel Lefebvre, Jonathan Rushton, Julie Arsenault, Émile Bouchard, Jocelyn Dubuc
The series of events leading to the decision to cull a cow is complex, involving both individual-level and herd-level factors. While the decision is guided by financial returns, it is also influenced by social and psychological factors. Research studies on the motivational and behavioural aspects of farmers' decision utility are sparse, and nonexistent regarding culling expectations and its decision process. Our goal was to identify shared criteria on culling decisions held by dairy producers and farm advisers, with the help of the Q-methodology...
December 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157301/family-support-discrimination-and-quality-of-life-among-art-treated-hiv-infected-patients-a-two-year-study-in-china
#13
Jun-Fang Xu, Zhong-Qiang Ming, Yu-Qian Zhang, Pei-Cheng Wang, Jun Jing, Feng Cheng
BACKGROUND: By September 2016, approximately 653,865 people in China were living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and 492,725 people were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). PLWHA frequently experience discrimination in all domains of their personal and social lives. The World Health Organization includes discrimination in its list of social determinants of health factors that have been linked to poor physical and psychological health. This paper identifies the family support enjoyed and discrimination faced by people infected with HIV and examines the effect they have on patients' quality of life (QOL) as they undergo ART in China...
November 21, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157088/examining-the-effect-of-the-computer-based-educational-package-on-quality-of-life-and-severity-of-hypogonadism-symptoms-in-males
#14
Elahe Afsharnia, Minoo Pakgohar, Shahla Khosravi, Hamid Haghani
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the computer-based educational package on men's QoL and the severity of their hypogonadism symptoms. METHODS: A quasi-experimental study was conducted on 80 male employees. The data collection tool included the 'Aging Male Symptoms' (AMS) and 'Short Form-36' (SF36) questionnaires. Four sessions were held for the intervention group over a period of 4 weeks. Two months after training, QoL and the severity of hypogonadism symptoms were measured in both the intervention and control groups...
November 20, 2017: Aging Male: the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156248/the-symbolic-violence-of-outbreak-a-mixed-methods-quasi-experimental-impact-evaluation-of-social-protection-on-ebola-survivor-wellbeing
#15
Eugene T Richardson, J Daniel Kelly, Osman Sesay, Michael D Drasher, Ishaan K Desai, Raphael Frankfurter, Paul E Farmer, Mohamed Bailor Barrie
Despite over 28,000 reported cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in the 2013-16 outbreak in West Africa, we are only beginning to trace the complex biosocial processes that have promoted its spread. Important questions remain, including the effects on survivors of clinical sequelae, loss of family and livelihood, and other psychological and social trauma. Another poorly understood question is what effect social protection and job creation programs have had on survivors' wellbeing. Several clinical and social protection programs have been developed to respond to the needs of EVD survivors; however, little in the way of impact evaluation has taken place...
November 11, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155369/virtual-rehabilitation-with-children-challenges-for-clinical-adoption-from-the-field
#16
Stephanie Glegg
Virtual, augmented, and mixed reality environments are increasingly being developed and used to address functional rehabilitation goals related to physical, cognitive, social, and psychological impairments. For example, a child with an acquired brain injury may participate in virtual rehabilitation to address impairments in balance, attention, turn taking, and engagement in therapy. The trend toward virtual rehabilitation first gained momentum with the adoption of commercial off-the-shelf active video gaming consoles (e...
November 2017: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154638/longitudinal-associations-between-parenting-and-youth-adjustment-in-twelve-cultural-groups-cultural-normativeness-of-parenting-as-a-moderator
#17
Jennifer E Lansford, Jennifer Godwin, Suha M Al-Hassan, Dario Bacchini, Marc H Bornstein, Lei Chang, Bin-Bin Chen, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Laura Di Giunta, Kenneth A Dodge, Patrick S Malone, Paul Oburu, Concetta Pastorelli, Ann T Skinner, Emma Sorbring, Laurence Steinberg, Sombat Tapanya, Liane Peña Alampay, Liliana Maria Uribe Tirado, Arnaldo Zelli
To examine whether the cultural normativeness of parents' beliefs and behaviors moderates the links between those beliefs and behaviors and youths' adjustment, mothers, fathers, and children (N = 1,298 families) from 12 cultural groups in 9 countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States) were interviewed when children were, on average, 10 years old and again when children were 12 years old. Multilevel models examined 5 aspects of parenting (expectations regarding family obligations, monitoring, psychological control, behavioral control, warmth/affection) in relation to 5 aspects of youth adjustment (social competence, prosocial behavior, academic achievement, externalizing behavior, internalizing behavior)...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154635/you-have-to-hear-this-using-tone-of-voice-to-motivate-others
#18
Netta Weinstein, Konstantina Zougkou, Silke Paulmann
The present studies explored the role of prosody in motivating others, and applied self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000) to do so. Initial studies describe patterns of prosody that discriminate motivational speech. Autonomy support was expressed with lower intensity, slower speech rate and less voice energy in both motivationally laden and neutral (but motivationally primed) sentences. In a follow-up study, participants were able to recognize motivational prosody in semantically neutral sentences, suggesting prosody alone may carry motivational content...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154610/identity-concealment-in-transgender-adults-a-qualitative-assessment-of-minority-stress-and-gender-affirmation
#19
Brian A Rood, Meredith R Maroney, Jae A Puckett, Ariel K Berman, Sari L Reisner, David W Pantalone
Minority individuals might conceal their identity in social contexts in an effort to avoid stigma and victimization. Unfortunately, identity concealment is thought to impact psychological distress in transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) individuals. Thus, through 30 in-depth interviews, we sought to understand if and how identity concealment was experienced by TGNC individuals. Findings indicated that (a) TGNC identity concealment is a source of stress, (b) individuals might conceal their TGNC identity based on social context, (c) concealment of assigned sex and gender history can function to affirm one's true gender identity, and (d) concealment of gender history is a rejection of one's assigned sex...
2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154592/college-females-with-maltreatment-histories-have-atypical-autonomic-regulation-and-poor-psychological-wellbeing
#20
Lourdes P Dale, Samia K Shaikh, Laura C Fasciano, Vanessa D Watorek, Keri J Heilman, Stephen W Porges
OBJECTIVES: This study uniquely examined the impact of maltreatment (without a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) on physiological responses to a physical and an emotional stressor. The study sample was composed exclusively of women, because men may differ in maltreatment experience and neural regulation of physiological reactivity. METHOD: Participants were 60 female college students. A significant proportion of the participants reported experiencing childhood maltreatment without a history of PTSD...
November 20, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
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