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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806639/a-developmental-etiological-model-for-drug-abuse-in-men
#1
Kenneth S Kendler, Henrik Ohlsson, Alexis C Edwards, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
BACKGROUND: We attempt to develop a relatively comprehensive structural model of risk factors for drug abuse (DA) in Swedish men that illustrates developmental and mediational processes. METHODS: We examined 20 risk factors for DA in 48,369 men undergoing conscription examinations in 1969-70 followed until 2011 when 2.34% (n=1134) of them had DA ascertained in medical, criminal and pharmacy registries. Risk factors were organized into four developmental tiers reflecting i) birth, ii) childhood/early adolescence, iii) late adolescence, and iv) young adulthood...
July 29, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806206/chronic-pain-and-associated-factors-in-india-and-nepal-a-pilot-study-of-the-vanderbilt-global-pain-survey
#2
Jenna L Walters, Kelly Baxter, Hannah Chapman, Tracy Jackson, Adinarayanan Sethuramachandran, Marcus Couldridge, Hem Raj Joshi, Pankaj Kundra, Xulei Liu, Divya Nair, Bonnie Sullivan, Matthew S Shotwell, Ryan J Jense, Nicholas J Kassebaum, K A Kelly McQueen
BACKGROUND: Evaluation and treatment of chronic pain worldwide are limited by the lack of standardized assessment tools incorporating consistent definitions of pain chronicity and specific queries of known social and psychological risk factors for chronic pain. The Vanderbilt Global Pain Survey (VGPS) was developed as a tool to address these concerns, specifically in the low- and middle-income countries where global burden is highest. METHODS: The VGPS was developed using standardized and cross-culturally validated metrics, including the Brief Pain Inventory and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale, as well as the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, the Fibromyalgia Survey Questionnaire along with queries about pain attitudes to assess the prevalence of chronic pain and disability along with its psychosocial and emotional associations...
August 10, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806123/identity-confusion-and-materialism-mediate-the-relationship-between-excessive-social-network-site-usage-and-online-compulsive-buying
#3
Saeed Pahlevan Sharif, Jasmine Khanekharab
This study investigates the mediating role of identity confusion and materialism in the relationship between social networking site (SNS) excessive usage and online compulsive buying among young adults. A total of 501 SNS users aged 17 to 23 years (M = 19.68, SD = 1.65) completed an online survey questionnaire. A serial multiple mediator model was developed and hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. The results showed that excessive young adult SNS users had a higher tendency toward compulsive buying online...
August 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806121/social-capital-accumulation-in-location-based-mobile-game-playing-a-multiple-process-approach
#4
Hei-Tung Sung, Leif Sigerson, Cecilia Cheng
In the summer of 2016, the widespread popularization of the game Pokémon Go brought the public's attention to the possible socialization benefits associated with location-based mobile games (LBMGs), yet no studies to date have investigated this issue. LBMGs deserve greater research attention because this type of game provides a unique gaming experience that encourages players to leave their homes and navigate around their neighborhood. This distinctive feature may promote more face-to-face interactions among LBMG players...
August 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806111/-effectiveness-of-mindfulness-based-cancer-recovery-mbcr-program-among-hungarian-cancer-patients
#5
Magda Rohánszky, Károly Berényi, Dóra Fridrik, Henriette Pusztafalvi
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Employment of mindfulness-based programs and techniques in the treatment of cancer patients have spread exponentially in the past decade. A large number of studies have proved the effectiveness of the program in the reduction of stress symptoms, depression and anxiety, and the improvement of sleep and mood patterns. The present study was done at Firebird Foundation and examines the effectiveness of the complex, MBCR (mindfulness-based cancer recovery)-based psycho-social intervention in the treatment of cancer patients...
August 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805719/factors-affecting-depressive-symptoms-among-north-korean-adolescent-refugees-residing-in-south-korea
#6
Subin Park, Minji Lee, Jin Yong Jeon
We examined factors affecting the depressive symptoms and the relationship between depression and quality of life among 131 North Korean adolescent refugees aged 12-24 years. We compared sociodemographic, social, and individual characteristics and perceived the quality of life between participants with and without depression. Thirty-seven refugees (28.2%) had clinically significant depressive symptoms. The refugees with depression were younger (t = 2.67; p = 0.009), more likely to be male (χ² = 6.98; p = 0...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805441/examining-overlap-in-behavioral-and-neural-representations-of-morals-facts-and-preferences
#7
Jordan Theriault, Adam Waytz, Larisa Heiphetz, Liane Young
Metaethical judgments refer to judgments about the information expressed by moral claims. Moral objectivists generally believe that moral claims are akin to facts, whereas moral subjectivists generally believe that moral claims are more akin to preferences. Evidence from developmental and social psychology has generally favored an objectivist view; however, this work has typically relied on few examples, and analyses have disallowed statistical generalizations beyond these few stimuli. The present work addresses whether morals are represented as fact-like or preference-like, using behavioral and neuroimaging methods, in combination with statistical techniques that can (a) generalize beyond our sample stimuli, and (b) test whether particular item features are associated with neural activity...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805424/the-dark-side-of-subjective-value-in-sequential-negotiations-the-mediating-role-of-pride-and-anger
#8
William J Becker, Jared R Curhan
Scholars who study negotiation increasingly recognize the importance of social context, seeing negotiations not merely as 1-shot interactions but as influenced by what came before. Under this longitudinal conceptualization of negotiation, a number of recent studies demonstrate that social psychological outcomes from prior negotiations are positively related to economic performance in subsequent negotiations when negotiating repeatedly with the same counterpart. In this report, we investigate a counterexample in the context of "sequential negotiations," which we define as multiple negotiation sessions that occur within a short time frame but facing different counterparts in each session...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805186/improving-the-social-health-of-community-dwelling-older-people-living-with-dementia-through-a-reablement-program
#9
Yun-Hee Jeon, Lindy Clemson, Sharon L Naismith, Loren Mowszowski, Niki McDonagh, Margaret Mackenzie, Caitlin Dawes, Luisa Krein, Sarah L Szanton
Psychological, neurological, and social impairments caused by dementia may limit the person's everyday living and experiences, but their capacity to enjoy a meaningful life is still retained. Increasingly, evidence has been shown the importance of reablement approaches to care in maximizing the older person's independence, health, and well-being through increased engagement in their daily, physical, social, and community activities. However, there is a major knowledge gap in providing reablement for people living with dementia...
August 14, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805126/using-culture-and-psychology-to-counter-the-taliban-s-violent-narratives
#10
Neil Krishan Aggarwal
Scholars, politicians, and policy-makers have increasingly pointed to the role of narratives in recruiting militants and justifying violence, highlighting the need for counter-narratives that promote peace. However, few have offered concrete guidelines on how to construct counter-narratives. This exploratory study uses prototype theory from social psychology to analyse Taliban narratives written in Arabic on the historical figure Maḥmūd of Ghaznī (971-1030), who is portrayed as a figure worthy of emulation...
August 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804983/a-longitudinal-study-of-the-profiles-of-psychological-thriving-resilience-and-loss-in-people-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#11
Fuschia M Sirois, Jameson K Hirsch
OBJECTIVES: Despite the toll of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on adjustment, many patients are resilient to the challenges associated with living with IBD, and successfully cope with their illness and thrive. Yet there is little research on why some individuals with IBD enter a trajectory of growth, while others may struggle to adapt. The aim of this study was to investigate the adjustment-related factors that distinguished thriving, resilience, and loss in people with IBD across personal growth, life satisfaction, and relationship quality domains...
August 14, 2017: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804570/value-of-quality-of-life-analysis-in-liver-cancer-a-clinician-s-perspective
#12
REVIEW
Leung Li, Winnie Yeo
Health related quality of life (HRQOL) is increasingly recognized as an important clinical parameter and research endpoint in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HRQOL in HCC patients is multifaceted and affected by medical factor which encompasses HCC and its complications, oncological and palliative treatment for HCC, underlying liver disease, as well as the psychological, social or spiritual reaction to the disease. Many patients presented late with advanced disease and limited survival, plagued with multiple symptoms, rendering QOL a very important aspect in their general well being...
July 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804508/a-psychology-of-the-human-brain-gut-microbiome-axis
#13
Andrew P Allen, Timothy G Dinan, Gerard Clarke, John F Cryan
In recent years, we have seen increasing research within neuroscience and biopsychology on the interactions between the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract, and the bidirectional relationship between these systems: the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Although research has demonstrated that the gut microbiota can impact upon cognition and a variety of stress-related behaviours, including those relevant to anxiety and depression, we still do not know how this occurs. A deeper understanding of how psychological development as well as social and cultural factors impact upon the brain-gut-microbiome axis will contextualise the role of the axis in humans and inform psychological interventions that improve health within the brain-gut-microbiome axis...
April 2017: Social and Personality Psychology Compass
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804469/longitudinal-relationships-between-social-support-and-posttraumatic-growth-among-adolescent-survivors-of-the-wenchuan-earthquake
#14
Xuji Jia, Xia Liu, Liuhua Ying, Chongde Lin
This study aimed to explore the longitudinal relationships between social support and posttraumatic growth (PTG) among adolescent survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake. Follow-up assessments were conducted with 452 participants at 12, 18, and 24 months after the earthquake. The results showed that the level of social support at 12 and 18 months following the earthquake predicted subsequent PTG, but not vice versa. In addition, multi-group analyses of gender showed no gender differences between social support and PTG in the cross-lagged model...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804452/supervised-and-unsupervised-learning-technology-in-the-study-of-rodent-behavior
#15
REVIEW
Katsiaryna V Gris, Jean-Philippe Coutu, Denis Gris
Quantifying behavior is a challenge for scientists studying neuroscience, ethology, psychology, pathology, etc. Until now, behavior was mostly considered as qualitative descriptions of postures or labor intensive counting of bouts of individual movements. Many prominent behavioral scientists conducted studies describing postures of mice and rats, depicting step by step eating, grooming, courting, and other behaviors. Automated video assessment technologies permit scientists to quantify daily behavioral patterns/routines, social interactions, and postural changes in an unbiased manner...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803827/caring-for-the-caregiver-supporting-families-of-youth-with-special-health-care-needs
#16
Mariecel Pilapil, Daniel J Coletti, Cindy Rabey, David DeLaet
Caregivers of youth with special health care needs (YSHCN) are a critical part of the health care team. It is important for pediatric providers to be cognizant of the burden and strain caregiving can create. This article will discuss the health, psychological, social, and financial effects of caregiving, as well as strategies to screen for caregiver strain among families of YSHCN. Caregivers of YSHCN, for example, are more likely to report poor health status and demonstrate higher rates of depression and anxiety...
August 10, 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803484/social-connectedness-improves-public-mental-health-investigating-bidirectional-relationships-in-the-new-zealand-attitudes-and-values-survey
#17
Alexander K Saeri, Tegan Cruwys, Fiona Kate Barlow, Samantha Stronge, Chris G Sibley
BACKGROUND: The importance of social connectedness in supporting public mental health is well established. However, the reverse causal pathway (that psychological ill-health leads to reduced social connectedness) remains a dominant perspective among mental health practitioners. Our analysis aimed to provide a rigorous test of the directionality of this relationship. METHOD: A cross-lagged panel analysis of a large longitudinal national probability sample ( N ≈ 21,227), the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Survey, was used to assess the bidirectional longitudinal relationship between social connectedness and mental health, controlling for baseline levels of both variables and demographics...
August 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803420/psychosocial-needs-and-facilitators-of-mothers-caring-for-children-with-duchenne-becker-muscular-dystrophy
#18
Holly L Peay, Bettina Meiser, Kathleen Kinnett, Aad Tibben
Care guidelines for Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (DBMD) include recommendations for assessment of caregivers of patients with DBMD followed by proactive psychosocial interventions. To inform clinical assessment, this study described appraisals of psychosocial needs and caregiving facilitators of mothers of individuals with DBMD. Two hundred and five mothers completed an online survey. More than 50% endorsed unmet needs for managing uncertainty about the future and managing DBMD fears. Higher levels of unmet need were associated with less disease progression/earlier stage of DBMD (rho = -0...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803042/who-are-likely-to-attempt-suicide-again-a-comparative-study-between-the-first-and-multiple-timers
#19
Yanzheng Liu, Jie Zhang, Long Sun
BACKGROUND: Various explanations account for suicide incidents, and some patients continue to attempt afterwards and others never again. The suicide mortality rate increases with the number of serious attempts. The prevention of secondary attempt of suicide should be an important approach to reduce suicide mortality. However, the characteristics of the targeted population of repeated suicide attempters are understudied. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional data collection from hospital emergency room from patients who had either attempted suicide for the first time (n=721) or for two or more times (n=70)...
July 20, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802930/quality-of-life-and-nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Paolo Barone, Roberto Erro, Marina Picillo
Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is defined as "the perception and evaluation by patients themselves of the impact caused on their lives by the disease and its consequences." HRQoL is conceptualized as a combination of physical, psychological, and social well-being in the context of a particular disease. Following earlier studies revolving on the impact of the classic motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease on HRQoL, mounting evidence have been produced that nonmotor symptoms (NMS) significantly and independently contribute to worse HRQoL...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
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