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Environmental psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805445/prevalence-and-predictors-of-learning-and-psychological-diagnoses-following-pediatric-arterial-ischemic-stroke
#1
Tricia S Williams, Kyla P McDonald, Samantha D Roberts, Nomazulu Dlamini, Gabrielle deVeber, Robyn Westmacott
This study examined the prevalence of learning and psychological diagnoses and associated neurological and personal-environmental risk factors following perinatal and childhood arterial ischemic stroke. In our sample of 126 children and youth, 52.4% received a diagnosis following their assessment. Specifically, 32% had a single diagnosis and 21% had two or more diagnoses. Learning disability, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, and intellectual disability were the most prevalent diagnoses. Associated risk factors varied by diagnosis with lower intellectual functioning being the common risk factor across categories...
August 14, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805122/the-inear-programme-an-existential-positive-psychology-intervention-for-resilience-and-emotional-wellbeing
#2
Aneta D Tunariu, Rachel Tribe, Dan Frings, Ian P Albery
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new psychological intervention, the iNEAR, which is a resilience and wellbeing programme consisting of a classroom based set of activities designed to facilitate the formation of positive identities through the acquisition of skills for growth and personal flourishing. Three hundred and fifty-four young people aged 11 and 12, matched for age and gender, were randomly allocated to the intervention (84 girls; 80 boys) and control conditions (93 girls; 96 boys)...
August 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802208/acute-effects-of-visits-to-urban-green-environments-on-cardiovascular-physiology-in-women-a-field-experiment
#3
Timo Lanki, Taina Siponen, Ann Ojala, Kalevi Korpela, Arto Pennanen, Pekka Tiittanen, Yuko Tsunetsugu, Takahide Kagawa, Liisa Tyrväinen
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have reported positive associations between the amount of green space in the living environment and mental and cardiovascular human health. In a search for effect mechanisms, field studies have found short-term visits to green environments to be associated with psychological stress relief. Less evidence is available on the effect of visits on cardiovascular physiology. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether visits to urban green environments, in comparison to visits to a built-up environment, lead to beneficial short-term changes in indicators of cardiovascular health...
August 9, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801236/frailty-status-in-older-adults-is-related-to-alterations-in-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-1-and-guanosine-triphosphate-cyclohydrolase-i%C3%A2-enzymatic-pathways
#4
Diego Marcos-Pérez, María Sánchez-Flores, Ana Maseda, Laura Lorenzo-López, José C Millán-Calenti, Barbara Strasser, Johanna M Gostner, Dietmar Fuchs, Eduardo Pásaro, Vanessa Valdiglesias, Blanca Laffon
BACKGROUND: Frailty is a multidimensional syndrome correlated to the loss of homeostasis and increased vulnerability to stressors, which is associated with increase in the risk of disability, comorbidity, hospitalization, and death in the elderly. It is based on the interplay of physiological, psychological, social, and environmental factors. OBJECTIVES: Because aging involves a detrimental immune response, this work aimed to assess the possible role of chronic low-grade immune stimulation on frailty status in the elderly...
August 8, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800472/phthalate-and-bisphenol-a-exposure-during-in-utero-windows-of-susceptibility-in-relation-to-reproductive-hormones-and-pubertal-development-in-girls
#5
Deborah J Watkins, Brisa N Sánchez, Martha Maria Téllez-Rojo, Joyce M Lee, Adriana Mercado-García, Clara Blank-Goldenberg, Karen E Peterson, John D Meeker
BACKGROUND: Over the past several decades, the age of pubertal onset in girls has shifted downward worldwide. As early pubertal onset is associated with increased risky behavior and psychological issues during adolescence and cardiometabolic disease and cancer in adulthood, this is an important public health concern. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals during critical windows of in utero development may play a role in this trend. Our objective was to investigate trimester-specific phthalate and BPA exposure in relation to pubertal development among girls in the Early Life Exposure in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) birth cohort...
August 8, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799518/a-neurodevelopment-and-neuroplasticity-based-framework-for-early-intervention-in-psychotic-disorders
#6
E Bora
In recent years there has been growing interest in early intervention in psychotic disorders and a number of clinical and research programmes have been developed. The clinical staging model has been an essential part of early intervention as it provides the rationale of existing programmes. In medicine, clinical staging is a valuable approach in disorders where primary pathology is progressive in nature. However, the clinical staging model of psychosis has been proposed without establishing first that schizophrenia is a primarily progressive disorder...
August 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793950/multidimensional-psychological-stress-during-pregnancies-in-women-who-conceived-via-in-vitro-fertilization
#7
Eleanor L Stevenson, Susan Silva
PURPOSE: To explore relationships among the 3 psychological dimensions of stress, stimulus/environmental, perceptual, and emotional response, and then to develop a multidimensional composite measure of overall stress, and to determine demographic and clinical characteristics associated with stress in women who became pregnant via in vitro fertilization (IVF). METHODS: Cross-sectional design using self-report questionnaires during the second trimester. Multidimensional stress was assessed with the Prenatal Life Events Scale, Life Event Distress Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Index-State, and the Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Measure...
August 1, 2017: Research and Theory for Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793812/infant-statistical-learning
#8
Jenny R Saffran, Natasha Z Kirkham
Perception involves making sense of a dynamic, multimodal environment. In the absence of mechanisms capable of exploiting the statistical patterns in the natural world, infants would face an insurmountable computational problem. Infant statistical learning mechanisms facilitate the detection of structure. These abilities allow the infant to compute across elements in their environmental input, extracting patterns for further processing and subsequent learning. In this selective review, we summarize findings that show that statistical learning is both a broad and flexible mechanism (supporting learning from different modalities across many different content areas) and input specific (shifting computations depending on the type of input and goal of learning)...
August 9, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793096/spiritual-well-being-and-quality-of-life-of-older-adults-in-hemodialysis
#9
Calíope Pilger, Renata Ohana Pereira Dos Santos, Maicon Henrique Lentsck, Sueli Marques, Luciana Kusumota
Objective: To analyze the relationship between spiritual well-being, sociodemographic, economic, religious, and health variables and the quality of life of older adults undergoing hemodialysis. Method: This was a cross-sectional and correlational study conducted with 169 older adults undergoing hemodialysis. The researchers conducted interviews to collect sociodemographic, economic, religious, and health data and applied the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS) and the WHO quality of life assessment (WHOQOL-BREF and WHOQOL-OLD)...
July 2017: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792444/role-of-microbial-modulation-in-management-of-atopic-dermatitis-in-children
#10
REVIEW
Lies Hulshof, Belinda Van't Land, Aline B Sprikkelman, Johan Garssen
The pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis (AD) is multifactorial and is a complex interrelationship between skin barrier, genetic predisposition, immunologic development, skin microbiome, environmental, nutritional, pharmacological, and psychological factors. Several microbial modulations of the intestinal microbiome with pre- and/or probiotics have been used in AD management, with different clinical out-come (both positive, as well as null findings). This review provides an overview of the clinical evidence from trials in children from 2008 to 2017, aiming to evaluate the effect of dietary interventions with pre- and/or pro-biotics for the treatment of AD...
August 9, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790861/assessment-of-quality-of-life-in-patients-undergoing-hemodialysis-using-whoqol-bref-questionnaire-a-multicenter-study
#11
Utsav Joshi, Roshan Subedi, Prakash Poudel, Prajwol Ram Ghimire, Sagar Panta, Mahesh Raj Sigdel
BACKGROUND: Assessment of quality of life (QOL) of patients with end-stage renal disease has become increasingly important, both in order to evaluate the influence of the disease on patients and the type of renal replacement therapy they require. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to assess QOL in patients undergoing hemodialysis and evaluated the effects of various sociodemographic factors affecting QOL of such patients in Nepal. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 150 patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis at two major centers in Nepal...
2017: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774119/effects-of-perforation-on-rigid-pu-foam-plates-acoustic-and-mechanical-properties
#12
Jia-Horng Lin, Yu-Chun Chuang, Ting-Ting Li, Chen-Hung Huang, Chien-Lin Huang, Yueh-Sheng Chen, Ching-Wen Lou
Factories today are equipped with diverse mechanical equipment in response to rapid technological and industrial developments. Industrial areas located near residential neighborhoods cause massive environmental problems. In particular, noise pollution results in physical and psychological discomfort, and is a seen as invisible and inevitable problem. Thus, noise reduction is a critical and urgent matter. In this study, rigid polyurethane (PU) foam plates undergo perforation using a tapping machine. The mechanical and acoustic properties of these perforated plates as related to perforation rate and perforation depth are evaluated in terms of compression strength, drop-weight impact strength, and sound absorption coefficient...
December 9, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768287/the-association-of-poor-academic-performance-with-tic-disorders-a-longitudinal-mainstream-school-based-population-study
#13
Esther Cubo, Cristina Gonzalez, Vanesa Ausin, Vanesa Delgado, Sara Saez, Sara Calvo, Xose Garcia Soto, José Cordero, Katie Kompoliti, Elan D Louis, Raquel de la Fuente Anuncibay
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the academic performance of students with tic disorders (TD). Our aim was to investigate the association of TD and poor academic performance over time. METHODS: Longitudinal, observational study of mainstream schoolchildren comparing grade retention (GR) and learning disorders (LD) in students with vs. without TD between 2010 and 2014. Students with vs. without TD based on DSM-IV-TR criteria, or with vs. without GR and LD were compared in terms of comorbidities, school, and environmental characteristics...
July 29, 2017: Neuroepidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766080/trajectories-in-quality-of-life-of-patients-with-a-fracture-of-the-distal-radius-or-ankle-using-latent-class-analysis
#14
M A C Van Son, J De Vries, W Zijlstra, J A Roukema, T Gosens, M H J Verhofstad, B L Den Oudsten
PURPOSE: This prospective study aimed to identify the different trajectories of quality of life (QOL) in patients with distal radius fractures (DRF) and ankle fractures (AF). Secondly, it was examined if subgroups could be characterized by sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological variables. METHODS: Patients (n = 543) completed the World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment instrument-Bref (WHOQOL-Bref), the pain, coping, and cognitions questionnaire, NEO-five factor inventory (neuroticism and extraversion), and the state-trait anxiety inventory (short version) a few days after fracture (i...
August 1, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757341/motivators-for-and-barriers-to-physical-activity-in-people-with-knee-osteoarthritis-a-qualitative-study
#15
Chloé Gay, Bénédicte Eschalier, Christine Levyckyj, Armand Bonnin, Emmanuel Coudeyre
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the motivators for and barriers to regular physical activity in people with knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional, monocentric qualitative study based on 20 semi-structured individual interviews and two focus groups. People with knee osteoarthritis according to American College of Rheumatology criteria were recruited from spa therapy resorts (Royat, France). Data were collected by interviews, which were then transcribed and coded...
July 27, 2017: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757229/prenatal-particulate-matter-exposure-and-wheeze-in-mexican-children-effect-modification-by-prenatal-psychosocial-stress
#16
Maria José Rosa, Allan C Just, Itai Kloog, Ivan Pantic, Lourdes Schnaas, Alison Lee, Sonali Bose, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda Chiu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon Hsu, Brent Coull, Joel Schwartz, Sheldon Cohen, Martha María Téllez Rojo, Robert O Wright, Rosalind J Wright
BACKGROUND: Air pollution exposure in childhood is associated with greater incidence and exacerbation of asthma, particularly in children whose parents report high levels of psychological stress. However, this interaction has not been completely elucidated in pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the association between prenatal exposure to particulate matter no larger than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) and wheeze in children is modified by prenatal stress. METHODS: Mexican women were recruited during pregnancy (N = 552)...
July 27, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756386/study-on-factors-inducing-workplace-violence-in-chinese-hospitals-based-on-the-broken-window-theory-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Chenyu Zhou, Huitong Mou, Wen Xu, Zhe Li, Xin Liu, Lei Shi, Boshi Peng, Yan Zhao, Lei Gao, Lihua Fan
OBJECTIVES: To explore the potential components of hospital workplace violence (HWPV) from the perspectives of hospital administrators and patients, and put forward corresponding strategies for its prevention and control. SETTING: Using convenience sampling methods, 116 hospitals in 14 provinces of China were surveyed using a self-designed questionnaire. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was used. PARTICIPANTS: Hospital administrators and patients from 116 hospitals in 14 provinces of China...
July 28, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750543/bio-ecological-factors-associated-with-the-psychological-distress-of-fathers-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-population-based-study-of-australian-families
#18
Monique Seymour, Rebecca Giallo, Catherine E Wood
Using a bio-ecological framework, the aim of this study was to examine factors associated with psychological distress experienced by fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder from a nationally representative sample of Australian children and their families. Individual (e.g. age and self-efficacy), interpersonal (e.g. partner distress, couple relationship, child behaviour and social support) and social environmental factors (e.g. job quality and financial hardship) were explored as potential predictors of fathers' distress...
July 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744703/pathways-of-intergenerational-transmission-of-advantages-during-adolescence-social-background-cognitive-ability-and-educational-attainment
#19
Wiebke Schulz, Reinhard Schunck, Martin Diewald, Wendy Johnson
Educational attainment in adolescence is of paramount importance for attaining higher education and for shaping subsequent life chances. Sociological accounts focus on the role of differences in socioeconomic resources in intergenerational reproduction of educational inequalities. These often disregard the intergenerational transmission of cognitive ability and the importance of children's cognitive ability to educational attainment. Psychological perspectives stress the importance of cognitive ability for educational attainment but underemphasize potentially different roles of specific socioeconomic resources in shaping educational outcomes, as well as individual differences in cognitive ability...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742820/facilitators-and-barriers-to-physical-activity-in-people-with-chronic-low-back-pain-a-qualitative-study
#20
Laura Boutevillain, Arnaud Dupeyron, Caroline Rouch, Emilie Richard, Emmanuel Coudeyre
BACKGROUND: For medical teams, one of the main objectives of rehabilitation for people with chronic low back pain is adherence to physical activity (PA). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify PA barriers and facilitators in this population. METHODS: This qualitative study included 4 discussion groups and 16 semi-structured interviews conducted among people with non-specific chronic low back pain who were involved in a specific rehabilitation program or seen in primary care settings...
2017: PloS One
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