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Environmental psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925351/parenting-practices-in-middle-childhood-mediate-the-relation-between-growing-up-with-a-parent-having-bipolar-disorder-and-offspring-psychopathology-from-childhood-into-early-adulthood
#1
Vanessa Iacono, Leah Beaulieu, Sheilagh Hodgins, Mark A Ellenbogen
The offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (OBD) are at high risk for developing mental disorders. In addition to genetic factors, environmental risk is purported to be associated with these negative outcomes. However, few studies have examined this relation. Using concurrent and longitudinal data, we examined if support, structure, and control provided by parents in middle childhood mediated the relation between having a parent with or without bipolar disorder, and offspring mental health. The sample included 145 offspring (77 OBD, 68 controls) aged 4 to 14 years and their parents...
September 19, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923191/associations-between-sleep-quality-and-domains-of-quality-of-life-in-a-non-clinical-sample-results-from-higher-education-students
#2
Daniel Ruivo Marques, Ana Maria Soares Meia-Via, Carlos Fernandes da Silva, Ana Allen Gomes
OBJECTIVE: The association between sleep quality and quality of life (QoL) in clinical samples diagnosed with sleep disorders, mental disorders, or other medical conditions has been widely investigated. However, few studies focused on this relationship in samples of mostly young and healthy adults. This study analyzed the associations between sleep quality and several dimensions of QoL in higher education students and examined whether or not sleep quality would significantly predict QoL after statistically controlling for psychopathological symptoms...
October 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923143/validation-of-the-cognition-test-battery-for-spaceflight-in-a-sample-of-highly-educated-adults
#3
Tyler M Moore, Mathias Basner, Jad Nasrini, Emanuel Hermosillo, Sushila Kabadi, David R Roalf, Sarah McGuire, Adrian J Ecker, Kosha Ruparel, Allison M Port, Chad T Jackson, David F Dinges, Ruben C Gur
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological changes that may occur due to the environmental and psychological stressors of prolonged spaceflight motivated the development of the Cognition Test Battery. The battery was designed to assess multiple domains of neurocognitive functions linked to specific brain systems. Tests included in Cognition have been validated, but not in high-performing samples comparable to astronauts, which is an essential step toward ensuring their usefulness in long-duration space missions...
October 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919431/neurocircuitry-of-impaired-affective-sound-processing-a-clinical-disorders-perspective
#4
REVIEW
Sascha Frühholz, Matthias Staib
Decoding affective meaning from sensory information is central to accurate and adaptive behavior in many natural and social contexts. Human vocalizations (speech and non-speech), environmental sounds (e.g. thunder, noise, or animal sounds) and human-produced sounds (e.g. technical sounds or music) can carry a wealth of important aversive, threatening, appealing, or pleasurable affective information that sometimes implicitly influences and guides our behavior. Deficits in processing such affective information is detrimental to adaptive environmental behavior, psychological well-being, and social interactive abilities...
September 14, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915897/development-of-a-complex-intervention-to-promote-appropriate-prescribing-and-medication-intensification-in-poorly-controlled-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-irish-general-practice
#5
Mark E Murphy, Molly Byrne, Atieh Zarabzadeh, Derek Corrigan, Tom Fahey, Susan M Smith
BACKGROUND: Poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can be seen as failure to meet recommended targets for management of key risk factors including glycaemic control, blood pressure and lipids. Poor control of risk factors is associated with significant morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. Failure to intensify medications for patients with poor control of T2DM when indicated is called clinical inertia and is one contributory factor to poor control of T2DM. We aimed to develop a theory and evidence-based complex intervention to improve appropriate prescribing and medication intensification in poorly controlled T2DM in Irish general practice...
September 16, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915815/designing-an-implementation-intervention-with-the-behaviour-change-wheel-for-health-provider-smoking-cessation-care-for-australian-indigenous-pregnant-women
#6
Gillian S Gould, Yael Bar-Zeev, Michelle Bovill, Lou Atkins, Maree Gruppetta, Marilyn J Clarke, Billie Bonevski
BACKGROUND: Indigenous smoking rates are up to 80% among pregnant women: prevalence among pregnant Australian Indigenous women was 45% in 2014, contributing significantly to the health gap for Indigenous Australians. We aimed to develop an implementation intervention to improve smoking cessation care (SCC) for pregnant Indigenous smokers, an outcome to be achieved by training health providers at Aboriginal Medical Services (AMS) in a culturally competent approach, developed collaboratively with AMS...
September 15, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915797/effectiveness-of-a-16-month-multi-component-and-environmental-school-based-intervention-for-recovery-of-poor-income-overweight-obese-children-and-adolescents-study-protocol-of-the-health-multipliers-program
#7
Pollyanna Fernandes Patriota, Andrea Rocha Filgueiras, Viviane Belucci Pires de Almeida, Guilherme Aparecido Costa Alexmovitz, Carlos Eduardo da Silva, Vivian Fortuna Feres de Carvalho, Natália Carvalho, Maria Paula de Albuquerque, Semiramis Martins Alvares Domene, Wagner Luiz do Prado, Gustavo Enrique Salazar Torres, Ana Paula Reis de Oliveira, Ricardo Sesso, Ana Lydia Sawaya
BACKGROUND: Excess of weight is a serious public health concern in almost all countries, afflicting people of different ages and socioeconomic backgrounds. Studies have indicated the need for developing treatment strategies that intervene directly in the obesogenic environment. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a multi-component and environmental school-based intervention, lasting 16 months, on the recovery of the nutritional status of low-income children and adolescents with overweight/ obesity...
September 15, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915361/cultural-change-the-how-and-the-why
#8
Michael E W Varnum, Igor Grossmann
More than half a century of cross-cultural research has demonstrated group-level differences in psychological and behavioral phenomena, from values to attention to neural responses. However, cultures are not static, with several specific changes documented for cultural products, practices, and values. How and why do societies change? Here we juxtapose theory and insights from cultural evolution and social ecology. Evolutionary approaches enable an understanding of the how of cultural change, suggesting transmission mechanisms by which the contents of culture may change...
September 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900235/neural-correlates-of-ambient-thermal-sensation-an-fmri-study
#9
Hajime Oi, Teruo Hashimoto, Takayuki Nozawa, Akitake Kanno, Natasha Kawata, Kanan Hirano, Yuki Yamamoto, Motoaki Sugiura, Ryuta Kawashima
An increasing number of biometeorological and psychological studies have demonstrated the importance and complexity of the processes involved in environmental thermal perception in humans. However, extant functional imaging data on thermal perception have yet to fully reveal the neural mechanisms underlying these processes because most studies were performed using local thermal stimulation and did not dissociate thermal sensation from comfort. Thus, for the first time, the present study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and manipulated ambient temperature during brain measurement to independently explore the neural correlates of thermal sensation and comfort...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895427/the-impact-of-self-perceived-limitations-stigma-and-sense-of-coherence-on-quality-of-life-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-results-of-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Feddrik Broersma, Barth Oeseburg, Jacob Dijkstra, Klaske Wynia
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of perceived limitations, stigma and sense of coherence on quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. SUBJECTS: Multiple sclerosis patients. MAIN MEASURES: World Health Organization Quality of Life - abbreviated version, Stigma Scale for Chronic Illness, Sense of Coherence Scale, background and disease-related questions...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893752/using-environmental-engineering-to-increase-hand-hygiene-compliance-a-cross-over-study-protocol
#11
Kelly Ann Schmidtke, Navneet Aujla, Tom Marshall, Abid Hussain, Gerard P Hodgkinson, Kristopher Arheart, Joachim Marti, David J Birnbach, Ivo Vlaev
INTRODUCTION: Compliance with hand hygiene recommendations in hospital is typically less than 50%. Such low compliance inevitably contributes to hospital-acquired infections that negatively affect patients' well-being and hospitals' finances. The design of the present study is predicated on the assumption that most people who fail to clean their hands are not doing so intentionally, they just forget. The present study will test whether psychological priming can be used to increase the number of people who clean their hands on entering a ward...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888668/effects-of-obesity-on-depression-a-role-for-inflammation-and-the-gut-microbiota
#12
REVIEW
Julieta Schachter, Jan Martel, Chuan-Sheng Lin, Chih-Jung Chang, Tsung-Ru Wu, Chia-Chen Lu, Yun-Fei Ko, Hsin-Chih Lai, David M Ojcius, John D Young
Depression is a mental disorder associated with environmental, genetic and psychological factors. Recent studies indicate that chronic neuro-inflammation may affect brain physiology and alter mood and behavior. Consumption of a high-fat diet leads to obesity and chronic systemic inflammation. The gut microbiota mediates many effects of a high-fat diet on human physiology and may also influence the mood and behavior of the host. We review here recent studies suggesting the existence of a link between obesity, the gut microbiota and depression, focusing on the mechanisms underlying the effects of a high-fat diet on chronic inflammation and brain physiology...
September 6, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886128/psychological-distress-health-protection-and-sexual-practices-among-young-men-who-have-sex-with-men-using-social-action-theory-to-guide-hiv-prevention-efforts
#13
Ian W Holloway, Dorian E Traube, Sheree M Schrager, Diane Tan, Shannon Dunlap, Michele D Kipke
The present study addresses gaps in the literature related to theory development for young men who have sex with men (YMSM) sexual practices through the application and modification of Social Action Theory. Data come from the Healthy Young Men study (N = 526), which longitudinally tracked a diverse cohort of YMSM ages 18-24 to characterize risk and protective factors associated with drug use and sexual practices. Structural equation modeling examined the applicability of, and any necessary modifications to a YMSM-focused version of Social Action Theory...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883772/comparison-of-resilience-and-psychological-wellbeing-in-women-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-normal-women
#14
Hosien Shahdadi, Abbas Balouchi, Ameneh Shaykh
INTRODUCTION: Resilience and Psychological Wellbeing are two important concepts in adaption of patients to chronic disease conditions. GOAL: To compare resilience and psychological wellbeing in women with irritable bowel syndrome and normal women. METHODS: This was an analytical-comparative study. The statistical population consisted of all patients with irritable bowel syndrome visiting Imam Ali Hospital in Zahedan. Of all patients, 50 female patients with irritable bowel syndrome and 50 normal women were randomly selected and matched...
June 2017: Materia Socio-medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875332/the-population-education-transition-curve-education-gradients-across-population-exposure-to-new-health-risks
#15
David P Baker, William C Smith, Ismael G Muñoz, Haram Jeon, Tian Fu, Juan Leon, Daniel Salinas, Renata Horvatek
The salutary effect of formal education on health-risk behaviors and mortality is extensively documented: ceteris paribus, greater educational attainment leads to healthier lives and longevity. Even though the epidemiological evidence has strongly indicated formal education as a leading "social vaccine," there is intermittent reporting of counter-education gradients for health-risk behavior and associated outcomes for certain populations during specific periods. How can education have both beneficial and harmful effects on health, and under which contexts do particular effects emerge? It is useful to conceptualize the influence of education as a process sensitive to the nature, timing of entry, and uniqueness of a new pleasurable and desirable lifestyle and/or product (such as smoking) with initially unclear health risks for populations...
September 5, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873274/epigenetics-at-the-crossroads-between-genes-environment-and-resilience-in-anxiety-disorders
#16
REVIEW
M A Schiele, K Domschke
The pathogenesis of anxiety disorders is multifactorial, involving complex interactions between biological factors, environmental influences, and psychological mechanisms. Recent advances have highlighted the role of epigenetics in bridging the gap between multiple contributing risk factors towards an increased understanding of the pathomechanisms underlying anxiety. In this review, we present an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding putative risk mechanisms in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders, placing a particular focus on the role of protective factors serving to buffer a risk factor constellation and the role epigenetic processes functioning as a potent turnstile changing passage direction towards disorder risk or resilience...
September 5, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866715/the-effect-of-vitamin-d3-deficiency-on-the-severity-of-depressive-symptoms-overview-of-current-research
#17
REVIEW
Bogdan Stefanowski, Anna Zofia Antosik-Wójcińska, Łukasz Święcicki
Traditional methods of depression treatment with the use of pharmacotherapy with antidepressants have limited effectiveness. Biological, psychological and environmental causes of depressive disorders are known, but pathophysiology of depression has not been fully explained. Many factors and mechanisms play role in the pathophysiology of depression, one of which may be vitamin D3 deficiency. Deficiency or border level of vitamin D3 is fairly common in the general population and may occur even in one billion people globally...
June 18, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866010/contextual-facilitators-and-barriers-of-community-reintegration-among-injured-female-military-veterans-a-qualitative-study
#18
Brent L Hawkins, Brandi M Crowe
OBJECTIVE: To understand the facilitators and barriers to community reintegration (CR) among injured female veterans. DESIGN: Phenomenological qualitative design SETTING: Community PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling female veterans with physical and/or psychological injury (N=13). INTERVENTIONS: None MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: None RESULTS: Conventional content analysis revealed three types of facilitators, including: (a) strong social supports; (b) impactful programs; and (c) protective personal beliefs...
August 30, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865428/psychosocial-stressors-contributing-to-emergency-psychiatric-service-utilization-in-a-sample-of-ethno-culturally-diverse-clients-with-psychosis-in-toronto
#19
Martin Rotenberg, Andrew Tuck, Kwame McKenzie
BACKGROUND: Understanding the psychosocial stressors of people with psychoses from minority ethnic groups may help in the development of culturally appropriate services. This study aimed to compare psychosocial factors associated with attendance at an emergency department (ED) for six ethnic groups. Preventing crises or supporting people better in the community may decrease hospitalization and improve outcomes. METHOD: A cohort was created by retrospective case note analysis of people of East-Asian, South-Asian, Black-African, Black-Caribbean, White-North American and White-European origin groups attending a specialized psychiatric ED in Toronto with a diagnosis of psychosis between 2009 and 2011...
September 2, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861884/cross-cultural-differences-in-mental-health-quality-of-life-empathy-and-burnout-between-us-and-brazilian-medical-students
#20
Giancarlo Lucchetti, Rodolfo Furlan Damiano, Lisabeth F DiLalla, Alessandra Lamas Granero Lucchetti, Ivana Lúcia Damásio Moutinho, Oscarina da Silva Ezequiel, J Kevin Dorsey
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare mental health, quality of life, empathy, and burnout in medical students from a medical institution in the USA and another one in Brazil. METHODS: This cross-cultural study included students enrolled in the first and second years of their undergraduate medical training. We evaluated depression, anxiety, and stress (DASS 21), empathy, openness to spirituality, and wellness (ESWIM), burnout (Oldenburg), and quality of life (WHOQOL-Bref) and compared them between schools...
August 31, 2017: Academic Psychiatry
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