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Environmental psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913593/higher-heart-rate-variability-is-associated-with-vmpfc-activity-and-increased-resistance-to-temptation-in-dietary-self-control-challenges
#1
Silvia U Maier, Todd A Hare
: Higher levels of self-control in decision making have been linked to better psychosocial and physical health. A similar link to health outcomes has been reported for heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of physiological flexibility. Here, we sought to link these two, largely separate, research domains by testing the hypothesis that greater HRV would be associated with better dietary self-control in humans. Specifically, we examined whether total HRV at sedentary rest (measured as the standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals, SDNN) can serve as a biomarker for the neurophysiological adaptability that putatively underlies self-controlled behavior...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913160/psychological-well-being-and-mental-health-recovery-in-the-nimh-raise-early-treatment-program
#2
Julia Browne, David L Penn, Piper S Meyer-Kalos, Kim T Mueser, Sue E Estroff, Mary F Brunette, Christoph U Correll, James Robinson, Robert A Rosenheck, Nina Schooler, Delbert G Robinson, Jean Addington, Patricia Marcy, John M Kane
Recovery-oriented practices that promote client-centered care, collaboration, and functional outcome have been recommended to improve treatment engagement, especially for individuals with serious mental illness (SMI). Psychological well-being (PWB) is related to recovery and refers to experiencing purpose and meaning in life through realizing one's potential. The recently completed Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode Early Treatment Program (RAISE ETP) study sought to improve quality of life, functional outcome, and well-being in individuals with first episode psychosis (FEP)...
November 29, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909415/imagining-change-an-integrative-approach-toward-explaining-the-motivational-role-of-mental-imagery-in-pro-environmental-behavior
#3
Christine Boomsma, Sabine Pahl, Jackie Andrade
Climate change and other long-term environmental issues are often perceived as abstract and difficult to imagine. The images a person associates with environmental change, i.e., a person's environmental mental images, can be influenced by the visual information they come across in the public domain. This paper reviews the literature on this topic across social, environmental, and cognitive psychology, and the wider social sciences; thereby responding to a call for more critical investigations into people's responses to visual information...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904610/effects-of-air-pollution-on-human-health-and-practical-measures-for-prevention-in-iran
#4
REVIEW
Adel Ghorani-Azam, Bamdad Riahi-Zanjani, Mahdi Balali-Mood
Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903053/a-comparison-of-temporal-and-location-based-sampling-strategies-for-global-positioning-system-triggered-electronic-diaries
#5
Tobias Törnros, Helen Dorn, Markus Reichert, Ulrich Ebner-Priemer, Hans-Joachim Salize, Heike Tost, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Alexander Zipf
Self-reporting is a well-established approach within the medical and psychological sciences. In order to avoid recall bias, i.e. past events being remembered inaccurately, the reports can be filled out on a smartphone in real-time and in the natural environment. This is often referred to as ambulatory assessment and the reports are usually triggered at regular time intervals. With this sampling scheme, however, rare events (e.g. a visit to a park or recreation area) are likely to be missed. When addressing the correlation between mood and the environment, it may therefore be beneficial to include participant locations within the ambulatory assessment sampling scheme...
November 21, 2016: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900549/understanding-factors-influencing-physical-activity-and-exercise-in-lung-cancer-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Catherine L Granger, Bronwen Connolly, Linda Denehy, Nicholas Hart, Phillip Antippa, Kuan-Yin Lin, Selina M Parry
PURPOSE: Despite evidence and clinical practice guidelines supporting physical activity (PA) for people with lung cancer, this evidence has not translated into clinical practice. This review aims to identify, evaluate and synthesise studies examining the barriers and enablers for patients with lung cancer to participate in PA from the perspective of patients, carers and health care providers (HCPs). METHODS: Systematic review of articles using electronic databases: MEDLINE (1950-2016), CINAHL (1982-2016), EMBASE (1980-2016), Scopus (2004-2016) and Cochrane (2016)...
November 29, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893258/the-rich-get-richer-and-the-poor-get-poorer-country-and-state-level-income-inequality-moderates-the-job-insecurity-burnout-relationship
#7
Lixin Jiang, Tahira M Probst
Despite the prevalence of income inequality in today's society, research on the implications of income inequality for organizational research is scant. This study takes the first step to explore the contextual role of national- and state- level income inequality as a moderator in the relationship between individual-level job insecurity (JI) and burnout. Drawing from conservation of resource (COR) theory, we argue that income inequality at the country-level and state-level threatens one's obtainment of object (i...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884425/the-eating-disorder-associated-hdac4-a778t-mutation-alters-feeding-behaviors-in-female-mice
#8
Michael Lutter, Michael Z Khan, Kenji Satio, Kevin C Davis, Ian J Kidder, Latisha McDaniel, Benjamin W Darbro, Andrew A Pieper, Huxing Cui
BACKGROUND: While eating disorders (EDs) are thought to result from a combination of environmental and psychological stressors superimposed on genetic vulnerability, the neurobiological basis of EDs remains incompletely understood. We recently reported that a rare missense mutation in the gene for the transcriptional repressor histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) is associated with the risk of developing an ED in humans. METHODS: To understand the biological consequences of this missense mutation, we created transgenic mice carrying this mutation by introducing the alanine to threonine mutation at position 778 of mouse Hdac4 (corresponding to position 786 of the human protein)...
October 13, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883941/smallholder-farmers-behavioural-intentions-towards-sustainable-agricultural-practices
#9
Woldegebrial Zeweld, Guido Van Huylenbroeck, Girmay Tesfay, Stijn Speelman
The introduction of sustainable practices is considered a win-win strategy for low-income countries because of its potential to simultaneously improve food security and address environmental issues. Despite the numerous studies that focus on the adoption of technological innovations, little work has been done on the socio-psychological behaviour of farmers with regard to sustainable practices. This study investigates smallholder farmers' intentions towards two practices: minimum tillage and row planting. The decomposed theory of planned behaviour is used as a theoretical framework to analyse the intentions...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882490/defining-the-field-of-behavioral-medicine-a-collaborative-endeavor
#10
Joost Dekker, Adrienne Stauder, Frank J Penedo
PURPOSE: To respond to comments on our proposal for an update of the definition and scope of behavioral medicine. METHODS: We identify common themes in the comments and provide a response. RESULTS: We discuss the relationship of behavioral medicine to other disciplines and fields, the scope of behavioral medicine, and issues related to the application of behavioral medicine. CONCLUSION: Based on the comments of our esteemed colleagues and our reflection on those comments, we now offer the following refined definition and scope of behavioral medicine...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882204/comparison-of-quantitative-and-qualitative-dermatoglyphic-characteristics-of-opium-addicts-with-healthy-individuals
#11
Omid Mehrpour, Ardeshir Sheikhazadi, Afsoon Barzegar, Afzal Husein, Claudia Malic, Elham Sheikhazadi, Seyed Hossein Saberi-Anary
BACKGROUND: Recreational drugs have a significant impact on the lives of drug users, their close families andfriends, as well as their society. Social, psychological, biological, and genetic factors could make a personmore prone to using recreational drugs. Finger and A-B ridges (dermatoglyphics) are formed during the firstand second trimesters of fetal development, under the influence of environmental and genetic factors. Theaim of our study was to investigate and evaluate a possible link between dermatoglyphics and opium usage...
April 2016: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872286/linguistic-positivity-in-historical-texts-reflects-dynamic-environmental-and-psychological-factors
#12
Rumen Iliev, Joe Hoover, Morteza Dehghani, Robert Axelrod
People use more positive words than negative words. Referred to as "linguistic positivity bias" (LPB), this effect has been found across cultures and languages, prompting the conclusion that it is a panhuman tendency. However, although multiple competing explanations of LPB have been proposed, there is still no consensus on what mechanism(s) generate LPB or even on whether it is driven primarily by universal cognitive features or by environmental factors. In this work we propose that LPB has remained unresolved because previous research has neglected an essential dimension of language: time...
November 21, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871889/spontaneous-prosocial-choice-by-captive-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus
#13
Fumio Nakahara, Masayuki Komaba, Ryoichi Sato, Hisako Ikeda, Kumiko Komaba, Akihiro Kawakubo
Dolphins exhibit prosocial behavior across several different contexts. However, only a few experimental studies have investigated the psychological mechanisms underlying this behavior. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying prosociality in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). In the experiments, water shower devices, developed as environmental enrichment items, were used. Two paradigms were used to measure prosociality. The first was the prosocial choice task, involving the subject typically being offered one choice between two options...
November 18, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871862/a-users-guide-to-hpa-axis-research
#14
REVIEW
Robert L Spencer, Terrence Deak
Glucocorticoid hormones (cortisol and corticosterone - CORT) are the effector hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis neuroendocrine system. CORT is a systemic intercellular signal whose level predictably varies with time of day and dynamically increases with environmental and psychological stressors. This hormonal signal is utilized by virtually every cell and physiological system of the body to optimize performance according to circadian, environmental and physiological demands. Disturbances in normal HPA axis activity profiles are associated with a wide variety of physiological and mental health disorders...
November 18, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870473/development-of-practice-guidelines-for-psychological-interventions-in-the-rehabilitation-of-patients-with-oncological-disease-breast-prostate-or-colorectal-cancer-methods-and-results
#15
Christina Reese, Joachim Weis, Dieter Schmucker, Oskar Mittag
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this project was to develop evidence- and consensus-based practice guidelines for psychological interventions in the rehabilitation of patients with oncological disease (breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer). METHODS: First of all, we conducted a literature search and survey of all oncological rehabilitation centers in Germany (N = 145) to obtain a thorough perspective of the recent evidence, guidelines, the structural framework and practice of psychological services in oncological rehabilitation...
November 21, 2016: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866425/the-role-of-physical-status-versus-mental-status-in-predicting-the-quality-of-life-of-patients-with-lumbar-disk-herniation
#16
Batya Engel-Yeger, Amit Keren, Yaron Berkovich, Elad Sarfaty, Lior Merom
PURPOSE: To explore the role of physical status versus mental status in predicting the quality of life (QOL) of patients with lumbar disk herniation (LDH). METHOD: In this correlative study 51 patients with LDH were recruited in their conservative stage of treatment. After profiling their physical status, all participants reported about pain level (according to VAS), pain perception using the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), and disability level (according to Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire)...
November 20, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861846/developing-a-prenatal-nursing-care-international-classification-for-nursing-practice-catalogue
#17
L Liu, A Coenen, H Tao, K R Jansen, A L Jiang
AIM: This study aimed to develop a prenatal nursing care catalogue of International Classification for Nursing Practice. BACKGROUND: As a programme of the International Council of Nurses, International Classification for Nursing Practice aims to support standardized electronic nursing documentation and facilitate collection of comparable nursing data across settings. This initiative enables the study of relationships among nursing diagnoses, nursing interventions and nursing outcomes for best practice, healthcare management decisions, and policy development...
November 11, 2016: International Nursing Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859407/empowerment-praxis-community-organizing-to-redress-systemic-health-disparities
#18
Jason A Douglas, Cheryl T Grills, Sandra Villanueva, Andrew M Subica
Social and environmental determinants of childhood obesity present a public health dilemma, particularly in low-income communities of color. Case studies of two community-based organizations participating in the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Communities Creating Healthy Environments (CCHE) childhood obesity initiative demonstrate multilevel, culturally situated community organizing strategies to address the root causes of this public health disparity. Informed by a 3-lens prescription-Social Justice, Culture-Place, and Organizational Capacity-contained in the CCHE Change Model and Evaluation Frame, we present examples of individual, organizational, and community empowerment to redress systemic inequities that manifest in poor health outcomes for people of color...
November 9, 2016: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856392/why-is-depression-more-common-among-women-than-among-men
#19
REVIEW
Christine Kuehner
Women are about twice as likely as are men to develop depression during their lifetime. This Series paper summarises evidence regarding the epidemiology on gender differences in prevalence, incidence, and course of depression, and factors possibly explaining the gender gap. Gender-related subtypes of depression are suggested to exist, of which the developmental subtype has the strongest potential to contribute to the gender gap. Limited evidence exists for risk factors to be specifically linked to depression...
November 11, 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852712/perceived-barriers-to-accessing-mental-health-services-among-black-and-minority-ethnic-bme-communities-a-qualitative-study-in-southeast-england
#20
Anjum Memon, Katie Taylor, Lisa M Mohebati, Josefin Sundin, Max Cooper, Thomas Scanlon, Richard de Visser
OBJECTIVE: In most developed countries, substantial disparities exist in access to mental health services for black and minority ethnic (BME) populations. We sought to determine perceived barriers to accessing mental health services among people from these backgrounds to inform the development of effective and culturally acceptable services to improve equity in healthcare. DESIGN AND SETTING: Qualitative study in Southeast England. PARTICIPANTS: 26 adults from BME backgrounds (13 men, 13 women; aged >18 years) were recruited to 2 focus groups...
November 16, 2016: BMJ Open
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