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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427028/terminal-seizure-frequency-and-its-relation-to-sudep
#1
Deng Chen, Yang Si, Jun He, Ying Deng, Tao Chen, Yu-Jin He, Ling Liu, Dong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a major cause of death in patients with epilepsy. Several risk factors have been implicated, including early age of onset, tonic-clonic seizures and antiepileptic drugs. However, whether patients who die from SUDEP have a greater frequency of seizures in the few months before death is unclear. We investigated the terminal seizure frequency and its relation to SUDEP among a large group of patients with tonic-clonic seizures in rural West China...
April 17, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426381/hyperbaric-oxygen-for-experimental-intracerebral-haemorrhage-systematic-review-and-stratified-meta-analysis
#2
Han-Jin Cui, Hao-Yu He, A-Li Yang, Hua-Jun Zhou, Tao Tang, Jie-Kun Luo
OBJECTIVE: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) is widely used in treating various neurological diseases. However, HBO for treatment of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) remains controversial, in either animal or clinical studies. Therefore, we conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis on studies describing the efficacy of HBO in animal models of ICH. METHODS: Studies were identified by searching mainstream databases through November 2015. The efficacy of HBO in animal models of ICH was assessed by changes in the brain water content (BWC), neurobehavioural outcome (NO) or both...
2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419925/characterization-and-application-of-restricted-access-carbon-nanotubes-in-online-extraction-of-anticonvulsant-drugs-from-plasma-samples-followed-by-liquid-chromatography-analysis
#3
Rodrigo Campos Dos Santos, Adriana Kaori Kakazu, Mariane Gonçalves Santos, Fábio Antônio Belinelli Silva, Eduardo Costa Figueiredo
Anticonvulsant drugs are often used in the treatment of epilepsy. However, their therapeutic monitoring is often necessary in order to obtain an appropriate dose adjustment, due to the proximity between their therapeutic and toxic ranges. The aim of this study was to carry out the synthesis, characterization and use of restricted access carbon nanotubes (RACNTs) in an online method for the analyses of phenobarbital and carbamazepine and primidone from untreated human blood plasma by column switching liquid chromatography...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416298/-epicutaneous-patch-testing-in-delayed-drug-hypersensitivity-reactions-induced-by-antiepileptic-drugs
#4
Lobna Ben Mahmoud, Najla Bahloul, Hanen Ghozzi, Brahim Kammoun, Ahmed Hakim, Zouheir Sahnoun, Sami Kammoun, Khaled Zeghal
INTRODUCTION: Antiepileptic drugs are widely used and are associated with numerous side effects including skin eruptions. Epicutaneous tests have been used with variable success in skin drug reactions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the profitability of epicutaneous tests in delayed hypersensitivity reactions induced by antiepileptic drugs. METHODS: We analyzed all cases of allergic skin reactions to antiepileptic drugs notified in regional pharmacovigilance center of Sfax (Tunisia) between June 1, 2014 and April 30, 2016...
March 25, 2017: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414157/commiphora-molmol-resin-attenuates-diethylnitrosamine-phenobarbital-induced-hepatocarcinogenesis-by-modulating-oxidative-stress-inflammation-angiogenesis-and-nrf2-are-ho-1-signaling
#5
Ayman M Mahmoud, Amr R Zaki, Manal E Hassan, Gomaa Mostafa-Hedeab
The objective of the current study was to investigate the possible chemopreventive activity of Commiphora molmol resin (myrrh) extract using a rat model of diethylnitrosamine (DEN)/phenobarbital (PB)-induced early stage hepatocarcinogenesis. Here, we pointed to the modulatory effect of myrrh on oxidative stress, angiogenesis, inflammation and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). Hepatocarcinogenesis was induced in Wistar rats using DEN for initiation and PB as a promoting agent. The rats received 125 or 250 mg/kg C...
April 14, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410462/health-service-provision-for-people-with-epilepsy-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-situational-review
#6
REVIEW
Musa M Watila, Mark R Keezer, Samuel A Angwafor, Andrea S Winkler, Josemir W Sander
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where many people with the condition receive no treatment. Health-care services for epilepsy in this region have not been comprehensively assessed. We examined key features of epilepsy health services provided in SSA. METHODOLOGY: This was a scoping review conducted using pre-specified protocols. We implemented an electronic search strategy to identify relevant citations using PUBMED, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), African Index Medicus (AIM), Open Grey, Cochrane database, and Google Scholar...
April 11, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407406/phenobarbital-in-intensive-care-unit-pediatric-population-predictive-performances-of-population-pharmacokinetic-model
#7
Amélie Marsot, Fabrice Michel, Estelle Chasseloup, Olivier Paut, Romain Guilhaumou, Olivier Blin
An external evaluation of phenobarbital population pharmacokinetic model described by Marsot et al. was performed in pediatric intensive care unit. Model evaluation is an important issue for dose adjustment. This external evaluation should allow confirming the proposed dosage adaptation and extending these recommendations to the entire intensive care pediatric population. External evaluation of phenobarbital published population pharmacokinetic model of Marsot et al. was realized in a new retrospective dataset of 35 patients hospitalized in a pediatric intensive care unit...
April 13, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399085/-the-development-of-the-method-for-enzymatic-hydrolysis-for-the-extraction-of-toxic-substances-from-the-hair-samples
#8
Yu V Slustovskaya, M V Krys'ko, O Yu Strelova
The objective of the present study was to develop and validate the method for the extraction of toxic substances from the hair samples as exemplified by enzymatic hydrolysis of barbituric acid derivatives. The experiments were carried out with the use of laboratory animals (white female rats and albino guinea pigs) that had been daily given a phenobarbital solution per os during 4 months preceding the study. The hairs obtained from the experimental animals were subjected to acid hydrolysis with a 6 mole hydrochloric acid and enzymatic hydrolysis with the use of chymopsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and papain solutions...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393244/constitutive-androstane-receptor-activation-promotes-bilirubin-clearance-in-a-murine-model-of-alcoholic-liver-disease
#9
Xiuyan Wang, Liyu Zheng, Jinming Wu, Binbin Tang, Mengqin Zhang, Debin Zhu, Xianfan Lin
Increased plasma levels of bilirubin have been reported in rat models and patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a known xenobiotic receptor, which induces the detoxification and transport of bilirubin. In the present study, the bilirubin transport regulatory mechanisms, and the role of CAR activation in hepatic and extrahepatic bilirubin clearance were investigated in a murine model of ALD. The mice were fed a Lieber-DeCarli ethanol diet or an isocaloric control diet for 4 weeks, followed by the administration of CAR agonists, 1,4-bis-[2‑(3,5-dichlorpyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) and phenobarbital (PB), and their vehicles to examine the effect of the pharmacological activation of CAR on serum levels of bilirubin and on the bilirubin clearance pathway in ALD by serological survey, western blotting and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
April 4, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386818/potential-risk-factors-for-vitamin-d-levels-in-medium-and-long-term-use-of-antiepileptic-drugs-in-childhood
#10
Edibe Pempegül Yildiz, Şükran Poyrazoglu, Gonca Bektas, Aslı Derya Kardelen, Nur Aydinli
Antiepileptic drugs (AED) have potential side effects through vitamin-D. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and potential risk factors for the longitudinal changes of vitamin D levels compared to its baseline levels under AED treatment were investigated in this study. This retrospective study includes patients whose AED therapy were started in only autumn months, between 2000 and 2014. Detailed assessment of neurologic diagnosis and brain MRI findings, ambulatory status, types and durations of AED treatment, and baseline bone health blood tests (vitamin-D, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, and phosphate levels) were obtained on all patients...
April 6, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380244/suppositories-for-fever-as-a-major-risk-for-phenobarbital-induced-fixed-drug-eruption-in-children
#11
E Özkaya, A Kutlay
Phenobarbital, an anticonvulsant agent, is a well-known cause of fixed drug eruption (FDE) in patients with epilepsy. In paediatric population without epilepsy however, phenobarbital-induced FDE is only rarely reported, and exclusively from its use in suppositories for fever. It is included in suppositories, along with acetaminophen or acetyl salicylic acid, because of its sedative properties, and to prevent febrile seizures in children. We herein report two children with FDE from phenobarbital-containing suppositories in order to point out to this uncommon but important side effect of suppositories for fever...
April 5, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356313/phenobarbital-meets-phosphorylation-of-nuclear-receptors
#12
Masahiko Negishi
Phenobarbital was the first therapeutic drug to be characterized for its induction of hepatic drug metabolism. Essentially at the same time, cytochrome P450, an enzyme that metabolizes drugs, was discovered. After nearly 50 years of investigation, the molecular target of phenobarbital induction has now been delineated to phosphorylation at threonine 38 of the constitutive androstane receptor (NR1I3), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Determining this mechanism has provided us with the molecular basis to understand drug induction of drug metabolism and disposition...
May 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331645/propylene-glycol-toxicity-in-adolescent-with-refractory-myoclonic-status-epilepticus
#13
Kara A Bjur, Bryan C Cannon, Anthony L Fine, Matthew J Ritter, Kerry E Schueler, Michael E Nemergut
Propylene glycol (PG) is a solvent commonly used in medications that, while benign at low doses, may cause toxicity in adults and children at high doses. We describe a case and the physiologic sequelae of propylene glycol toxicity manifested in a critically ill adolescent male with refractory myoclonic status epilepticus aggressively treated with multiple PG-containing medications (lorazepam, phenobarbital, and pentobarbital)-all within accepted dosing guidelines and a total daily PG exposure previously recognized to be safe...
2017: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328763/induration-at-injection-or-infusion-site-may-reduce-bioavailability-of-parenteral-phenobarbital-administration
#14
Hirokazu Nakayama, Hirotoshi Echizen, Ryuichi Ogawa, Atsuya Akabane, Toshiaki Kato, Takao Orii
BACKGROUND: Phenobarbital is well tolerated and effective for controlling agitation or preventing convulsion at the end of life. No information is available concerning parenteral bioavailability of phenobarbital when induration develops at injection or infusion site. We investigated whether induration at injection or infusion site is related to phenobarbital bioavailability via parenteral routes of continuous subcutaneous infusion and intermittent subcutaneous or intramuscular injection...
March 21, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315722/risk-mitigation-for-children-exposed-to-drugs-during-gestation-a-critical-role-for-animal-preclinical-behavioral-testing
#15
REVIEW
Irving Zucker
Many drugs with unknown safety profiles are administered to pregnant women, placing their offspring at risk. I assessed whether behavioral outcomes for children exposed during gestation to antidepressants, anxiolytics, anti-seizure, analgesic, anti-nausea and sedative medications can be predicted by more extensive animal studies than are part of the FDA approval process. Human plus rodent data were available for only 8 of 33 CNS-active drugs examined. Similar behavioral and cognitive deficits, including autism and ADHD emerged in human offspring and in animal models of these disorders after exposure to fluoxetine, valproic acid, carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital and acetaminophen...
March 16, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298240/interstrain-differences-in-the-expression-and-activity-of-cyp2a5-in-the-mouse-liver
#16
Katia S Poça, Thiago E M Parente, Lucas F Chagas, Bruna S Leal, Hellen S Leal, Francisco J R Paumgartten, Ana C A X De-Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P450 2A5 (Cyp2a5), a mouse enzyme orthologous of human CYP2A6, catalyzes a number of toxicologically important reactions, including the metabolism of nicotine, aflatoxin B1, and several other xeno- and endobiotics. Cyp2a5 expression is complex and not yet fully understood. We investigated inter-strain differences in the activity and mRNA expression of hepatic Cyp2a5. Cyp1a1/2 and Cyp2b9/10 activities were evaluated for comparative purposes. Data on the interstrain differences in the expression and activity of Cyp2a5 are important to select a suitable mouse model for studying CYP2A6-mediated metabolism...
March 15, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290134/animal-models-of-seizures-and-epilepsy-past-present-and-future-role-for-the-discovery-of-antiseizure-drugs
#17
Wolfgang Löscher
The identification of potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of epilepsy requires the use of seizure models. Except for some early treatments, including bromides and phenobarbital, the antiseizure activity of all clinically used drugs was, for the most part, defined by acute seizure models in rodents using the maximal electroshock and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole seizure tests and the electrically kindled rat. Unfortunately, the clinical evidence to date would suggest that none of these models, albeit useful, are likely to identify those therapeutics that will effectively manage patients with drug resistant seizures...
March 13, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287069/ictus-emeticus-presenting-as-an-unusual-seizure-type-in-chromosome-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#18
Pi-Lien Hung, Li-Tung Huang, Shang-Yeong Kwan, Kai-Ping Chang, Hsin-Hung Chen, Yi-Yen Lee, Hueng-Chuen Fan, Chien Chen
We present a case study of a patient with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome presenting with ictus emeticus, together with a review of the relevant literature. The patient developed generalized tonic-clonic seizures at 3 months old, and seizures eventually remitted after calcium therapy. He then experienced vigorous vomiting that occurred during sleep, with glassy eyes and legs flexion. Video-EEG recordings exhibited a switch in background activity from organized reactivity during normal sleep to left lateralized temporal delta activity, which was bilaterally synchronized during an emetic attack...
March 1, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281491/status-epilepticus-refractory-and-super-refractory
#19
REVIEW
Deepanshu Dubey, Jayantee Kalita, Usha K Misra
Status epilepticus (SE) is an important neurological emergency. It is defined as seizures lasting for 5 minutes or more or recurrent seizures without recovery of consciousness to baseline between the attacks. Refractory SE (RSE) is defined as SE persisting despite sufficient dose of benzodiazepines and at least one antiepileptic drug (AED), irrespective of time. Super refractory SE (SRSE) is defined as SE that continues for 24 hours or more after the use of anesthetic therapy, including cases that recur on weaning of the anesthestic agent...
2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280887/brivaracetam-population-pharmacokinetics-in-children-with-epilepsy-aged-1%C3%A2-month-to-16%C3%A2-years
#20
Rik Schoemaker, Janet R Wade, Armel Stockis
PURPOSE: The aims of the study were to develop a population pharmacokinetic model of orally administered brivaracetam in paediatric patients and to provide dosing suggestions. METHODS: Analysis included 600 brivaracetam plasma concentrations from a phase 2a study (NCT00422422; N01263) in 96 paediatric patients with epilepsy aged 1 month to 16 years, taking one to three concomitant antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using non-linear mixed effects modelling, and a stepwise covariate search was used to determine factors influencing brivaracetam clearance...
March 9, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
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