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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911381/a-novel-approach-for-the-administration-of-medications-and-fluids-in-emergency-scenarios-and-settings
#1
Akilesh Honasoge, Neal Lyons, Kathleen Hesse, Braden Parker, Robert Mokszycki, Kelly Wesselhoff, Rolla Sweis, Erik B Kulstad
The available routes of administration commonly used for medications and fluids in the acute care setting are generally limited to oral, intravenous, or intraosseous routes, but in many patients, particularly in the emergency or critical care settings, these routes are often unavailable or time-consuming to access. A novel device is now available that offers an easy route for administration of medications or fluids via rectal mucosal absorption (also referred to as proctoclysis in the case of fluid administration and subsequent absorption)...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890824/evaluating-a-switch-from-meconium-to-umbilical-cord-tissue-for-newborn-drug-testing-a-retrospective-study-at-an-academic-medical-center
#2
Kendra L Palmer, Kelly E Wood, Matthew D Krasowski
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to compare detection rates of newborn drug exposure at an academic medical center transitioning from meconium to umbilical cord tissue toxicology testing. METHODS: We performed an Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective chart review on all newborns (n=2072) for whom newborn drug testing was ordered at our academic medical center between June 2012 and August 2015 (in August 2013, umbilical cord tissue became the preferred specimen)...
November 24, 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890484/25-years-of-advances-in-definition-classification-and-treatment-of-status-epilepticus
#3
Eugen Trinka, Reetta Kälviäinen
PURPOSE: Status epilepticus (SE) requires not only urgent symptomatic treatment with antiepileptic drugs but also rapid identification and treatment of its cause. This narrative review summarizes the most important advances in classification and treatment of SE. METHOD: Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, and back tracking of references in pertinent studies, reviews, and books. RESULTS: SE is now defined as "a condition resulting either from the failure of the mechanisms responsible for seizure termination or from the initiation of mechanisms, which lead to abnormally, prolonged seizures (after time point t1)...
November 14, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889497/in-vivo-effect-of-borneol-on-rat-hepatic-cyp2b-expression-and-activity
#4
Jing-Ya Chen, Xiang-Tao Huang, Jun-Jun Wang, Yong Chen
CYP2B subfamily accounts for 2-10% of total hepatic CYP450 enzymes and participate in the metabolism of around 8% of clinical drugs. Borneol has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. There are many studies about borneol-induced promoting penetration role for a number of drugs through various physiologic barriers, whereas there is no report involved the effect of borneol on hepatic CYP2B. The present work studied the in vivo effect of borneol on the expression and activity of rat hepatic CYP2B...
November 23, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888155/significant-hla-class-i-type-associations-with-aromatic-antiepileptic-drug-aed-induced-sjs-ten-are-different-from-those-found-for-the-same-aed-induced-dress-in-the-spanish-population
#5
Elena Ramírez, Teresa Bellón, Hoi Y Tong, Alberto M Borobia, Francisco J de Abajo, Victoria Lerma, Miguel A Moreno Hidalgo, José L Castañer, Rosario Cabañas, Ana Fiandor, Jessica González-Ramos, Pedro Herranz, Lucía Cachafeiro, Carlos González-Herrada, Olga González, José A Aramburu, Olga Laosa, Rafael Hernández, Antonio J Carcas, Jesús Frías
Aromatic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are among the drugs most frequently involved in severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), and drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). This study investigated the associations between the genetic polymorphisms of HLA class-I and AED-induced SCARs in the Spanish population. HLA class-I genotypes were determined in AED (phenytoin[PHT],lamotrigine[LTG],carbamazepine[CBZ],phenobarbital[PB])-induced SJS/TEN (n=15) or DRESS (n=12) cases included in the Spanish SCAR registry, PIELenRed...
November 22, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882170/acute-encephalitis-with-refractory-repetitive-partial-seizures-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#6
Bin Zhang, Lin Wang
A male 46 year-old patient was admitted to the Emergency Intensive Care Unit of Qinghai Provincial People's Hospital (Xining, China) in December 2008 with complaints of a headache and fever that had lasted for three days. In addition, the patient had experienced two general convulsions accompanied with consciousness disorders for 7 h. Although the patient's clinical manifestations, laboratory tests and cerebrospinal fluid examinations were consistent with numerous features associated with acute encephalitis, the patient's clinical course was different to that of acute encephalitis, and the prognosis was poor...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878767/phenobarbital-versus-valproate-for-generalized-convulsive-status-epilepticus-in-adults-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-trial-in-china
#7
Yingying Su, Gang Liu, Fei Tian, Guoping Ren, Mengdi Jiang, Brian Chun, Yunzhou Zhang, Yan Zhang, Hong Ye, Daiquan Gao, Weibi Chen
OBJECTIVE: Although generalized convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE) is a life-threatening emergency, evidence-based data to guide initial drug treatment choices are lacking in the Chinese population. We conducted this prospective, randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the relative efficacy and safety of intravenous phenobarbital and valproate in patients with GCSE. METHODS: After the failure of first-line diazepam treatment, Chinese adult patients with GCSE were randomized to receive either intravenous phenobarbital (standard doses, low rate) or valproate (standard)...
November 23, 2016: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876397/efficacy-of-sodium-channel-blockers-in-scn2a-early-infantile-epileptic-encephalopathy
#8
Robertino Dilena, Pasquale Striano, Elena Gennaro, Laura Bassi, Sara Olivotto, Laura Tadini, Fabio Mosca, Sergio Barbieri, Federico Zara, Monica Fumagalli
BACKGROUND: Recent clinical evidence supports a targeted therapeutic approach for genetic epileptic encephalopathies based on the molecular dysfunction. PATIENT DESCRIPTION: A 2-day-old male infant presented with epileptic encephalopathy characterized by burst-suppression EEG background and tonic-clonic migrating partial seizures. The condition was refractory to phenobarbital, pyridoxine, pyridoxal phosphate and levetiracetam, but a dramatic response to an intravenous loading dose of phenytoin was documented by video-EEG monitoring...
November 19, 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875747/new-model-of-pharmacoresistant-seizures-induced-by-3-mercaptopropionic-acid-in-mice
#9
Andrea Enrique, Sofía Goicoechea, Rocío Castaño, Facundo Taborda, Luisa Rocha, Sandra Orozco, Elena Girardi, Luis Bruno Blanch
About 30% of the patients with epilepsy do not respond to clinically established anticonvulsants, despite having effective concentrations of the antiepileptic drug in plasma. Therefore, new preclinical models of epilepsy are needed to identify more efficacious treatments. We describe here a new drug-resistant seizure model in mice to be used at the early stages of pre-clinical trials. This model consists in inducing daily generalized seizures for 23 consecutive days by administration of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MP)...
October 27, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872177/levetiracetam-for-the-treatment-of-seizures-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#10
Charu Venkatesan, Sarah Young, Mark Schapiro, Cameron Thomas
The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of levetiracetam in treatment of neonatal seizures due to hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Seizures often persist in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy despite phenobarbital. A retrospective single-center study was conducted in neonates ≥36 weeks gestation with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. A total of 127 neonates were identified born 2008-2015. Clinical seizures occurred in 83 infants. Fifty-one neonates (61%) had cessation of seizures with only phenobarbital...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850526/888-is-oral-phenobarbital-a-safe-and-effective-alternative-to-oral-chloral-hydrate
#11
Sajal Patel, Jordan Anderson, Esma Birisci, Martha Smith, Abdallah Dalabih
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850144/504-phenobarbital-versus-benzodiazepines-in-the-treatment-of-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome
#12
Douglas Hsu, John Marshall, George Abdallah, Randy Hollins, Peter Clardy, Michael Donnino, Kenneth Mukamal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843822/impact-of-antiepileptic-drugs-on-bone-health-need-for-monitoring-treatment-and-prevention-strategies
#13
REVIEW
Ekta Arora, Harmanjit Singh, Yogendra Kumar Gupta
Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder affecting approximately 50 million people worldwide. In India, overall prevalence of epilepsy is reported to be 5.59/1000 population. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) constitute the main-stay of treatment with a large number of AEDs available in the market. High incidence of adverse effects is a major limitation with AEDs. One of the major concerns is significant metabolic effects on the bone. However, little attention has been paid to this issue because most of the bone effects remain subclinical for a long time and may take years to manifest clinically...
April 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843704/association-between-antiepileptic-drugs-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-patients-with-epilepsy-a-population-based-case-control-study
#14
Dong-Zong Hung, Cheng-Li Lin, Yi-Wen Li, Yen-Ning Lin, Ying-Ray Lee, Charles-C N Wang, Jih-Jung Chen, Yun-Ping Lim
BACKGROUND: This study explored whether antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) use increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: We conducted a case-control study using data from the National Health Insurance system of Taiwan. The case group comprised 1,454 epilepsy patients with newly diagnosed HCC, and the control group comprised 1,448 epilepsy patients without HCC. Both groups had similar distributions of sex and age, and follow-up duration. Possible associations with the AEDs in Taiwan were examined...
November 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842484/strong-induction-of-cytochrome-p450-1a-3a-but-not-p450-2b-in-cultured-hepatocytes-from-common-marmosets-and-cynomolgus-monkeys-by-typical-human-p450-inducing-agents
#15
Shotaro Uehara, Yasuhiro Uno, Takako Suzuki, Takashi Inoue, Masahiro Utoh, Erika Sasaki, Hiroshi Yamazaki
BACKGROUND: Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) and cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) are used as non-human primate models in preclinical studies for drug development. OBJECTIVE: The assessment of P450 induction in hepatocytes from marmosets and cynomolgus monkeys was performed using typical P450 inducers. METHODS: Induction of cytochrome P450 1-4 family enzymes was analyzed in two lots of cultured hepatocytes from common marmosets and cynomolgus monkeys after 24-h treatment with typical human P450 inducing agents by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction...
November 14, 2016: Drug Metabolism Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832320/activation-of-nuclear-receptor-car-by-an-environmental-pollutant-perfluorooctanoic-acid
#16
Taiki Abe, Mirei Takahashi, Makoto Kano, Yuto Amaike, Chizuru Ishii, Kazuhiro Maeda, Yuki Kudoh, Toru Morishita, Takuomi Hosaka, Takamitsu Sasaki, Susumu Kodama, Atsushi Matsuzawa, Hiroyuki Kojima, Kouichi Yoshinari
Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are environmental pollutants showing high accumulation, thermochemical stability and hepatocarcinogenicity. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α is suggested to mediate their toxicities, but the precise mechanism remains unclear. Previous reports also imply a possible role of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), a key transcription factor for the xenobiotic-induced expression of various genes involved in drug metabolism and disposition as well as hepatocarcinogenesis...
November 10, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831551/changing-antiepileptic-drug-use-for-seizures-in-us-neonatal-intensive-care-units-from-2005-to-2014
#17
K A Ahmad, S J Desai, M M Bennett, S F Ahmad, Y-T Ng, R H Clark, V N Tolia
OBJECTIVE: Neonatal seizures are a common problem in the neonatal intensive care unit and are frequently treated with antiepileptic drugs. Limited data exist on current or changing antiepileptic drug use for seizures in the neonatal intensive care unit.We sought to describe trends of antiepileptic drug exposure in a large volume of US neonatal intensive care unit from 2005 to 2014 and we hypothesized increasing levetiracetam exposure over the 10-year study period. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of infants from the Pediatrix Medical Group Clinical Data Warehouse, a large, multicenter, deidentified data set...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829821/enhanced-nmr-discrimination-of-pharmaceutically-relevant-molecular-crystal-forms-through-fragment-based-ab-initio-chemical-shift-predictions
#18
Joshua D Hartman, Graeme M Day, Gregory J O Beran
Chemical shift prediction plays an important role in the determination or validation of crystal structures with solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. One of the fundamental theoretical challenges lies in discriminating variations in chemical shifts resulting from different crystallographic environments. Fragment-based electronic structure methods provide an alternative to the widely used plane wave gauge-including projector augmented wave (GIPAW) density functional technique for chemical shift prediction...
November 2, 2016: Crystal Growth & Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819746/monotherapy-treatment-of-epilepsy-in-pregnancy-congenital-malformation-outcomes-in-the-child
#19
REVIEW
Jennifer Weston, Rebecca Bromley, Cerian F Jackson, Naghme Adab, Jill Clayton-Smith, Janette Greenhalgh, Juliet Hounsome, Andrew J McKay, Catrin Tudur Smith, Anthony G Marson
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that certain antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are teratogenic and are associated with an increased risk of congenital malformation. The majority of women with epilepsy continue taking AEDs throughout pregnancy; therefore it is important that comprehensive information on the potential risks associated with AED treatment is available. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of prenatal exposure to AEDs on the prevalence of congenital malformations in the child...
November 7, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806795/-infantile-cholestasis-caused-by-cftr-mutation-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
L Li, N L Wang, J Y Gong, J S Wang
Objective: To study the clinical presentation, biochemical features and genetic analysis of an infant with cholestasis related to the CFTR mutations. Method: The clinical presentation, laboratory investigations and management of a case with infantile cholestasis caused by CFTR mutations were summarized and the relevant literature was reviewed. Result: (1) The patient was a 5 months old boy with cholestasis which developed in neonatal period with delayed meconium exclusion.The laparoscopic exploration was performed to exclude biliary atresia because of acholic stool when he was two months old...
November 2, 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
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