Read by QxMD icon Read


Militiadis A Makrygiannakis, Eleftherios G Kaklamanos, Athanasios E Athanasiou
Background: As the taking of any medication may theoretically affect the complex pathways responsible for periodontal tissue homeostasis and the events leading to orthodontic tooth movement, it is considered important for the orthodontist to be able to identify prospective patients' history and patterns of pharmaceutical consumption. Objective: To systematically investigate and appraise the quality of the available evidence regarding the effect of commonly prescribed medications on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Orthodontics
Elizabeth Yen, Jonathan M Davis
Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a constellation of withdrawal symptoms in infants born to mothers with chronic opioid use during pregnancy. A proportion of infants will need pharmacotherapy in addition to non-pharmacological interventions. In this article, we reviewed a clinical trial comparing the use of sublingual buprenorphine to oral morphine (the most widely used pharmacotherapy for NAS) in term infants. The primary end point was the duration of treatment, and secondary end points were the length of hospital stay, the proportion of infants who needed supplemental phenobarbital, and safety...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Olcay Güngör, Ahmet Kağan Özkaya, Fatih Temiz
The aim of this study was to evaluate the thyroid function alterations in a group of epileptic children taking antiepileptic drugs. The study included a total of 183 pediatric epilepsy patients, aged 15 months-16 years, comprising 114 patients treated with valproic acid, 69 patients treated with phenobarbital, and 151 age-matched healthy volunteers as the control group. Serum levels of thyroid hormones were measured before the beginning of the antiepileptic therapy and after 12 months of treatment. Thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were significantly higher in the 12th month of phenobarbital and valproic acid treatment...
March 5, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Marios Charalambous, Akos Pakozdy, Sofie F M Bhatti, Holger A Volk
BACKGROUND: Understanding the efficacy and safety profile of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in feline epilepsy is a crucial consideration for managing this important brain disease. However, there is a lack of information about the treatment of feline epilepsy and therefore a systematic review was constructed to assess current evidence for the AEDs' efficacy and tolerability in cats. The methods and materials of our former systematic reviews in canine epilepsy were mostly mirrored for the current systematic review in cats...
March 2, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Mila Lovrić, Ivana Čajić, Željka Petelin Gadže, Iva Klarica Domjanović, Nada Božina
AIM: To estimate the effect size of concomitant antiepileptic therapy on the concentrations of lamotrigine, a drug often prescribed in combination with other antiepileptic drugs (AED), which can act as enzyme inducers or inhibitors. METHODS: A total of 304 patients with epilepsy, aged 18-70 years, were divided into a lamotrigine monotherapy group and groups receiving lamotrigine with AEDs that act as enzyme inducers, enzyme inhibitors, or both. We compared lamotrigine monotherapy serum concentrations with those where lamotrigine was administered with a metabolic inhibitor valproate, metabolic inducers carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, or topiramate, and both an inducer and an inhibitor...
February 28, 2018: Croatian Medical Journal
Yoonsun Mo, Michael C Thomas, Corey S Laskey, Natalia Shcherbakova, Megan L Bankert, Robert H Halloran
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine current practice patterns surrounding the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in the Northeast region of the United States. Methods: A survey questionnaire with several treatment options related to current practice in the management of AWS was developed. All hospitals with 100 beds or more located in the Northeast region were selected, and 512 surveys were mailed to pharmacy directors of those hospitals...
March 2018: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
M Crettenand, A O Rossetti, T Buclin, U Winterfeld
BACKGROUND: Knowledge about the passage of various antiepileptic drugs into breast milk and its consequences for the infant is limited. Faced with this uncertainty, breastfeeding is often discouraged for these patients. The aim of this study was to comprehensively review the available data regarding antiepileptic drugs during breastfeeding, to compare these data with information provided by the summary of product characteristics (SmPCs), and to provide recommendations for the use of these drugs in breastfeeding women...
February 27, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Krista L Dobo, Jennifer R Cheung, William C Gunther, Michelle O Kenyon
2-Hydroxypyridine-N-oxide (HOPO) is a useful coupling reagent for synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients. It has been reported to be weakly mutagenic in the Ames assay (Ding W et al. []: J Chromatogr A 1386:47-52). According to the ICH M7 guidance (2014) regarding control of mutagenic impurities to limit potential carcinogenic risk, mutagens require control in drug substances such that exposure not exceeds the threshold of toxicological concern. Given the weak response observed in the Ames assay and the lack of any obvious structural features that could confer DNA reactivity we were interested to determine if the results were reproducible and investigate the role of potentially confounding experimental parameters...
February 26, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Karen S Ho, Leah M Markham, Hope Twede, Amanda Lortz, Lenora M Olson, Xiaoming Sheng, Cindy Weng, E Robert Wassman, Tara Newcomb, E Robert Wassman, John C Carey, Agatino Battaglia
Seizures are present in over 90% of infants and children with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS). When present, they significantly affect quality of life. The goal of this study was to use caregiver reports to describe the comparative efficacies of commonly used antiepileptic medications in a large population of individuals with WHS. A web-based, confidential caregiver survey was developed to capture seizure semiology and a chronologic record of seizure treatments as well as responses to each treatment. Adverse events for each drug were also cataloged...
February 22, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Satoshi Koyama, Hiroshi Arakawa, Manabu Itoh, Norio Masuda, Kentaro Yano, Hajime Kojima, Takuo Ogihara
The NanoCulture Plate (NCP) is a novel microstructural plate designed as a base for the three-dimensional culture of cells/tissues. Here, we examined whether or not the metabolic capability of human primary hepatocytes is well maintained during culture on NCPs. The hepatocytes formed aggregates after seeding and their ATP content was well maintained during culture for 21 days. Expression of CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A4 mRNAs was detected throughout the 21-day culture period. Addition of CYP substrate drugs (midazolam, diclofenac, lamotrigine and acetaminophen) resulted in the formation of multiple metabolites with a corresponding decrease in the amounts of the unchanged compounds...
February 22, 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Vahid Azizi, Farzin Allahyari, Abdolkarim Hosseini
AIMS: The genus Buxus grows up widespread in Europe and Western Asia. It is an important traditional plant has been used in the treatment of many illnesses. In the present study, the effect of hydroethanolic extract of Buxus hyrcana Pojark (BHP) on the animal model of seizure was studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, forty-two male Wistar rats weighing 220-250 g were randomly selected and were divided into experimental and control groups (6 rats per group)...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Lars Skou Elkjær, Bodil Hammer Bech, Yuelian Sun, Thomas Munk Laursen, Jakob Christensen
Importance: Valproate sodium is used for the treatment of epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders in women of childbearing potential. However, there are concerns about impaired cognitive development in children who have been exposed to valproate during pregnancy. Objective: To estimate the association between long-term school performance and prenatal exposure to valproate and a number of other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Design, Setting, and Participants: In a prospective, population-based cohort study conducted from August 1, 2015, to May 31, 2017, data used in the study were provided by Statistics Denmark on April 15, 2016...
February 19, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Philip K King, Trevor A Stump, Allyn M Walkama, Benjamin M Ash, Susana M Bowling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Xin Wang, Sys Stybe Johansen, Marie Katrine Klose Nielsen, Kristian Linnet
Hair can serve as a specimen for identifying past drug exposure. Segmental hair analysis may differentiate a single exposure from chronic use. Consequently, segmental hair analysis is useful for disclosing a single drug ingestion, as well as for determining repeated exposures in drug-facilitated crimes (DFCs). This paper presents an overview of toxicological investigations that have used hair analysis in DFC cases from 2009 to 2016 in Denmark. Hair concentrations were determined for 24 DFC-related drugs and metabolites, including benzodiazepines and other hypnotics, antihistamines, opioid analgesics, antipsychotics, barbiturates, and illicit drugs from DFC cases...
February 5, 2018: Forensic Science International
Zachary M Grinspan, Renée A Shellhaas, Jason Coryell, Joseph E Sullivan, Elaine C Wirrell, John R Mytinger, William D Gaillard, Eric H Kossoff, Ignacio Valencia, Kelly G Knupp, Courtney Wusthoff, Cynthia Keator, Nicole Ryan, Tobias Loddenkemper, Catherine J Chu, Edward J Novotny, John Millichap, Anne T Berg
Importance: More than half of infants with new-onset epilepsy have electroencephalographic and clinical features that do not conform to known electroclinical syndromes (ie, nonsyndromic epilepsy). Levetiracetam and phenobarbital are the most commonly prescribed medications for epilepsy in infants, but their comparative effectiveness is unknown. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of levetiracetam vs phenobarbital for nonsyndromic infantile epilepsy. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Early Life Epilepsy Study-a prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study conducted from March 1, 2012, to April 30, 2015, in 17 US medical centers-enrolled infants with nonsyndromic epilepsy and a first afebrile seizure between 1 month and 1 year of age...
February 12, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
John F Bowyer, Karen M Tranter, Sumit Sarkar, Joseph P Hanig
Thiamine/ vitamin B1 deficiency can lead to behavioral changes and neurotoxicity in humans. This may due in part to vascular damage, neuroinflammation and neuronal degeneration in the diencephalon, which is seen in animal models of pyrithiamine-enhanced thiamine deficiency. However, the time course of the progression of these changes in the animal models has been poorly characterized. Therefore, in this study, the progression of: 1) activated microglial association with vasculature; 2) neurodegeneration; and 3) any vascular leakage in the forebrain during the progress of thiamine deficiency were determined...
February 7, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Corinne Haines, Barbara M Elcombe, Lynsey R Chatham, Audrey Vardy, Larry G Higgins, Clifford R Elcombe, Brian G Lake
Phenobarbital (PB), a constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activator, produces liver tumours in rodents by a mitogenic mode of action involving CAR activation. In this study, the hepatic effects of sodium phenobarbital (NaPB) were compared in male C57BL/6J wild type (WT) mice and in humanized mice, where both the mouse CAR and pregnane X receptor (PXR) have been replaced by their human counterparts (hCAR/hPXR mice). Investigations were also performed in cultured male C57BL/6J and CD-1 mouse, male Sprague-Dawley rat and male and female human hepatocytes...
February 6, 2018: Toxicology
Corinne Haines, Lynsey R Chatham, Audrey Vardy, Clifford R Elcombe, John R Foster, Brian G Lake
1. The hepatic and thyroid gland effects of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activator sodium phenobarbital (NaPB) and the pregnane X receptor (PXR) activator pregnenolone-16α-carbonitrile (PCN) were examined in male Sprague-Dawley wild type (WT) and knockout (KO) rats lacking both hepatic CAR and PXR receptors (CAR KO/PXR KO rats). 2. The treatment of WT rats for 7 days with 500 ppm NaPB in the diet and 100 mg/kg/day PCN by gavage resulted in increased relative liver weight, hepatocyte hypertrophy, increased hepatocyte replicative DNA synthesis (RDS) and induction of cytochrome P450 CYP2B and CYP3A subfamily enzymes...
February 9, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Stefanie Endesfelder, Ulrike Weichelt, Cornelia Schiller, Katja Winter, Clarissa von Haefen, Christoph Bührer
In preterm infants, phenobarbital is the first-line antiepileptic drug for neonatal seizures while caffeine is used for the treatment of apnea. Data from experimental animals suggest that phenobarbital and other anticonvulsants are toxic for the developing brain, while neuroprotective effects have been reported for caffeine both in newborn rodents and preterm human infants. To characterize the interaction of phenobarbital and caffeine in the hippocampus of the developing rodent brain, we examined the effects of both drugs given separately or together on postnatal neurogenesis after administration to neonatal rats throughout postnatal day (P) 4 to P6...
February 7, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Shinichi Hikasa, Akihiro Sawada, Hitomi Seino, Shota Shimabukuro, Kyoko Hideta, Noriko Uwa, Satoshi Higasa, Tazuko Tokugawa, Takeshi Kimura
In this report, we describe a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patient in whom changes in phenobarbital (PB) dosage resulted in associated changes in plasma concentrations of dolutegravir (DTG). His plasma concentrations of DTG were 0.934, 0.584, 1.003 and 3.25 μg/mL, respectively, with concomitant daily PB doses of 40, 70, 30 and 0 mg, respectively. This case suggests that PB can lead to a remarkable reduction in the plasma concentration of DTG in a dose-dependent manner.
February 4, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"