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alcohol withdrawal syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925291/the-safety-and-utility-of-phenobarbital-use-for-the-treatment-of-severe-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome-in-the-medical-intensive-care-unit
#1
Margarita Oks, Krystal L Cleven, Lauren Healy, Mabel Wei, Mangala Narasimhan, Paul H Mayo, Nina Kohn, Seth Koenig
BACKGROUND: Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is a common reason for admission to a medical intensive care unit (MICU) and requires significant hospital resource utilization. Benzodiazepines are first-line therapy for AWS in many intensive care units. We propose the use of symptom-triggered phenobarbital for the treatment of AWS as a safe alternative to benzodiazepines. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study of a 4-year period, 2011 to 2015, of all patients with AWS admitted to the MICU of 1 tertiary care hospital and treated with phenobarbital...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800507/implementation-of-an-intensive-care-unit-specific-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome-management-protocol-reduces-the-need-for-mechanical-ventilation
#2
Jason J Heavner, Kathleen M Akgün, Mojdeh S Heavner, Claire C Eng, Matthew Drew, Peter Jackson, David Pritchard, Shyoko Honiden
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Alcohol use disorders are prevalent and put patients at risk for developing alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Treatment of AWS with a symptom-triggered protocol standardizes management and may avoid AWS-related complications. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether implementation of an intensive care unit (ICU)-specific, symptom-triggered protocol for management of AWS was associated with improved clinical outcomes and, in particular, would reduce the risk of patients with AWS requiring mechanical ventilation...
May 25, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760674/validation-of-a-spanish-questionnaire-on-mobile-phone-abuse
#3
María A Olivencia-Carrión, Isabel Ramírez-Uclés, Pablo Holgado-Tello, Francisca López-Torrecillas
Mobile phone addiction has attracted much attention recently and is showing similarity to other substance use disorders. Because no studies on mobile phone addiction had yet been conducted in Spain, we developed and validated a questionnaire (Cuestionario de Abuso del Teléfono Móvil, ATeMo) to measure mobile phone abuse among young adults in Spanish. The ATeMo questionnaire was designed based on relevant DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and included craving as a diagnostic symptom. Using stratified sampling, the ATeMo questionnaire was administered to 856 students (mean age 21, 62% women)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753371/cardiovascular-events-in-alcoholic-syndrome-with-alcohol-withdrawal-history-results-from-the-national-inpatient-sample
#4
Parasuram Krishnamoorthy, Aditi Kalla, Vincent M Figueredo
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies suggest reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) events with moderate alcohol consumption. However, heavy and binge drinking may be associated with higher CVD risk. Utilizing the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, we studied the association between a troublesome alcohol history (TAH), defined as those with diagnoses of both chronic alcohol syndrome and acute withdrawal history and CVD events. METHODS: Patients >18 years with diagnoses of both chronic alcohol syndrome and acute withdrawal using the International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Edition-Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes 303...
May 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735241/use-of-a-gabapentin-protocol-for-the-management-of-alcohol-withdrawal-a-preliminary-experience-expanding-from-the-consultation-liaison-psychiatry-service
#5
Jonathan G Leung, Daniela B Rakocevic, Nicholas D Allen, Elliot M Handler, Bruno A Perossa, Kristin L Borreggine, Amy L Stark, Hannah K Betcher, Daniel K Hosker, Blaine A Minton, Benjamin R Braus, Ross A Dierkhising, Kemuel L Philbrick
BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepines are the conventional mainstay to manage alcohol withdrawal; however, patients are subsequently at increased risk for poor sleep, cravings, and return to drinking. Research on alternative pharmacologic agents to facilitate safe alcohol withdrawal is scant. Gabapentin is one medication shown in small studies to reduce the need for benzodiazepines in the setting of alcohol withdrawal. The continuation of gabapentin after alcohol withdrawal appears to be safe during early sobriety and may aid in reducing alcohol-related cravings or returning to alcohol consumption...
March 21, 2018: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719204/drug-drug-interactions-in-the-treatment-for-alcohol-use-disorders-a-comprehensive-review
#6
REVIEW
Guerzoni Simona, Pellesi Lanfranco, Pini Luigi Alberto, Caputo Fabio
Drug interactions are one of the most common causes of side effects in polypharmacy. Alcoholics are a category of patients at high risk of pharmacological interactions, due to the presence of comorbidities, the concomitant intake of several medications and the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interferences of ethanol. However, the data available on this issue are limited. These reasons often frighten clinicians when prescribing appropriate pharmacological therapies for alcohol use disorder (AUD), where less than 15% of patients receive an appropriate treatment in the most severe forms...
April 29, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705711/alcohol-microbiome-and-their-effect-on-psychiatric-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Thomas Hillemacher, Oliver Bachmann, Kai G Kahl, Helge Frieling
There is accumulating evidence that alcohol consumption and especially alcohol withdrawal increase brain levels of known innate immune signaling molecules and cause neuroinflammation. It has been shown that microbiota play a pivotal role in this process and affect central neurochemistry and behavior. Disruption of or alterations in the intimate cross-talk between microbiome and brain may be a significant factor in many psychiatric disorders. Alterations in the composition of the microbiome, so called dysbiosis, may result in detrimental distortion of microbe-host homeostasis modulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis...
July 13, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689295/behavioral-and-biochemical-effects-of-ethanol-withdrawal-in-zebrafish
#8
Suianny Nayara da Silva Chaves, Gabriel Rocha Felício, Bruna Patrícia Dutra Costa, Witallo Etevaldo Araújo de Oliveira, Monica Gomes Lima-Maximino, Diógenes Henrique de Siqueira Silva, Caio Maximino
Chronic alcohol use induces adaptations and toxicity that can induce symptoms of anxiety, autonomic hyperarousal, and epileptic seizures when alcohol is removed (withdrawal syndrome). Zebrafish has recently gained wide attention as a behavioral model to study the neurobehavioral effects of acute and chronic alcohol use, including withdrawal. The literature, however, is very contradictory on findings regarding withdrawal effects, with some studies reporting increased anxiety, while others report no effect. A meta-analytic approach was taken to find the sources of this heterogeneity, and ethanol concentration during exposure and exposure duration were found to be the main sources of variation...
June 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658504/-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome-dynamics-during-treatment-with-nooclerin-deanoli-aceglumas
#9
T V Agibalova, O Zh Buzik, O V Rychkova, A V Smyshlyaev, V V Rumbesht
AIM: To study the efficacy of nooclerin (deanoli aceglumas) in alcohol withdrawal syndrome assessed by clinical and biochemical characteristics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A multicenter, open, randomized, comparative study of nooclerin in the complex treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome included 90 patients. The patients were randomized into nooclerin group (n=55) and control group (n=35). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Nooclerin reduced alcohol withdrawal symptoms more significantly throughout the whole study period...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604618/an-open-prospective-pilot-study-of-a-herbal-combination-relief-as-a-supportive-dietetic-measure-during-alcohol-withdrawal
#10
Kenza Mansoor, Fadi Qadan, Andreas Hinum, Caroline Schneider, Klaus Hechenbichler, Mathias Schmidt, Georg Linsinger, Khalid Matalka
OBJECTIVE: A herbal combination (saffron extract, passion flower herb extract, cocoa seed extract, radish extract and black cumin extract) called "Relief" was designed as a supportive therapy of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). This combination was based on the scientific evidence of each constituent effect on AWS-like symptoms. In addition, our preclinical studies have shown the effectiveness of Relief on AWS detoxification. The rationale of the study was to document whether the oral intake of the designed content of Relief could have a positive effect on the course of alcohol detoxification by reducing some of the AWS in hospitalized patients...
March 27, 2018: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595541/co-administration-of-amphetamine-with-alcohol-results-in-decreased-alcohol-withdrawal-severity-in-adolescent-rats
#11
Shayna Popkin, Alex Nanchanatt, Madelyn I Mauterer, Dennis E Rhoads
Simultaneous use of stimulants and alcohol is a growing problem, particularly among older adolescents already prone to binge alcohol consumption. Adolescent rats consume high levels of alcohol when administered in a liquid diet and develop a strong alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We exploited this system to administer amphetamine in combination with alcohol and to test the effect of co-administration of amphetamine on alcohol withdrawal-induced hypoactivity and overall withdrawal severity. The presence of dietary amphetamine (≤40 mg/l) had no effect on consumption of control or alcohol-containing diets...
March 27, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593851/acupuncture-for-alcohol-use-disorder
#12
Pei Chen, Jing Li, Xiao Han, Dennis Grech, Ming Xiong, Alex Bekker, Jiang-Hong Ye
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a common medical and social problem, affecting about 240 million people in the world. To address this major health concern, the currently available treatments for AUD need to be improved. Acupuncture, a popular form of complementary and alternative therapy, is emerging as an effective treatment for AUD. This review summarizes how preclinical and clinical studies are related to the application of acupuncture for AUD. These studies suggest that if used correctly, acupuncture may effectively reduce alcohol intake, attenuate alcohol withdrawal syndrome, and rebalance AUD-induced maladaptation in neurotransmitters and hormones in related brain areas...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574507/new-steps-for-treating-alcohol-use-disorder
#13
REVIEW
Erin J Campbell, Andrew J Lawrence, Christina J Perry
Alcohol use disorder is a complex syndrome with multiple treatment points including drug-induced pathology, withdrawal management, behavioral/cognitive strategies, and relapse prevention. These different components may be complicated by genotype and phenotype. A huge milestone for the treatment of alcohol use disorder across several countries in the last 10 years was the introduction of practice guidelines integrating clinical expertise and research evidence. These provide a summary of interventions that have been shown to be effective following rigorous and replicated clinical trials...
June 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573476/the-multidisciplinary-support-in-preventing-alcohol-relapse-after-liver-transplantation-a-single-center-experience
#14
Maria Luisa Attilia, Barbara Lattanzi, Roberta Ledda, Anna Maria Galli, Alessio Farcomeni, Claudia Rotondo, Vincenza Di Gregorio, Gianluca Mennini, Edoardo Poli, Fabio Attilia, Stefano Ginanni Corradini, Massimo Rossi, Manuela Merli
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) represents a frequent indication for liver transplantation (LT). Since 2004, we have adopted a program of multidisciplinary support(MS) to assist patients undergoing LT for ALD. We aimed at analyzing the relapse rate and the risk factors for relapse. The relapse rate was also compared with that of a historical group of patients who underwent transplantation. Their survival rate was also analyzed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with ALD transplanted from 2004 were included...
March 24, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543325/pharmacological-interventions-for-benzodiazepine-discontinuation-in-chronic-benzodiazepine-users
#15
REVIEW
Lone Baandrup, Bjørn H Ebdrup, Jesper Ø Rasmussen, Jane Lindschou, Christian Gluud, Birte Y Glenthøj
BACKGROUND: Prolonged treatment with benzodiazepines is common practice despite clinical recommendations of short-term use. Benzodiazepines are used by approximately 4% of the general population, with increased prevalence in psychiatric populations and the elderly. After long-term use it is often difficult to discontinue benzodiazepines due to psychological and physiological dependence. This review investigated if pharmacological interventions can facilitate benzodiazepine tapering. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pharmacological interventions to facilitate discontinuation of chronic benzodiazepine use...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529713/routine-screening-and-related-interventions-significantly-improve-the-effectiveness-of-emergency-department-detection-and-management-of-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome
#16
Julia M Lappin, Muhammad H Ayub, David Rogers, Madeleine Morgan, Jean-Yves Kanyamibwa, Anthony Shakeshaft
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a routine screening and triage tool for alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in improving clinical care delivery in an ED setting. METHODS: In a regional ED in Australia, a screening and triage tool for AWS was introduced to routine ED assessment for a 13 week period. Subjects were all presentations to ED aged 16 and above with relevant presenting problems during the pre-intervention phase (1 January 2015-31 December 2016) and the post-intervention phase (8 August 2016-4 November 2016)...
March 12, 2018: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517626/weekend-effect-in-acute-pancreatitis-related-hospital-admissions-in-the-united-states-an-analysis-of-the-nationwide-inpatient-sample
#17
Prabin Sharma, Rodrigo Aguilar, Mark Abi Nader, Shaheryar Siddiqui, Ramkaji Baniya, Sanjeeb Sudarshan Bhandari, Carmen Elena Cervantes, Ricardo Correa, Amir Masoud
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the difference in overall outcomes between weekend admissions for acute pancreatitis (AP) and weekday admissions. METHODS: Between 2005 and 2012, data were extracted from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample on adult patients with AP. Exclusion criteria were applied for chronic pancreatitis and other pancreatic and biliary malignancies. In-hospital mortality, length of stay, hospitalization costs, comorbidities, complications, and intervention rates were compared between the weekend and weekday admissions...
April 2018: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491698/current-practice-patterns-in-the-management-of-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome
#18
Yoonsun Mo, Michael C Thomas, Corey S Laskey, Natalia Shcherbakova, Megan L Bankert, Robert H Halloran
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine current practice patterns surrounding the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in the Northeast region of the United States. Methods: A survey questionnaire with several treatment options related to current practice in the management of AWS was developed. All hospitals with 100 beds or more located in the Northeast region were selected, and 512 surveys were mailed to pharmacy directors of those hospitals...
March 2018: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478862/an-exploratory-study-of-candidate-gene-s-for-delirium-tremens-adding-the-new-cholinergic-dimension-to-the-conundrum
#19
Savita Malhotra, Debasish Basu, Abhishek Ghosh, Madhu Khullar, Neera Chugh, Neeraj Kakkar
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Delirium Tremens (DT) is the most severe form of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, with a potential risk of mortality. Search for the predictors of DT led to study of candidate genes, with inconsistent and inconclusive results. This study aimed to explore the association of various candidate gene polymorphisms and DT in a case-control design. METHODS: This was a genetic association study with a case control design. Two hundred ten Alcohol dependent (AD) male subjects and 200 age matched controls were recruited...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462108/disulfiram-attenuates-morphine-or-methadone-withdrawal-syndrome-in-mice
#20
Anna de Cordé, Paweł Krząścik, Renata Wolińska, Patrycja Kleczkowska, Małgorzata Filip, Magdalena Bujalska-Zadrożny
Taking opioids is often accompanied by the development of dependence. Unfortunately, treatment of opioid dependence is difficult, particularly because of codependence - for example, on alcohol or other drugs of abuse. In the presented study, we analyzed the potential influence of disulfiram, a drug used to aid the management of alcoholism, on opioid abstinence syndrome, which occurs as a result of opioid withdrawal. Opioid dependence in mice was induced by subcutaneous administration of either morphine or methadone at a dose of 48 mg/kg for 10 consecutive days...
February 16, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
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