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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938151/elucidation-of-shared-and-specific-white-matter-findings-underlying-psychopathology-clusters-in-schizophrenia
#1
Jeanette Lim, Rowena Chin, New Fei Ho, Max Lam, Min Yi Sum, Simon Collinson, Lisa Phillips, Tih-Shih Lee, Balázs Zoltán Gulyás, Juan Zhou, Kang Sim
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with diverse white matter (WM) brain abnormalities. In this study, we sought to examine the WM microstructural findings which underlie clinical psychopathology clusters in schizophrenia and hypothesized that these symptom clusters are associated with common and unique WM tracts. METHODS: Overall, 76 healthy controls (HC), and 148 patients with schizophrenia (SZ) were recruited and severity of symptomatology in schizophrenia was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale...
September 1, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937800/when-is-neuropsychological-testing-medically-necessary-for-children-on-medicaid-in-new-mexico
#2
Noah K Kaufman, Carola Mullins, Andrew S Davis, Silvina Tonarelli, Hugo Sandoval, Luis Ramos-Duran
Healthcare for poor children, also known as Medicaid, is disproportionately relied upon by citizens of poor states such as New Mexico, where (a) there are more unintended pregnancies, (b) domestic violence during and after pregnancies occurs with regularity, (c) youth substance use is much more common, (d) crime rates are some of the worst in the country, (e) many never graduate from high school, and (f) incarceration is often inevitable. Yet, there is a dearth of research into the neuropsychological health of these children...
September 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937508/status-dystonicus-in-childhood
#3
Daniel E Lumsden, Mary D King, Nicholas M Allen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dystonia is a common paediatric neurological condition. At its most severe, dystonia may lead to life-threatening complications, a state termed status dystonicus. This review provides an update on the definition, causes, management and outcome of childhood status dystonicus. RECENT FINDINGS: High-quality studies in childhood status dystonicus are lacking, though an increasing number of case series have been published. Status dystonicus appears to occur more frequently in children compared with adults, with a clear precipitant identified in around two-thirds of cases...
September 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937385/primary-classical-hodgkin-lymphoma-of-rectum-report-of-an-extremely-rare-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
Jayasudha Arundhathi Vasudevan, Rekha A Nair, K Rakul Nambiar
Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) commonly presents as nodal disease, but in a subset of cases, the disease primarily develops in extranodal sites. Primary classical HL of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is an extremely rare occurrence. Primary nature of the disease is confirmed after a complete lymphoma work up including chest radiograph, computed tomography scan, peripheral blood, and bone marrow studies. Only a few cases of primary GI lymphomas with limited immunohistochemical or molecular confirmation have been reported in literature...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937066/relationship-of-insulin-resistance-to-vitamin-d-status-in-children-with-nondiabetic-chronic-kidney-disease
#5
Seçil Conkar, Sevgi Mir
Insulin Resistance is common in patients with mild-to-moderate stage chronic kidney disease (CKD), even when the glomerular filtration rate is within the normal range. This study aimed to investigate the association of IR and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of IR in predialysis patients and the association with 25-hydroxyvitamin (OH)D levels. A total of 32 non-diabetic patients with predialysis were included in the study. Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index was calculated to show presence of IR...
September 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936698/recommendations-for-mechanical-ventilation-of-critically-ill-children-from-the-paediatric-mechanical-ventilation-consensus-conference-pemvecc
#6
Martin C J Kneyber, Daniele de Luca, Edoardo Calderini, Pierre-Henri Jarreau, Etienne Javouhey, Jesus Lopez-Herce, Jürg Hammer, Duncan Macrae, Dick G Markhorst, Alberto Medina, Marti Pons-Odena, Fabrizio Racca, Gerhard Wolf, Paolo Biban, Joe Brierley, Peter C Rimensberger
PURPOSE: Much of the common practice in paediatric mechanical ventilation is based on personal experiences and what paediatric critical care practitioners have adopted from adult and neonatal experience. This presents a barrier to planning and interpretation of clinical trials on the use of specific and targeted interventions. We aim to establish a European consensus guideline on mechanical ventilation of critically children. METHODS: The European Society for Paediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care initiated a consensus conference of international European experts in paediatric mechanical ventilation to provide recommendations using the Research and Development/University of California, Los Angeles, appropriateness method...
September 22, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936675/reconnection-to-mechanical-ventilation-for-1%C3%A2-h-after-a-successful-spontaneous-breathing-trial-reduces-reintubation-in-critically-ill-patients-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
M Mar Fernandez, Alejandro González-Castro, Monica Magret, M Teresa Bouza, Marcos Ibañez, Carolina García, Begoña Balerdi, Arantxa Mas, Vanesa Arauzo, José M Añón, Francisco Ruiz, José Ferreres, Roser Tomás, Marta Alabert, Ana Isabel Tizón, Susana Altaba, Noemi Llamas, Rafael Fernandez
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous breathing trials (SBT) can be exhausting, but the preventive role of rest has never been studied. This study aimed to evaluate whether reconnection to mechanical ventilation (MV) for 1 h after the effort of a successful SBT could reduce the need for reintubation in critically ill patients. METHODS: Randomized multicenter trial conducted in 17 Spanish medical-surgical intensive care units (Oct 2013-Jan 2015). Patients under MV for longer than 12 h who fulfilled criteria for planned extubation were randomly allocated after a successful SBT to direct extubation (control group) or reconnection to the ventilator for a 1-h rest before extubation (rest group)...
September 22, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936079/idioms-of-distress
#8
REVIEW
Geetha Desai, Santosh K Chaturvedi
The presentations of psychosocial distress and cultural conflicts are often bodily symptoms, especially in traditional societies and village backgrounds. These might not meet the criteria of the current psychiatric diagnostic systems. Sociocultural milieu contributes to the unique presentations of the stress in the form of idioms of distress. The latter are alternative modes of expressing distress and indicate manifestations of distress in relation to personal and cultural meaning. Health professionals often consider these as hysterical, functional or having functional overlays, and abnormal illness behaviors...
August 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935948/novel-scaffolds-for-inhibition-of-cruzipain-identified-from-high-throughput-screening-of-anti-kinetoplastid-chemical-boxes
#9
Emir Salas-Sarduy, Lionel Urán Landaburu, Joel X Karpiak, Kevin P Madauss, Juan José Cazzulo, Fernán Agüero, Vanina Eder Alvarez
American Trypanosomiasis or Chagas disease is a prevalent, neglected and serious debilitating illness caused by the kinetoplastid protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The current chemotherapy is limited only to nifurtimox and benznidazole, two drugs that have poor efficacy in the chronic phase and are rather toxic. In this scenario, more efficacious and safer drugs, preferentially acting through a different mechanism of action and directed against novel targets, are particularly welcome. Cruzipain, the main papain-like cysteine peptidase of T...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934933/medicine-use-practices-in-management-of-symptoms-of-acute-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-in-children-%C3%A2-12%C3%A2-years-in-kampala-city-uganda
#10
Moses Ocan, Mary Aono, Clare Bukirwa, Emmanuel Luyinda, Cathy Ochwo, Elastus Nsambu, Stella Namugonza, Joseph Makoba, Enock Kandaruku, Hannington Muyende, Aida Nakawunde
BACKGROUND: Medicines are commonly accessed and used for management of illness in children without a prescription. This potentially increases the risk of unwanted treatment outcomes. We investigated medicine use practices in management of symptoms of acute upper respiratory tract infections among children (≤12 years) in households in Nakawa division, Kampala city. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 390 randomly selected children. Data on use of medicines in children (≤12 years) during recent episode of acute upper respiratory tract infection was collected from their care takers using an interviewer administered questionnaire...
September 21, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934923/discriminative-sparse-features-for-alzheimer-s-disease-diagnosis-using-multimodal-image-data
#11
A Ortiz, F Lozano, J M Gorriz, J Ramírez, F J Martinez-Murci, For The Alzheimer S Disease Neuroimaging Initiative
BACKGROUND: Feature extraction in medical image processing still remains a challenge, especially in high-dimensionality datasets, where the expected number of available samples is considerably lower than the dimension of the feature space. This is a common problem in real-world data, and, specifically, in medical image pro- cessing as, while images are composed of hundreds of thousands voxels, only a reduced number of patients are available. OBJECTIVE: Extracting descriptive and discriminative features to represent each sample (image) by a small number of features, which is particularly important in classification task, due to the curse of dimensionality problem...
September 21, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934902/pregnancy-related-outcomes-for-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#12
Rose McDonnell, Roger J Hart
The polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrine disorder that has profound implications for women throughout their reproductive years. A diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with reproductive challenges including a difficulty in conceiving as well as the pregnancy-related complications of miscarriage, hypertensive disorders, gestational diabetes and prematurity. Consequently, polycystic ovary syndrome has profound implications for women and their offspring with regard to reproductive function in the short term and in the longer term the risk of chronic illness and congenital anomalies, and health care resources should be directed accordingly to mitigate against these risks...
September 1, 2017: Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934232/economic-costs-and-health-related-quality-of-life-for-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-hfmd-patients-in-china
#13
Yaming Zheng, Mark Jit, Joseph T Wu, Juan Yang, Kathy Leung, Qiaohong Liao, Hongjie Yu
BACKGROUND: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common illness in China that mainly affects infants and children. The objective of this study is to assess the economic cost and health-related quality of life associated with HFMD in China. METHOD: A telephone survey of caregivers were conducted in 31 provinces across China. Caregivers of laboratory-confirmed HFMD patients who were registered in the national HFMD enhanced surveillance database during 2012-2013 were invited to participate in the survey...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933940/an-assessment-of-primary-care-and-pulmonary-provider-perspectives-on-lung-cancer-screening
#14
Matthew Triplette, Erin K Kross, Blake A Mann, Joann G Elmore, Christopher G Slatore, Shahida Shahrir, Perrin E Romine, Paul D Frederick, Kristina Crothers
RATIONALE: Lung cancer screening (LCS) has a mortality benefit to high-risk smokers, but implementation remains suboptimal. Providers represent the key entry point to screening, and an understanding of provider perspectives on lung cancer screening is necessary to improve referral and overall implementation. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to understand knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, barriers, and facilitators to screening in a diverse group of referring pulmonologists and primary care providers...
September 21, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933421/severe-childhood-malnutrition
#15
REVIEW
Zulfiqar A Bhutta, James A Berkley, Robert H J Bandsma, Marko Kerac, Indi Trehan, André Briend
The main forms of childhood malnutrition occur predominantly in children <5 years of age living in low-income and middle-income countries and include stunting, wasting and kwashiorkor, of which severe wasting and kwashiorkor are commonly referred to as severe acute malnutrition. Here, we use the term 'severe malnutrition' to describe these conditions to better reflect the contributions of chronic poverty, poor living conditions with pervasive deficits in sanitation and hygiene, a high prevalence of infectious diseases and environmental insults, food insecurity, poor maternal and fetal nutritional status and suboptimal nutritional intake in infancy and early childhood...
September 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932925/hepatic-complications-of-anorexia-nervosa
#16
REVIEW
Elissa Rosen, Neeru Bakshi, Ashlie Watters, Hugo R Rosen, Philip S Mehler
Anorexia nervosa (AN) has the highest mortality rate of all psychiatric illnesses due to the widespread organ dysfunction caused by the underlying severe malnutrition. Starvation causes hepatocyte injury and death leading to a rise in aminotransferases. Malnutrition-induced hepatitis is common among individuals with AN especially as body mass index decreases. Acute liver failure associated with coagulopathy and encephalopathy can rarely occur. Liver enzymes may also less commonly increase as part of the refeeding process due to hepatic steatosis and can be distinguished from starvation hepatitis by the finding of a fatty liver on ultrasonography...
September 20, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932401/practical-approach-to-detection-and-management-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-critically-ill-patient
#17
REVIEW
Vahid Mohsenin
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in critically ill patients and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. This paper provides a critical review of the etiologies of AKI and a systematic approach toward its diagnosis and management with emphasis on fluid volume assessment and the use of urine biochemical profile and microscopy in identifying the nature and the site of kidney injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The search of PubMed and selection of papers had employed observational designs or randomized control trials relevant to AKI...
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931500/web-based-cognitive-remediation-improves-supported-employment-outcomes-in-severe-mental-illness-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Anthony Wf Harris, Tanya Kosic, Jean Xu, Chris Walker, William Gye, Antoinette Redoblado Hodge
BACKGROUND: Finding work is a top priority for most people; however, this goal remains out of reach for the majority of individuals with a severe mental illness (SMI) who remain on benefits or are unemployed. Supported employment (SE) programs aimed at returning people with a severe mental illness to work are successful; however, they still leave a significant number of people with severe mental illness unemployed. Cognitive deficits are commonly found in SMI and are a powerful predictor of poor outcome...
September 20, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931453/molecular-characterization-and-distribution-of-plasmodium-matutinum-a-common-avian-malaria-parasite
#19
Gediminas Valkiūnas, Mikas Ilgūnas, Dovilė Bukauskaitė, Vaidas Palinauskas, Rasa Bernotienė, Tatjana A Iezhova
Species of Plasmodium (Plasmodiidae, Haemosporida) are widespread and cause malaria, which can be severe in avian hosts. Molecular markers are essential to detect and identify parasites, but still absent for many avian malaria and related haemosporidian species. Here, we provide first molecular characterization of Plasmodium matutinum, a common agent of avian malaria. This parasite was isolated from a naturally infected thrush nightingale Luscinia luscinia (Muscicapidae). Fragments of mitochondrial, apicoplast and nuclear genomes were obtained...
September 21, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931449/frailty-and-depression-in-centenarians
#20
Oscar Ribeiro, Natália Duarte, Laetitia Teixeira, Constança Paúl
BACKGROUND: Physical frailty and depression are common comorbid conditions that have important impact on older adults. Few studies however have examined their co-occurrence in centenarians. This paper explores the relationship between the two conditions and the most characteristic depressive symptoms associated with the frailty syndrome. METHODS: Data come from two Portuguese Centenarian Studies. Frailty was measured using Fried's phenotype, which includes at least three clinical signs: exhaustion, weight loss, weakness, slowness, and low physical activity level; the Geriatric Depression Scale was used to assess depression...
September 21, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
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