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P D Tar, N A Thacker, M Babur, Y Watson, S Cheung, R A Little, R G Gieling, K J Williams, J P B O'Connor
Motivation: Imaging demonstrates that preclinical and human tumors are heterogeneous, i.e. a single tumor can exhibit multiple regions that behave differently during both normal development and also in response to treatment. The large variations observed in control group tumors can obscure detection of significant therapeutic effects due to the ambiguity in attributing causes of change. This can hinder development of effective therapies due to limitations in experimental design, rather than due to therapeutic failure...
March 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
Thorsten Tjardes, Markus Luecking
Introduction: To achieve the aim of zero preventable deaths on the battlefield a deeper understanding of uncontrolled hemorrhage from junctional or proximal extremity sources is mandatory. While tourniquet application to the extremities has drastically reduced morbidity and mortality, there is still room for improvement regarding the timing of tourniquet placement as the available evidence clearly points out a tight correlation between timing of tourniquet application and outcome. To save as many lives as possible the "point of no return" regarding the circulatory breakdown due to hemorrhage, colloquially addressed as platinum 5 min, needs to be determined...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Melanie Birks, John Smithson, Janene Antney, Lin Zhao, Camilla Burkot
BACKGROUND: Universities' responsibility to ensure academic integrity is frustrated by software and communication tools that facilitate content reuse coupled with a growing international essay writing economy. A wide range of behaviours constitute academic dishonesty and while a complex phenomenon to examine, existing evidence suggests that there is sufficient proliferation (both in volume and variety) of these behaviours among Australian university students to warrant concern. This proliferation presents faculty and staff with new challenges in ensuring academic integrity...
March 2, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Zhong-Min Wang, Xiaoyan Leng, María Laura Messi, Seung J Choi, Anthony P Marsh, Barbara Nicklas, Osvaldo Delbono
Background: Previous studies support beneficial effects of both resistance exercise training (RT) and caloric restriction (CR) on skeletal muscle strength and physical performance. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of adding CR to RT on single-muscle fiber contractility responses to RT in older overweight and obese adults. Methods: We analyzed contractile properties in 1,253 single myofiber from muscle biopsies of the vastus lateralis, as well as physical performance and thigh muscle volume, in 31 older (65-80 yrs), overweight or obese (body mass index= 27-35 kg/m2) men (n=19) and women (n=12) who were randomly assigned to a standardized, progressive RT intervention with CR (RT+CR; n=15) or without CR (RT; n=16) for 5 months...
March 13, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Kumari M Rathnayake, Michelle Weech, Kim G Jackson, Julie A Lovegrove
Background: Elevated postprandial triacylglycerol concentrations, impaired vascular function, and hypertension are important independent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in women. However, the effects of meal fat composition on postprandial lipemia and vascular function in postmenopausal women are unknown. Objective: This study investigated the impact of sequential meals rich in saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), or n-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on postprandial flow-mediated dilatation (FMD; primary outcome measure), vascular function, and associated CVD risk biomarkers (secondary outcomes) in postmenopausal women...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Luqing Wei, Hong Chen, Guo-Rong Wu
The neurovisceral integration model has shown a key role of the amygdala in neural circuits underlying heart rate variability (HRV) modulation, and suggested that reciprocal connections from amygdala to brain regions centered on the central autonomic network (CAN) are associated with HRV. To provide neuroanatomical evidence for these theoretical perspectives, the current study used covariance analysis of MRI-based gray matter volume (GMV) to map structural covariance network of the amygdala, and then determined whether the interregional structural correlations related to individual differences in HRV...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Barry H Smith, Lawrence S Gazda, Thomas J Fahey, Angelica Nazarian, Melissa A Laramore, Prithy Martis, Zoe P Andrada, Joanne Thomas, Tapan Parikh, Sudipta Sureshbabu, Nathaniel Berman, Allyson J Ocean, Richard D Hall, David J Wolf
Objective: The complexity, heterogeneity and capacity of malignant neoplastic cells and tumors for rapid change and evolution suggest that living-cell-based biological-systems approaches to cancer treatment are merited. Testing this hypothesis, the tumor marker, metabolic activity, and overall survival (OS) responses, to the use of one such system, implantable macrobeads [RENCA macrobeads (RMBs)], in phase I and IIa clinical trials in advanced, treatment-resistant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) are described here...
February 2018: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
Marilyne Kafrouni, Carole Allimant, Marjolaine Fourcade, Sébastien Vauclin, Julien Delicque, Alina-Diana Ilonca, Boris Guiu, Federico Manna, Nicolas Molinari, Denis Mariano-Goulart, Fayçal Ben Bouallègue
The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the body surface area (BSA) model ability to predict tumor absorbed dose and treatment outcome through retrospective voxel-based dosimetry. Methods: Data from thirty-five hepatocellular carcinoma patients with a total of forty-two resin microsphere radioembolization treatments were included. Injected activity was planned with the BSA model. Voxel dosimetry based on99m Tc-labeled macroaggregated albumin SPECT and90 Y-microsphere PET was retrospectively performed using a dedicated treatment planning system (PLANET® Dose, DOSIsoft SA, Cachan, France)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Benedikt Schrage, Daniel Kalbacher, Michael Schwarzl, Nicole Rübsamen, Christoph Waldeyer, Peter Moritz Becher, Eike Tigges, Daniel Burkhoff, Stefan Blankenberg, Edith Lubos, Ulrich Schäfer, Dirk Westermann
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous mitral valve edge-to-edge repair (pMVR) with a MitraClip is beneficial for the clinical symptoms of patients irrespective of the ejection fraction (EF). Nevertheless, the consequences on hemodynamics are poorly understood. Therefore, we used data from noninvasive pressure-volume loops to investigate the left ventricular (LV) remodeling of patients after pMVR dependent on their baseline EF. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 130 patients with successful pMVR, the end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship (EDPVR) and end-systolic pressure-volume relationship were estimated noninvasively from echocardiographic data...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Gregory S Keenan, Louise Childs, Peter J Rogers, Marion M Hetherington, Jeffrey M Brunstrom
Large portion sizes lead to increased intake. Some studies suggest that individuals are unaware that they consume more when served larger portions. In a between-subjects design we asked female participants (N = 48) how much pasta and tomato sauce they intended to consume for lunch prior to eating. We then provided a smaller or a larger portion of the same food and invited participants to self-serve a portion into a second bowl (same size in both conditions). After eating until comfortably full, participants were shown an image of the amount they had selected at the beginning of the meal...
March 12, 2018: Appetite
Hongbei Xu, Wenyi Qin, Xiao Hu, Song Mu, Jun Zhu, Wenhao Lu, Yong Luo
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke-induced neuroinflammation is mainly mediated by microglial cells. The nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway is the key transcriptional pathway that initiates inflammatory responses following cerebral ischemia. OTULIN, a critical negative regulator of the NF-κΒ signaling pathway, exerts robust effects on peripheral immune cell-mediated inflammation and is regarded as an essential mediator for repressing inflammation in vivo. The effect of OTULIN on inflammatory responses in the central nervous system (CNS) was previously unstudied...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Philippa R P Krahn, Sheldon M Singh, Venkat Ramanan, Labonny Biswas, Nicolas Yak, Kevan J T Anderson, Jennifer Barry, Mihaela Pop, Graham A Wright
BACKGROUND: Radiofrequency (RF) ablation has become a mainstay of treatment for ventricular tachycardia, yet adequate lesion formation remains challenging. This study aims to comprehensively describe the composition and evolution of acute left ventricular (LV) lesions using native-contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) during CMR-guided ablation procedures. METHODS: RF ablation was performed using an actively-tracked CMR-enabled catheter guided into the LV of 12 healthy swine to create 14 RF ablation lesions...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Raches Ella, Radhika Bobba, Sanjay Muralidhar, Sudhir Babji, Krishna Mohan Vadrevu, Maharaj Kishan Bhan
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends that rotavirus vaccines should be included in all national immunization programs. Some currently licensed oral rotavirus vaccines contain a buffering agent (either as part of a ready-to-use liquid formulation or added during reconstitution) to reduce possible degradation of the vaccine virus in the infant gut, which poses several programmatic challenges (the large dose volume or the reconstitution requirement) during vaccine administration...
March 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Ye Sel Kim, In Sung Park, Hyun Jung Kim, Dasom Kim, Nam Joon Lee, Im Joo Rhyu
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether there was any secular change in cranial vault morphology among Koreans born between the 1930s and 1970s, a period of dramatic shift in Korea's socioeconomic conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using three-dimensional MRI volumetry, we obtained the intracranial volume (ICV) and craniometric measurements of 115 healthy Koreans: 58 individuals (32 males and 26 females) born in the 1930s (1926-1936) and 57 (28 males and 29 females) born in the 1970s (1972-1979)...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
André O Werneck, Edilson S Cyrino, Paul J Collings, Enio R V Ronque, Célia L Szwarcwald, Luís B Sardinha, Danilo R Silva
BACKGROUND: This study describes the levels and patterns of television (TV) viewing in Brazilian adults and investigates associations of TV viewing with hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease. METHODS: Data from the Brazilian Health Survey, a nationally representative survey that was conducted in 2013 (N = 60,202 men and women aged ≥18 y), were used. Information regarding TV viewing, physician diagnoses of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease was collected via interview-administered questionnaire...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Wen Zhang, Jun-Ke Song, Rong Yan, Li Li, Zhi-Yong Xiao, Wen-Xia Zhou, Zhen-Zhong Wang, Wei Xiao, Guan-Hua Du
Diterpene ginkgolides meglumine injection (DGMI) is a therapeutic extract of Ginkgo biloba L, which has been used for the treatment of cerebral ischemic stroke in China. Ginkgolides A, B and C are the main components of DGMI. This study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of DGMI components against ischemic stroke in vivo and in vitro. Acute cerebral ischemic injury was induced in rats by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) for 1.5 h followed by 24 h reperfusion. The rats were treated with DGMI (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg, iv) at the onset of reperfusion and 12 h after reperfusion...
March 15, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Jackson Katz
In this article, the author responds to three commentaries about his article "Bystander Training as Leadership Training: Notes on the Origins, Philosophy, and Pedagogy of the Mentors in Violence Prevention Model," published in this volume. Topics covered in the commentaries and response include questions about evaluation and evidence for program effectiveness; the necessity for gender violence prevention education to be gender transformative and part of a comprehensive, multilevel prevention approach, especially for adolescents; and the degree to which Mentors in Violence Prevention (MVP), as a "social justice"-oriented program, incorporates intersectional and anti-oppression frameworks and perspectives...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Armin H Paravlic, Maamer Slimani, David Tod, Uros Marusic, Zoran Milanovic, Rado Pisot
BACKGROUND: Motor imagery (MI), a mental simulation of a movement without overt muscle contraction, has been largely used to improve general motor tasks. However, the effects of MI practice on maximal voluntary strength (MVS) remain equivocal. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this meta-analysis were to (1) estimate whether MI practice intervention can meaningfully improve MVS in healthy adults; (2) compare the effects of MI practice on MVS with its combination with physical practice (MI-C), and with physical practice (PP) training alone; and (3) investigate the dose-response relationships of MI practice...
March 14, 2018: Sports Medicine
Afrina Mustari, Naoki Nakamura, Satoko Kawauchi, Shunichi Sato, Manabu Sato, Izumi Nishidate
To evaluate cerebral hemodynamics and spontaneous low-frequency oscillations (SLFOs) of cerebral blood flow in rat brain, we investigated an imaging method using a digital RGB camera. In this method, the RGB values were converted into tristimulus values in the CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) XYZ color space, which is compatible with the common RGB working spaces. Monte Carlo simulation for light transport in tissue was then used to specify the relationship among the tristimulus XYZ values and the concentrations of oxygenated hemoglobin ( C HbO ), deoxygenated hemoglobin ( C HbR ), and total hemoglobin ( C HbT ) and cerebral tissue oxygen saturation ( StO 2 )...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Jonathan S Howard, Cherilyn N McLester, Thomas W Evans, John R McLester, Jimmy P Calloway
The PhysioFlow™ is a piece of equipment that uses bioimpedance cardiography to measure central hemodynamics. The purpose of this research was to explore the novel approach of monitoring central hemodynamics during free weight resistance exercise using bioimpedance cardiography throughout a 5 repetition maximum (5RM). Thirty participants ranging from beginner to advanced lifters (16 males and 14 females) completed a 5RM for back squat, seated push press, and bicep curl while connected to the PhysioFlow™ to assess the response of heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (Q), and ejection fraction (EF)...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
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