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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092727/sitting-ducks-face-chronic-disease-an-analysis-of-newspaper-coverage-of-sedentary-behaviour-as-a-health-issue-in-australia-2000-2012
#1
Josephine Y Chau, Catriona Bonfiglioli, Amy Zhong, Zeljko Pedisic, Michelle Daley, Bronwyn McGill, Adrian Bauman
Issue addressed: This study examines how sedentary behaviour (too much sitting) was covered as a health issue by Australian newspapers and how physical activity was framed within this newspaper coverage.Methods: Articles featuring sedentary behaviour published in Australian newspapers between 2000 and 2012 were analysed for content and framing. Main outcome measures were volume, number and content of newspaper articles; framing and types of sedentary behaviour; responsibility for the problem of and solutions to high levels of sedentary behaviour; and physical activity mentions and how it was framed within sedentary behaviour coverage...
January 12, 2017: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091957/point-spread-function-reconstructed-pet-images-of-sub-centimeter-lesions-are-not-quantitative
#2
O L Munk, L P Tolbod, S B Hansen, T V Bogsrud
BACKGROUND: PET image reconstruction methods include modeling of resolution degrading phenomena, often referred to as point-spread function (PSF) reconstruction. The aim of this study was to develop a clinically relevant phantom and characterize the reproducibility and accuracy of high-resolution PSF reconstructed images of small lesions, which is a prerequisite for using PET in the prediction and evaluation of responses to treatment. Sets of small homogeneous (18)F-spheres (range 3-12 mm diameter, relevant for small lesions and lymph nodes) were suspended and covered by a (11)C-silicone, which provided a scattering medium and a varying sphere-to-background ratio...
December 2017: EJNMMI Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091883/ground-penetrating-radar-gpr-responses-for-sub-surface-salt-contamination-and-solid-waste-modeling-and-controlled-lysimeter-studies
#3
Y N S Wijewardana, A T Shilpadi, M I M Mowjood, K Kawamoto, L W Galagedara
The assessment of polluted areas and municipal solid waste (MSW) sites using non-destructive geophysical methods is timely and much needed in the field of environmental monitoring and management. The objectives of this study are (i) to evaluate the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) wave responses as a result of different electrical conductivity (EC) in groundwater and (ii) to conduct MSW stratification using a controlled lysimeter and modeling approach. A GPR wave simulation was carried out using GprMax2D software, and the field test was done on two lysimeters that were filled with sand (Lysimeter-1) and MSW (Lysimeter-2)...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091565/-18-f-flt-and-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-in-predicting-response-to-chemoradiotherapy-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-preliminary-results
#4
Shi Qi, Yang Zhongyi, Zhang Yingjian, Hu Chaosu
The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of (18)F-Fluorothymidine ((18)F-FLT) and (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in predicting treatment response of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Patients with NPC of Stage II-IVB were prospectively enrolled, receiving 2 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Each patient underwent pretreatment and post-NACT FLT PET/CT and FDG PET/CT. Standard uptake values (SUV) and tumor volume were measured...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091356/resistance-to-gastrointestinal-parasite-infection-in-djallonk%C3%A3-sheep
#5
A Traoré, D R Notter, A Soudre, A Kaboré, I Álvarez, I Fernández, M Sanou, M Shamshuddin, K Periasamy, H H Tamboura, F Goyache
Gastrointestinal parasitism places serious constraints on small ruminant production. The situation has been exacerbated by development of drug resistance in many parasite populations, leading to interest in identification of animals with genetically mediated resistance or tolerance to nematode infections. This study assessed the response to natural infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in Djallonké sheep during the rainy season in the Sudan-Guinea Savannah region of Burkina Faso. Haemonchus contortus is the most prevalent GIN at this site and time...
January 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090802/functional-deficits-induced-by-cortical-microinfarcts
#6
Philipp M Summers, David A Hartmann, Edward S Hui, Xingju Nie, Rachael L Deardorff, Emilie T McKinnon, Joseph A Helpern, Jens H Jensen, Andy Y Shih
Clinical studies have revealed a strong link between increased burden of cerebral microinfarcts and risk for cognitive impairment. Since the sum of tissue damage incurred by microinfarcts is a miniscule percentage of total brain volume, we hypothesized that microinfarcts disrupt brain function beyond the injury site visible to histological or radiological examination. We tested this idea using a mouse model of microinfarcts, where single penetrating vessels that supply mouse cortex were occluded by targeted photothrombosis...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090679/effect-of-prucalopride-on-intestinal-gas-tolerance-in-patients-with-functional-bowel-disorders-and-constipation
#7
Carolina Malagelada, Adoración Nieto, Sara Mendez, Anna Accarino, Javier Santos, Juan-R Malagelada, Fernando Azpiroz
BACKGROUND: Patients with functional bowel disorders develop gas retention and symptoms in response to intestinal gas loads that are well tolerated by healthy subjects. Stimulation of 5HT-4 receptors in the gut has both prokinetic and antinociceptive effects. AIM: To determine the effect of prucalopride, a highly selective 5HT-4 agonist, on gas transit and tolerance in women with functional bowel disorders complaining of constipation. METHODS: Twenty-four women with functional bowel disorders complaining of constipation were included in the study...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090627/fdg-pet-for-early-response-assessment-in-lymphomas-part-2-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-use-of-quantitative-pet-evaluation
#8
REVIEW
Bruce D Cheson, Lale Kostakoglu
In Part 1, we reviewed the role of interim positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scans in Hodgkin lymphoma. In advanced Hodgkin lymphoma, interim PET is a useful prognostic tool that can be used to implement risk-adapted therapy with potential benefits for both patients who have negative interim scans and those whose scans are positive. Interim PET/CT has not shown as encouraging results in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), with the exception of germinal center B-cell DLBCL. Thus, quantitative methods of interpreting interim PET scans have been pursued in an effort to improve their predictive value...
January 15, 2017: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090246/bayesian-covariate-selection-in-mixed-effects-models-for-longitudinal-shape-analysis
#9
Prasanna Muralidharan, James Fishbaugh, Eun Young Kim, Hans J Johnson, Jane S Paulsen, Guido Gerig, P Thomas Fletcher
The goal of longitudinal shape analysis is to understand how anatomical shape changes over time, in response to biological processes, including growth, aging, or disease. In many imaging studies, it is also critical to understand how these shape changes are affected by other factors, such as sex, disease diagnosis, IQ, etc. Current approaches to longitudinal shape analysis have focused on modeling age-related shape changes, but have not included the ability to handle covariates. In this paper, we present a novel Bayesian mixed-effects shape model that incorporates simultaneous relationships between longitudinal shape data and multiple predictors or covariates to the model...
April 2016: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: from Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089856/erythrocyte-heat-shock-protein-responses-to-chronic-in-vivo-and-acute-in-vitro-temperature-challenge-in-diploid-and-triploid-salmonids
#10
Pillai V Saranyan, Neil W Ross, Tillmann J Benfey
This research investigated how ploidy level (diploid versus triploid) affects the heat shock protein (HSP) response in erythrocytes under different thermal stress regimes, both in vivo and in vitro, in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) in order to address the question of why triploids typically have reduced thermal tolerance. A preliminary study confirmed that identical volumes of diploid and triploid erythrocytes (which equates to a smaller number of larger cells for triploids compared to diploids) did not differ in total protein synthesis rates...
January 13, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089738/evaluation-of-the-diuretic-activity-of-the-aqueous-and-80-methanol-extracts-of-the-root-of-euclea-divinorum-hiern-ebenaceae-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#11
Beharu Woldemedhin, Teshome Nedi, Workineh Shibeshi, Mekonnen Sisay Shiferaw
BACKGROUND: Diuretics are drugs that increase the formation of urine and are important for the treatment of various diseases including hypertension and edema. The root decoction of Euclea divinorum has been used as a diuretic agent in the traditional medicine. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the diuretic activity of the crude extracts of the roots of Euclea divinorum in Sprague Dawley rats. METHODS: The aqueous extract (AE) and 80% methanol extract (80ME) of the plant were prepared using decoction and maceration, respectively...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089704/brain-mineralocorticoid-receptor-function-in-control-of-salt-balance-and-stress-adaptation
#12
REVIEW
E Ronald de Kloet, Marian Joëls
We will highlight in honor of Randall Sakai the peculiar characteristics of the brain mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in its response pattern to the classical mineralocorticoid aldosterone and the naturally occurring glucocorticoids corticosterone and cortisol. Neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) express MR, which mediate selectively the action of aldosterone on salt appetite, sympathetic outflow and volume regulation. The MR-containing NTS neurons innervate limbic-forebrain circuits enabling aldosterone to also modulate reciprocally arousal, motivation, fear and reward...
January 13, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089326/mechanical-response-of-common-millet-panicum-miliaceum-seeds-under-quasi-static-compression-experiments-and-modeling
#13
Benjamin P J Hasseldine, Chao Gao, Joseph M Collins, Hyun-Do Jung, Tae-Sik Jang, Juha Song, Yaning Li
The common millet (Panicum miliaceum) seedcoat has a fascinating complex microstructure, with jigsaw puzzle-like epidermis cells articulated via wavy intercellular sutures to form a compact layer to protect the kernel inside. However, little research has been conducted on linking the microstructure details with the overall mechanical response of this interesting biological composite. To this end, an integrated experimental-numerical-analytical investigation was conducted to both characterize the microstructure and ascertain the microscale mechanical properties and to test the overall response of kernels and full seeds under macroscale quasi-static compression...
January 6, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089294/the-american-academy-of-pediatrics-workforce-survey-for-the-section-on-urology-2015
#14
E Shapiro, Christopher S Cooper, S Greenfield
INTRODUCTION: In 2013, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Division of Workforce and Medical Education Policy assumed the task of organizing the updated AAP Workforce Survey, which was modeled after the Future of Pediatric Education II study. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to evaluate changes in practice patterns of all pediatric medical and surgical specialists over time, to facilitate advocacy work by the Academy at federal and state levels...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088558/the-effects-of-upper-body-exercise-across-different-levels-of-blood-flow-restriction-on-arterial-occlusion-pressure-and-perceptual-responses
#15
Kevin T Mattocks, Matthew B Jessee, Brittany R Counts, Samuel L Buckner, J Grant Mouser, Scott J Dankel, Gilberto C Laurentino, Jeremy P Loenneke
Recent studies have investigated relative pressures that are applied during blood flow restriction exercise ranging from 40%-90% of resting arterial occlusion pressure; however, no studies have investigated relative pressures below 40% arterial occlusion pressure. The purpose of this study was to characterize the cardiovascular and perceptual responses to different levels of pressures. Twenty-six resistance trained participants performed four sets of unilateral elbow flexion exercise using 30% of their 1RM in combination with blood flow restriction inflated to one of six relative applied pressures (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 50%, 90% arterial occlusion pressure)...
January 11, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088478/comparison-of-the-adjuvant-activity-of-emulsions-with-different-physicochemical-properties-on-the-antibody-response-towards-the-venom-of-west-african-carpet-viper-echis-ocellatus
#16
Juan Manuel Valverde, Karina Rodríguez, María Herrera, Álvaro Segura, Mariángela Vargas, Mauren Villalta, Mavis Montero, Jose María Gutiérrez, Guillermo León
Adjuvant emulsions are widely used to enhance the antibody response of the animals used as immunoglobulin source for producing antivenoms. Usually, the adjuvant activity of emulsions is attributed both to their ability to trigger "danger" signals from cells in which they induce death, and to form depots from which immunogens are slowly released. However, there is contradictory evidence suggesting that adjuvant activity of emulsions is independent of the dispersion type and the rate of immunogen release. In order to test how physical properties of emulsions, composed of mineral oil and water, affect their ability to enhance the antibody response towards snake venoms, we compared water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions prepared at volume ratios of 70/30, 50/50 or 30/70, a 50/50 oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion, and a water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) multiple emulsion...
January 11, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088344/design-control-considerations-for-biologic-device-combination-products
#17
Dave Anderson, Roger Liu, J Anand Subramony, Jon Cammack
Combination products are therapeutic and diagnostic medical products that combine drugs, devices, and/or biological products with one another. Historically, biologics development involved identifying efficacious doses administered to patients intravenously or perhaps by a syringe. Until fairly recently, there has been limited focus on developing an accompanying medical device, such as a prefilled syringe or auto-injector, to enable easy and more efficient delivery. For the last several years, and looking forward, where there may be little to distinguish biologics medicines with relatively similar efficacy profiles, the biotechnology market is beginning to differentiate products by patient-focused, biologic-device based combination products...
January 11, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088104/biofabrication-of-size-controllable-silver-nanoparticles-a-green-approach
#18
Sireesh Babu Maddinedi, Badal Kumar Mandal, Swetha Kameswari Maddili
A facile biosynthetic approach for the size controllable production of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the leaf extract of Cinnamomum tsoi as reducing and capping agent is developed. The polyphenolic functionalities present in the extract are essentially responsible for the synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs. The size and morphology of the AgNPs were effectively tuned by changing the volume of the extract. The availability of oxidized polyphenols play key role in tuning the size and morphology of the prepared NPs...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087835/study-of-tio2-p25-nanoparticles-genotoxicity-on-lung-blood-and-liver-cells-in-lung-overload-and-non-overload-conditions-after-repeated-respiratory-exposure-in-rats
#19
Charlène Relier, Marielle Dubreuil, Omar Lozano Garcia, Eugenia Cordelli, Jorge Mejia, Patrizia Eleuteri, Franck Robidel, Thomas Loret, Francesca Pacchierotti, Stéphane Lucas, Ghislaine Lacroix, Bénédicte Trouiller
Inhaled titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) can have negative health effects, and have been shown to cause respiratory tract cancer in rats. Inflammation has been linked to oxidative stress, and both have been described as possible mechanisms for genotoxicity of NPs, but rarely examined side-by-side in animal studies. In the present study, a wide range of complementary endpoints have been performed to study TiO2 P25 NP-induced genotoxicity in lung overload and non-overload conditions. Additionally, lung burden, inflammation, cytotoxicity and oxidative stress have also been evaluated in order to link genotoxicity with these responses...
January 13, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087806/splenectomy-does-not-improve-long-term-outcome-after-stroke
#20
Dannielle Zierath, Angela Shen, Astiana Stults, Theresa Olmstead, Kyra J Becker
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Immune responses to brain antigens after stroke contribute to poor outcome. We hypothesized that splenectomy would lessen the development of such responses and improve outcome. METHODS: Male Lewis rats (275-350 g) underwent 2-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion immediately after splenectomy or sham splenectomy. Animals were survived to 4 weeks (672 hrs), and immune responses to myelin basic protein determined at euthanasia. Infarct volume was determined in a subset of animals euthanized at 72 hours...
January 13, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
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