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Photoprotection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319939/radical-scavenging-activity-of-a-sunscreen-enriched-by-antioxidants-providing-protection-in-the-whole-solar-spectral-range
#1
Carla Souza, Patrícia Maia Campos, Sabine Schanzer, Stephanie Albrecht, Silke B Lohan, Jürgen Lademann, Maxim E Darvin, Martina C Meinke
BACKGROUND/AIM: The main reason for extrinsic skin aging is the negative action of free radicals. The formation of free radicals in the skin has been associated with ultraviolet (UV) exposure and also to visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) irradiations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a sunscreen in the whole solar range. METHODS: The radical-scavenging activity of a sunscreen in the UV, VIS, and NIR ranges was evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy...
March 21, 2017: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319625/photoprotection-prevents-skin-cancer-let-s-make-it-fashionable-to-wear-sun-protective-clothing
#2
Jeffrey M Milch, Nicholas F Logemann
Protection from UV radiation (UVR) is of paramount importance in preventing skin cancers, the majority of which occur on sun-exposed areas of the face, ears, and neck. A reusable, inexpensive, and truly simple measure of personal protection that greatly reduces exposure to UVR, thereby reducing the risk for developing skin cancers, can be achieved simply by regularly wearing a wide-brimmed hat. In some areas of the world where sunny climates are pervasive and exposure to UVR is part of everyday life, fashion trends, policy, and public health initiatives are in sync, and photoprotection with wide-brimmed hats is embraced as a common and fashionable practice...
February 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315133/remembering-navasard-v-karapetyan-1936-2015
#3
Nadezhda P Yurina, Vladimir O Popov, Alexander A Krasnovsky, Govindjee
Navasard Vaganovich Karapetyan (September 6, 1936-March 6, 2015) began his scientific career at the Bach Institute of Biochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, and was associated with this institute for over 56 years. He worked in the area of biochemistry and biophysics of photosynthesis and was especially known for his studies on chlorophyll a fluorescence in higher plants and cyanobacteria, molecular organization of Photosystem I, photoprotective energy dissipation, and dynamics of energy migration in the two photosystems...
March 17, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300905/lupus-tumidus-a-report-of-two-cases
#4
Bianca Pinheiro Bousquet Muylaert, Bruna Backsmann Braga, Eduarda Braga Esteves, Luciana Elisa Barandas Garbelini, Alexandre Ozores Michalany, Jayme de Oliveira
Lupus tumidus is considered a rare subtype of chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus, characterized by erythema and bright urticarial erythematous-violaceous lesions that leave no scars after regression. Histopathology reveals perivascular and periannexal lymphohistiocytic infiltrates in the papillary and reticular dermis and interstitial mucin deposition. Treatment is based on photoprotection, topical corticosteroids and antimalarials. We report two cases of lupus tumidus, which deserve attention for their low frequency in the literature, in addition to their relevance as a differential diagnosis among dermatologic disorders...
September 2016: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300448/photoprotection-knowledge-and-behaviours-among-organ-transplant-recipients
#5
Kirsten Walker, Kerry Gardner, Angela Law, Nicole Hawkins, Peter Hull
BACKGROUND: Organ transplant recipients (OTRs) are at an increased risk of developing a de novo malignant neoplasm compared to the general population. The primary contributor to skin cancer in all patients is sun exposure. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aim to ascertain both OTR skin cancer awareness and photoprotection practices. METHODS: A questionnaire-based study of Saskatchewan transplant recipients. RESULTS: Nearly all respondents were aware that sun exposure is the best-known cause of skin cancer and that as an OTR, they are at increased risk of skin cancer (99...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294419/management-of-cancerization-field-with-a-medical-device-containing-photolyase-a-randomized-double-blind-parallel-group-pilot-study
#6
Elvira Moscarella, Giuseppe Argenziano, Caterina Longo, Sonia Aladren
At least 6 clinical studies conducted in subjects with actinic keratosis (AK) have demonstrated the therapeutic effect of Eryfotona AK-NMSC(®) (ISDIN, Spain), a topically applied film-forming cream containing DNA Repairsomes(™) (broad-spectrum UV filters and the DNA-repair enzyme photolyase, encapsulated in liposomes) (1-6) (registered as medical device in Europe). Recently a German opinion paper reviewed clinical evidence for the efficacy of topical application of this topical cream. They concluded that there was strong evidence that patient at high risk for developing AK would benefit from the year around use of this product marketed in Europe in the medical device category...
March 10, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287048/lycium-barbarum-polysaccharide-protects-human-keratinocytes-against-uvb-induced-photo-damage
#7
Huaping Li, Zhenjie Li, Liqian Peng, Na Jiang, Qing Liu, Erting Zhang, Bihua Liang, Runxiang Li, Huilan Zhu
Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation plays a key role in skin damage, which induces oxidative and inflammatory damages, thereby causing photoaging or photocarcinogenesis. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP), the most biologically active fraction of wolfberry, possesses significant antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects on multiple tissues. In the present study, the photoprotective effects and potential underlying molecular mechanisms of LBP against UVB-induced photo-damage were investigated in immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells)...
February 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278262/responses-of-the-picoprasinophyte-micromonas-commoda-to-light-and-ultraviolet-stress
#8
Marie L Cuvelier, Jian Guo, Alejandra C Ortiz, Marijke J van Baren, Muhammad Akram Tariq, Frédéric Partensky, Alexandra Z Worden
Micromonas is a unicellular marine green alga that thrives from tropical to polar ecosystems. We investigated the growth and cellular characteristics of acclimated mid-exponential phase Micromonas commoda RCC299 over multiple light levels and over the diel cycle (14:10 hour light:dark). We also exposed the light:dark acclimated M. commoda to experimental shifts from moderate to high light (HL), and to HL plus ultraviolet radiation (HL+UV), 4.5 hours into the light period. Cellular responses of this prasinophyte were quantified by flow cytometry and changes in gene expression by qPCR and RNA-seq...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274096/effect-of-enhancers-on-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-skin-permeation-and-deposition-of-s-methyl-l-methionine
#9
Ki Taek Kim, Ji Su Kim, Min-Hwan Kim, Ju-Hwan Park, Jae-Young Lee, WooIn Lee, Kyung Kuk Min, Min Gyu Song, Choon-Young Choi, Won-Serk Kim, Hee Kyung Oh, Dae-Duk Kim
S-methyl-L-methionine (SMM), also known as vitamin U, is commercially available as skin care cosmetic products for its wound healing and photoprotective effects. However, the low skin permeation expected of SMM due to its hydrophilic nature with a log P value of -3.3, has not been thoroughly addressed. The purpose of this study thus was to evaluate the effect of skin permeation enhancers on the skin permeation/deposition of SMM. Among the enhancers tested for the in vitro skin permeation and deposition of SMM, oleic acid showed the most significant enhancing effect...
March 10, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270560/viewing-oxidative-stress-through-the-lens-of-oxidative-signalling-rather-than-damage
#10
EDITORIAL
Christine H Foyer, Alexander V Ruban, Graham Noctor
Concepts of the roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants and animals have shifted in recent years from focusing on oxidative damage effects to the current view of ROS as universal signalling metabolites. Rather than having two opposing activities, i.e. damage and signalling, the emerging concept is that all types of oxidative modification/damage are involved in signalling, not least in the induction of repair processes. Examining the multifaceted roles of ROS as crucial cellular signals, we highlight as an example the loss of photosystem II function called photoinhibition, where photoprotection has classically been conflated with oxidative damage...
March 7, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260501/in-vitro-skin-models-for-the-evaluation-of-sunscreen-based-skin-photoprotection-molecular-methodologies-and-opportunities
#11
Françoise Bernerd, Claire Marionnet
Identifying and understanding the biological events that occur following ultraviolet (UV) exposure are mandatory to elucidate the biological and clinical consequences of sun exposure, and to provide efficient and adequate photoprotection strategies. The main UV-induced biological features (markers related to sunburn, cancer, photoaging immunosuppression, pigmentation), characterized in human skin in vivo, could be reproduced in adapted models of reconstructed skin in vitro, attesting their high relevance in the field of photobiology...
March 3, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260138/nadph-protochlorophyllide-oxidoreductase-b-porb-action-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-revisited-through-transgenic-expression-of-engineered-barley-porb-mutant-proteins
#12
Frank Buhr, Abderrahim Lahroussi, Armin Springer, Sachin Rustgi, Diter von Wettstein, Christiane Reinbothe, Steffen Reinbothe
NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) is a key enzyme for the light-induced greening of etiolated angiosperm plants. It belongs to the 'RED' family of reductases, epimerases and dehydrogenases. All POR proteins characterized so far contain evolutionarily conserved cysteine residues implicated in protochlorophyllide (Pchlide)-binding and catalysis. cDNAs were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis that encode PORB mutant proteins with defined Cys→Ala exchanges. These cDNAs were expressed in transgenic plants of a PORB-deficient knock-out mutant (porB) of Arabidopsis thaliana...
March 4, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259754/mc1r-signaling-intracellular-partners-and-pathophysiological-implications
#13
REVIEW
Cecilia Herraiz, Jose C Garcia-Borron, Celia Jiménez-Cervantes, Conchi Olivares
The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) preferentially expressed in melanocytes is best known as a key regulator of the synthesis of epidermal melanin pigments. Its paracrine stimulation by keratinocyte-derived melanocortins also activates DNA repair pathways and antioxidant defenses to build a complex, multifaceted photoprotective response. Many MC1R actions rely on cAMP-dependent activation of two transcription factors, MITF and PGC1α, but pleiotropic MC1R signaling also involves activation of mitogen-activated kinases and AKT...
March 1, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257901/effect-of-florfenicol-and-thiamphenicol-exposure-on-the-photosynthesis-and-antioxidant-system-of-microcystis-flos-aquae
#14
Meixian Wang, Yuxuan Zhang, Peiyong Guo
Florfenicol (FF) and thiamphenicol (TAP) are two typical pharmaceuticals used widely as therapeutica antibiotic agents in aquaculture. However, little is known about the potential adverse effects of these two antibiotics on non-target organisms in the aquatic ecosystem. In this study we investigated the effects of FF and TAP on photosynthesis and the antioxidant system of the cyanobacteria Microcystis flos-aquae. Over a concentration range of 0.001-1μg/L, the results showed that both FF and TAP significantly increased the chlorophyll a content of M...
February 22, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257778/interaction-between-the-photoprotective-protein-lhcsr3-and-c2s2-photosystem-ii-supercomplex-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#15
Dmitriy A Semchonok, K N Sathish Yadav, Pengqi Xu, Bartlomiej Drop, Roberta Croce, Egbert J Boekema
Photosynthetic organisms can thermally dissipate excess of absorbed energy in high-light conditions in a process known as non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii this process depends on the presence of the light-harvesting protein LHCSR3, which is only expressed in high light. LHCSR3 has been shown to act as a quencher when associated with the Photosystem II supercomplex and to respond to pH changes, but the mechanism of quenching has not been elucidated yet. In this work we have studied the interaction between LHCSR3 and Photosystem II C2S2 supercomplexes by single particle electron microscopy...
March 1, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252285/water-soluble-chlorophyll-protein-wscp-stably-binds-two-or-four-chlorophylls
#16
Daniel M Palm, Alessandro Agostini, Stefan Tenzer, Barbara M Gloeckle, Mara Werwie, Donatella Carbonera, Harald Paulsen
Water-soluble chlorophyll proteins (WSCPs) of class IIa from Brassicaceae form tetrameric complexes containing one chlorophyll (Chl) per apoprotein but no carotenoids. The complexes are remarkably stable toward dissociation and protein denaturation even at 100 °C and extreme pH values, and the Chls are partially protected against photooxidation. There are several hypotheses that explain the biological role of WSCPs, one of them proposing that they function as a scavenger of Chls set free upon plant senescence or pathogen attack...
March 14, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251441/carotenogenic-response-in-photosynthetic-organisms-a-colorful-story
#17
REVIEW
Alexei Solovchenko, Konstantin Neverov
Carotenoids are a diverse group of terpenoid pigments ubiquitous in and essential for functioning of phototrophs. Most of the researchers in the field are focused on the primary carotenoids serving light harvesting, photoprotection, and supporting the structural integrity of the photosynthetic apparatus (PSA) within the thylakoid membranes. A distinct group of the pigments functionally and structurally uncoupled from the PSA and accumulating outside of the thylakoids is called secondary carotenoids. Induction of the biosynthesis and massive accumulation of the latter termed as secondary carotenogenesis and carotenogenic response (CR), respectively, is a major though insufficiently studied stress response discovered in many phototrophic organisms ranging from single-celled algae to terrestrial higher plants...
March 1, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245058/algal-light-sensing-and-photoacclimation-in-aquatic-environments
#18
REVIEW
Deqiang Duanmu, Nathan C Rockwell, J Clark Lagarias
Anoxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes arose in ancient oceans ~3.5 billion years ago. Evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis by cyanobacteria followed soon after, enabling eukaryogenesis and the evolution of complex life. The Archaeplastida lineage dates back ~1.5 billion years to the domestication of a cyanobacterium. Eukaryotic algae have subsequently radiated throughout oceanic/fresh-water/terrestrial environments, adopting distinctive morphological and developmental strategies for adaptation to diverse light environments...
February 28, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236074/interaction-of-the-signaling-state-analog-and-the-apoprotein-form-of-the-orange-carotenoid-protein-with-the-fluorescence-recovery-protein
#19
Marcus Moldenhauer, Nikolai N Sluchanko, Neslihan N Tavraz, Cornelia Junghans, David Buhrke, Mario Willoweit, Leonardo Chiappisi, Franz-Josef Schmitt, Vladana Vukojević, Evgeny A Shirshin, Vladimir Y Ponomarev, Vladimir Z Paschenko, Michael Gradzielski, Eugene G Maksimov, Thomas Friedrich
Photoprotection in cyanobacteria relies on the interplay between the orange carotenoid protein (OCP) and the fluorescence recovery protein (FRP) in a process termed non-photochemical quenching, NPQ. Illumination with blue-green light converts OCP from the basic orange state (OCP(O)) into the red-shifted, active state (OCP(R)) that quenches phycobilisome (PBs) fluorescence to avoid excessive energy flow to the photosynthetic reaction centers. Upon binding of FRP, OCP(R) is converted to OCP(O) and dissociates from PBs; however, the mode and site of OCP(R)/FRP interactions remain elusive...
February 24, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218743/vitamin-d-signaling-and-melanoma-role-of-vitamin-d-and-its-receptors-in-melanoma-progression-and-management
#20
REVIEW
Andrzej T Slominski, Anna A Brożyna, Michal A Zmijewski, Wojciech Jóźwicki, Anton M Jetten, Rebecca S Mason, Robert C Tuckey, Craig A Elmets
Ultraviolet B (UVB), in addition to having carcinogenic activity, is required for the production of vitamin D3 (D3) in the skin which supplies >90% of the body's requirement. Vitamin D is activated through hydroxylation by 25-hydroxylases (CYP2R1 or CYP27A1) and 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) to produce 1,25(OH)2D3, or through the action of CYP11A1 to produce mono-di- and trihydroxy-D3 products that can be further modified by CYP27B1, CYP27A1, and CYP24A1. The active forms of D3, in addition to regulating calcium metabolism, exert pleiotropic activities, which include anticarcinogenic and anti-melanoma effects in experimental models, with photoprotection against UVB-induced damage...
February 20, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
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