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Photoprotection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538880/prevalence-of-photoprotection-and-its-associated-factors-in-risk-group-for-skin-cancer-in-teresina-piau%C3%A3
#1
Fernanda Ayres de Morais E Silva Cardoso, Gerardo Vasconcelos Mesquita, Viriato Campelo, Maria do Carmo de Carvalho E Martins, Camila Aparecida Pinheiro Landim Almeida, Regina Silva Rabelo, Amanda Eugênia Almeida Rocha, Jadson Lener Oliveira Dos Santos
Background: The incidence of skin cancer has increased worldwide, particularly melanoma rates, which had a mean development of 2.6 % a year in the last 10 years. The agreement on the relation between long-term or chronic exposure to the sun and the emergence of these neoplasias has made several workers who perform activities exposed to solar radiation to form a risk group for the development of skin cancer, community health agents included. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the prevalence of sunscreen-use-related factors to skin cancer in a labor risk group...
March 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524250/one-plant-many-uses-a-review-of-the-pharmacological-applications-of-morinda-citrifolia
#2
REVIEW
Mylena Andréa Oliveira Torres, Isadora de Fátima Braga Magalhães, Renata Mondêgo-Oliveira, Joicy Cortez de Sá, Alessandra Lima Rocha, Ana Lucia Abreu-Silva
Morinda citrifolia, also known as noni, is commonly used in popular medicine in Brazil. Many parts of the noni tree are utilized in such practices, including the roots, leaves and seeds. Through a search of online databases, the present article reviews 92 research studies on the biological actions of M. citrifolia. The paper will discuss the therapeutic effects of noni and its compounds in a variety of forms of presentation, focusing on studies that support its traditional use. A large and diverse number of properties were identified, which were divided into immunostimulatory, antitumor, antidiabetic, anti-obesity, antibacterial and anti-septic, antifungal, antiviral, leishmanicidal, antiinflammatory, antinociceptive and analgesic, antioxidant, neuroprotective, wound healing, antiallergic, antiangiogenic, antiemetic and anti-nausea, anti-gastric ulcer and oesophagitis, anthelmintic, antimutagenic, antipsychotic, anxiolytic, photoprotective, anti-wrinkle and periodontal tissue regeneration activities...
May 19, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515738/chloroplast-atp-synthase-modulation-of-the-thylakoid-proton-motive-force-implications-for-photosystem-i-and-photosystem-ii-photoprotection
#3
Atsuko Kanazawa, Elisabeth Ostendorf, Kaori Kohzuma, Donghee Hoh, Deserah D Strand, Mio Sato-Cruz, Linda Savage, Jeffrey A Cruz, Nicholas Fisher, John E Froehlich, David M Kramer
In wild type plants, decreasing CO2 lowers the activity of the chloroplast ATP synthase, slowing proton efflux from the thylakoid lumen resulting in buildup of thylakoid proton motive force (pmf). The resulting acidification of the lumen regulates both light harvesting, via the qE mechanism, and photosynthetic electron transfer through the cytochrome b6f complex. Here, we show that the cfq mutant of Arabidopsis, harboring single point mutation in its γ-subunit of the chloroplast ATP synthase, increases the specific activity of the ATP synthase and disables its down-regulation under low CO2...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510141/sunscreens-an-update
#4
REVIEW
Jennifer Brescoll Mancuso, Rohit Maruthi, Steve Q Wang, Henry W Lim
Sunscreens have been widely used by the general public for their photoprotective properties, including prevention of photocarcinogenesis and photoaging and management of photodermatoses. It is important to emphasize to consumers the necessity of broad-spectrum protection, with coverage of both ultraviolet A (320-400 nm) and ultraviolet B (290-320 nm) radiation. This review discusses the benefits of sunscreen, different ultraviolet filters, sunscreen regulations and controversies, the importance of broad-spectrum protection, issues of photostability and formulation, and patient education and compliance...
May 16, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504382/further-evidence-for-carotenoid-antioxidants-in-photoprotection
#5
R S Dawe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503830/synthetic-ocp-heterodimers-are-photoactive-and-recapitulate-the-fusion-of-two-primitive-carotenoproteins-in-the-evolution-of-cyanobacterial-photoprotection
#6
Sigal Lechno-Yossef, Matthew R Melnicki, Han Bao, Beronda L Montgomery, Cheryl A Kerfeld
The Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP) governs photoprotection in the majority of cyanobacteria. It is structurally and functionally modular, comprised of a C-terminal regulatory domain (CTD), an N-terminal effector domain (NTD) and a ketocarotenoid; the chromophore spans the two domains in the ground state and translocates fully into the NTD upon illumination. Using both the canonical OCP1 from Fremyella diplosiphon and the presumably more primitive OCP2 paralog from the same organism, we show that an NTD-CTD heterodimer forms when the domains are expressed as separate polypeptides...
May 15, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499880/photoprotection-strategies-of-the-alga-nannochloropsis-gaditana
#7
Volha U Chukhutsina, Rikard Fristedt, Tomas Morosinotto, Roberta Croce
Nannochloropsis spp. are algae with high potential for biotechnological applications due to their capacity to accumulate lipids. However, little is known about their photosynthetic apparatus and acclimation/photoprotective strategies. In this work, we studied the mechanisms of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), the fast response to high light stress, in Nannochloropsis gaditana by "locking" the cells in six different states during quenching activation and relaxation. Combining biochemical analysis with time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, we correlated each NPQ state with the presence of two well-known NPQ components: de-epoxidized xanthophylls and stress-related antenna proteins (LHCXs)...
May 9, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492949/the-role-of-skin-care-in-optimizing-treatment-of-acne-and-rosacea
#8
C Zip
A triad approach to the treatment of acne and rosacea has been recommended. This integrated management approach includes patient education, selection of therapeutic agents, and initiation of an appropriate skin care regime. Proper skin care in patients undergoing treatment of both acne and rosacea includes use of products formulated for sensitive skin that cleanse, moisturize and photoprotect the skin. Both acne and rosacea are associated with epidermal barrier dysfunction, which can be mitigated by suitable skin care practices...
May 2017: Skin Therapy Letter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487674/uncovering-potential-applications-of-cyanobacteria-and-algal-metabolites-in-biology-agriculture-and-medicine-current-status-and-future-prospects
#9
REVIEW
Rachana Singh, Parul Parihar, Madhulika Singh, Andrzej Bajguz, Jitendra Kumar, Samiksha Singh, Vijay P Singh, Sheo M Prasad
Cyanobacteria and algae having complex photosynthetic systems can channelize absorbed solar energy into other forms of energy for production of food and metabolites. In addition, they are promising biocatalysts and can be used in the field of "white biotechnology" for enhancing the sustainable production of food, metabolites, and green energy sources such as biodiesel. In this review, an endeavor has been made to uncover the significance of various metabolites like phenolics, phytoene/terpenoids, phytols, sterols, free fatty acids, photoprotective compounds (MAAs, scytonemin, carotenoids, polysaccharides, halogenated compounds, etc...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486718/the-role-of-skin-care-in-optimizing-treatment-of-acne-and-rosacea
#10
C Zup
A triad approach to the treatment of acne and rosacea has been recommended. This integrated management approach includes patient education, selection of therapeutic agents, and initiation of an appropriate skin care regime. Proper skin care in patients undergoing treatment of both acne and rosacea includes use of products formulated for sensitive skin that cleanse, moisturize and photoprotect the skin. Both acne and rosacea are associated with epidermal barrier dysfunction, which can be mitigated by suitable skin care practices...
May 2017: Skin Therapy Letter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477344/artocarpin-enriched-artocarpus-altilis-heartwood-extract-protects-against-uvb-induced-mechanical-damage-in-dermal-fibroblasts
#11
Narisara Tiraravesit, Philippe Humbert, Sophie Robin, Marion Tissot, Céline Viennet, Jarupa Viyoch
Ultraviolet B radiation has a negative effect on the mechanical properties of the dermis and on the activities of resident fibroblasts, including the disorganization and fragmentation of the dermal extracellular matrix (ECM). It induces alterations in cytoskeleton structure, motility and the contractile forces of the fibroblasts. The present study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Artocarpus altilis heartwood extract on the mechanical properties of ultraviolet B-irradiated fibroblasts. Human skin fibroblasts were pretreated with 50 μg/mL artocarpin-enriched extract for 48 h and later irradiated with ultraviolet B at 200 mJ/cm(2) ...
May 6, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477263/photodermatitis-for-the-allergist
#12
REVIEW
Samuel L Coffin, Jake E Turrentine, Ponciano D Cruz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The photodermatoses represent a group of disorders of sensitivity to light that continue to pose difficulties in diagnosis and management. Photodermatoses are of interest to allergists because many photosensitive skin disorders have immunologic underpinnings, and patients often present to clinic complaining of "allergy" to the sun. We provide a concise reference for allergists on the clinical recognition and management of photodermatitis. RECENT FINDINGS: New developments in the understanding of immunomodulatory effects of light have demonstrated normally immunosuppressive responses in the skin to light exposure, and a blunted immunosuppressive response in the pathogenesis of many photodermatoses...
June 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476075/drugs-for-discoid-lupus-erythematosus
#13
REVIEW
Sue Jessop, David A Whitelaw, Matthew J Grainge, Prativa Jayasekera
BACKGROUND: Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) is a chronic form of cutaneous lupus, which can cause scarring. Many drugs have been used to treat this disease and some (such as thalidomide, cyclophosphamide and azathioprine) are potentially toxic. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2000, and previously updated in 2009. We wanted to update the review to assess whether any new information was available to treat DLE, as we were still unsure of the effectiveness of available drugs and how to select the most appropriate treatment for an individual with DLE...
May 5, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472717/photoreceptor-dependent-regulation-of-photoprotection
#14
REVIEW
Guillaume Allorent, Dimitris Petroutsos
In photosynthetic organisms, proteins in the light-harvesting complex (LHC) harvest light energy to fuel photosynthesis, whereas photoreceptor proteins are activated by the different wavelengths of the light spectrum to regulate cellular functions. Under conditions of excess light, blue-light photoreceptors activate chloroplast avoidance movements in sessile plants, and blue- and green-light photoreceptors cause motile algae to swim away from intense light. Simultaneously, LHCs switch from light-harvesting mode to energy-dissipation mode, which was thought to be independent of photoreceptor-signaling up until recently...
May 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471503/the-use-of-directional-reflectance-measurement-for-in-vivo-assessment-of-protective-properties-of-cosmetics-in-the-infrared-radiation-range
#15
Sławomir Wilczyński, Anna Deda, Robert Koprowski, Anna Banyś, Barbara Błońska-Fajfrowska
Photoprotection of skin is now focused on UV radiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo cosmetic products in terms of protection against infrared radiation (IR) and propose a methodology for conducting such measurements. The directional reflectance (DR) of 12 UV filters, 6 care creams and 2 preparations containing fumed silica applied on the forearm of 36 volunteers was examined in six spectral bands for two angles of incidence. SOC-410 Directional Hemispherical Reflectometer was used to measure DR...
May 4, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467450/linalool-prevents-oxidative-stress-activated-protein-kinases-in-single-uvb-exposed-human-skin-cells
#16
Srithar Gunaseelan, Agilan Balupillai, Kanimozhi Govindasamy, Karthikeyan Ramasamy, Ganesan Muthusamy, Mohana Shanmugam, Radhiga Thangaiyan, Beaulah Mary Robert, Rajendra Prasad Nagarajan, Veeramani Kandan Ponniresan, Pierson Rathinaraj
Ultraviolet-B radiation (285-320 nm) elicits a number of cellular signaling elements. We investigated the preventive effect of linalool, a natural monoterpene, against UVB-induced oxidative imbalance, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling in HDFa cells. We observed that linalool treatment (30 μM) prevented acute UVB-irradiation (20 mJ/cm2) mediated loss of activities of antioxidant enzymes in HDFa cells. The comet assay results illustrate that linalool significantly prevents UVB-mediated 8-deoxy guanosine formation (oxidative DNA damage) rather than UVB-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine (CPD) formation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464994/genotoxic-effects-of-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-in-nasal-mucosa-cells-are-antagonized-by-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles
#17
Stephan Hackenberg, Agmal Scherzed, Angela Zapp, Katrin Radeloff, Christian Ginzkey, Thomas Gehrke, Pascal Ickrath, Norbert Kleinsasser
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are often used in sunscreens and other consumer products due to their photoprotective properties. However, concern exists regarding them possibly causing cyto- and genotoxic effects. The aim of this study was to assess cyto- and genotoxicity of these nanomaterials after single or combined exposure. For this purpose, a battery of cell culture test systems for human nasal mucosa (monolayer, air-liquid interface and mini organ culture) were exposed to 0...
April 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456146/comparative-effects-of-a-fixed-polypodium-leucotomos-pomegranate-combination-versus-polypodium-leucotomos-alone-on-skin-biophysical-parameters
#18
Enzo Emanuele, Marco Bertona, Marco Biagi
OBJECTIVES: Polypodium leucotomos extract is a commonly used systemic photoprotective agent. In an exploratory fashion, the current study aimed to compare the effects of oral supplementation with a fixed Polypodium leucotomos/pomegranate combination (PPmix®) versus Polypodium leucotomos alone (Fernblock®) on skin biophysical parameters of Caucasian adults. METHODS: Forty healthy adult volunteers (20 males and 20 females; mean age: 37.2±5.5 years) were randomized in a 1:1 fashion to a fixed Polypodium leucotomos/pomegranate combination (480 mg/day; n=20) or Polypodium leucotomos alone (480 mg/day; n=20) for 3 months...
February 15, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448268/the-effect-of-pycnogenol-on-wound-healing-in-diabetic-rats
#19
Elif Dogan, Latif Yanmaz, Semin Gedikli, Ugur Ersoz, Zafer Okumus
Pycnogenol (PYC), an extract of pine bark, is known to have photoprotective, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. An in vivo study was conducted to evaluate the effects of PYC treatment on wound healing in 48 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, of which 24 were injected with a single dose of alloxan to induce diabetes. Three (3) excisional skin wounds (1.3 cm x 1.3 cm x 2 mm) were created in each healthy and diabetic animal. One (1) wound in each animal was left untreated, 1 was treated daily with a cleanser (ethacridine lactate) and covered with silver sulfadiazine (SSD), and 1 was treated with PYC powder (30 mg)...
April 2017: Ostomy/wound Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445834/light-harvesting-antenna-complexes-in-the-moss-physcomitrella-patens-implications-for-the-evolutionary-transition-from-green-algae-to-land-plants
#20
REVIEW
Masakazu Iwai, Makio Yokono
Plants have successfully adapted to a vast range of terrestrial environments during their evolution. To elucidate the evolutionary transition of light-harvesting antenna proteins from green algae to land plants, the moss Physcomitrella patens is ideally placed basally among land plants. Compared to the genomes of green algae and land plants, the P. patens genome codes for more diverse and redundant light-harvesting antenna proteins. It also encodes Lhcb9, which has characteristics not found in other light-harvesting antenna proteins...
April 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
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