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Photoprotection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631090/subclinical-cutaneous-inflammation-remained-after-permeability-barrier-disruption-enhances-uv-sensitivity-by-altering-er-stress-responses-and-topical-pseudoceramide-prevents-them
#1
Sang Eun Lee, Yutaka Takagi, Takahiro Nishizaka, Ji Hwoon Baek, Han Jo Kim, Seung Hun Lee
Stratum corneum forms the UV barrier. The effect of ultraviolet B (UVB) on normal skin was extensively studied; however, its effect on barrier perturbed skin remains undefined. Both barrier perturbation and UVB irradiation induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) in keratinocytes. Mild ER stress activates homeostatic UPR, while severe ER stress leads to abnormal UPR, promoting apoptosis and inflammation. Here, we investigated UV sensitivity and UVB-induced UPR in barrier-disrupted human skin and the effects of pseudoceramide-dominant emollient on UVB-induced skin responses...
June 19, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628693/understanding-the-role-of-photolyases-photoprotection-and-beyond
#2
Neal Bhatia, Brian Berman, Roger I Ceilley, Leon H Kircik
<p>The limitations of photoprotection modalities have been the inability to arrest the progression of photodamage. Chemoprevention strategies involving a sunscreen has been incomplete because of the need to induce sustained repair of mutations and slow carcinogenesis. Photolyases, or photoreactivation enzymes, serve the role of repairing mutations and damage to DNA induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation and therefore influence the initiation phases of carcinogenesis. As these enzymes are absent in humans, exogenous forms have been manufactured and are now utilized in topical agents to supplement and augment the innate repair mechanisms that are mostly inefficient...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628680/current-perspectives-among-u-s-dermatologists-on-chemoprevention-of-nonmelanoma-skin-cancer-a-survey-based-study
#3
Brittany Oliver, Serena Durrani, Joel L Cohen, Adam J Friedman
<p>Introduction: Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common malignancy in the US Primary prevention of NMSC with physical photoprotective measures are often not sufficient to impact skin cancer incidence in high-risk individuals. Chemoprevention is the use of agents to prevent, suppress, and reverse carcinogenic progression. Many agents have been investigated, but preclinical and clinical studies are often inconsistent.</p> <p>Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to assess current practices, perceptions, and general knowledge of U...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624684/photoprotection-regulated-by-phosphorus-application-can-improve-photosynthetic-performance-and-alleviate-oxidative-damage-in-dwarf-bamboo-subjected-to-water-stress
#4
Chenggang Liu, Yanjie Wang, Yanqiang Jin, Kaiwen Pan, Xingmei Zhou, Na Li
Water and nutrients, particularly phosphorus (P), are the two most limiting factors for dwarf bamboo growth in tropical and subtropical areas. Dwarf bamboo is highly sensitive to water stress and often causes severe P deficiency in its growing soils due to the characteristics of shallower roots and expeditious growth. However, little is known about its photoprotective response to soil water deficit and the underlying mechanisms regulated by P application. In this study, a completely randomized design with two factors of two water regimes (well-watered and water-stressed) and two P levels (with and without P application) was arranged to investigate this issue in dwarf bamboo (Fargesia rufa) plants...
June 8, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619555/optimal-time-to-provide-skin-cancer-and-photoprotection-education-to-pediatric-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#5
Lily Chen, Feng Gao, Carrie C Coughlin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619535/evolution-and-regulation-of-bigelowiella-natans-light-harvesting-antenna-system
#6
Jonathan A D Neilson, Pattarasiri Rangsrikitphoti, Dion G Durnford
Bigelowiella natans is a mixotrophic flagellate and member of the chlorarachniophytes (Rhizaria), whose plastid is derived from a green algal endosymbiont. With the completion of the B. natans nuclear genome we are able to begin the analysis of the structure, function and evolution of the photosynthetic apparatus. B. natans has undergone substantial changes in photosystem structure during the evolution of the plastid from a green alga. While Photosystem II (PSII) composition is well conserved, Photosystem I (PSI) composition has undergone a dramatic reduction in accessory protein subunits...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613256/strawberry-based-cosmetic-formulations-protect-human-dermal-fibroblasts-against-uva-induced-damage
#7
Massimiliano Gasparrini, Tamara Y Forbes-Hernandez, Sadia Afrin, Patricia Reboredo-Rodriguez, Danila Cianciosi, Bruno Mezzetti, Josè L Quiles, Stefano Bompadre, Maurizio Battino, Francesca Giampieri
Extreme exposure of skin to Ultraviolet A (UVA)-radiation may induce a dysregulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can interact with cellular biomolecules leading to oxidative stress, inflammation, DNA damage, and alteration of cellular molecular pathways, responsible for skin photoaging, hyperplasia, erythema, and cancer. For these reasons, the use of dietary natural bioactive compounds with remarkable antioxidant activity could be a strategic tool to counteract these UVA-radiation-caused deleterious effects...
June 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609133/carotenoids-biosynthesis-and-cleavage-related-genes-from-bacteria-to-plants
#8
Ming-Hua Liang, Jianhua Zhu, Jian-Guo Jiang
Carotenoids are essential for photosynthesis and photoprotection in photosynthetic organisms and beneficial for human health. Apocarotenoids derived from carotenoid degradation can serve critical functions including hormones, volatiles, and signals. They have been used commercially as food colorants, animal feed supplements, and nutraceuticals for cosmetic and pharmaceutical purposes. This review focuses on the molecular evolution of carotenogenic enzymes and carotenoid cleavage oxygenases (CCOs) from bacteria, fungi, cyanobacteria, algae, and plants...
June 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606394/editorial-overview-physiology-and-metabolism-light-responses-from-photoreceptors-to-photosynthesis-and-photoprotection
#9
EDITORIAL
Krishna K Niyogi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602025/a-method-to-assess-the-protective-efficacy-of-sunscreens-against-visible-light-induced-pigmentation
#10
L Duteil, J Esdaile, Y Maubert, A Cathelineau, A Bouloc, C Queille-Roussel, T Passeron
BACKGROUND: Until now, photoprotection of human skin has involved the development of sunscreens effective in the ultraviolet (UV) domain. During the last ten years several studies have shown that besides the well-known damaging effects of UV, visible (400-700nm) and even infrared light (> 700 nm) can induce damage which contributes to photoaging. Furthermore, many photodermatoses are also known to be triggered by visible light (VL). OBJECTIVE/ METHOD: An in vivo method is proposed to assess the protective efficacy of sunscreens in the VL domain...
June 11, 2017: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598234/design-and-evaluation-of-novel-topical-formulation-with-olive-oil-as-natural-functional-active
#11
Ana Henriques Mota, Catarina Oliveira Silva, Marisa Nicolai, André Baby, Lídia Palma, Patrícia Rijo, Lia Ascensão, Catarina Pinto Reis
Currently, the innovative skin research is focused on the development of novel topical formulations loaded with natural functional actives. The health benefits of olive oil are unsurpassed and many others are revealed as research studies allow the understanding of its unlimited properties. Olive oil has a protective toning effect on skin, but it is not transported effectively into its layers. Aiming the development of a cosmetic formulation for skin photoprotection and hydration, we have prepared and characterized macro-sized particles, made of a hydrogel polymer, loaded with olive oil...
June 9, 2017: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598022/skin-resistance-to-uvb-induced-oxidative-stress-and-hyperpigmentation-by-the-topical-use-of-lactobacillus-helveticus-ns8-fermented-milk-supernatant
#12
Jingjing Rong, Chuang Shan, Shuzhan Liu, Houfeng Zheng, Chen Liu, Ming Liu, Feng Jin, Li Wang
AIMS: Here, we investigated the preventive properties of the supernatant of Lactobacillus helveticus NS8-fermented milk (NS8-FS) against UV light-induced skin oxidative damage and hyperpigmentation. METHODS AND RESULTS: NS8-FS exhibited significant radical scavenging activity in tests with ABST(+) and DPPH scavenging methods, and as well strongly inhibited 3-morpholinosydnonimine (Sin-1) induced ROS generation in HaCat keratinocytes. Unexpectedly, NS8-FS was found to inhibit melanin production in B16F10 melanoma cells, and to exhibit inhibitory effects both to the enzymatic activity of tyrosinase and the expression of proteins required for melanin synthesis...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597364/potential-application-of-nanoemulsions-for-skin-delivery-of-pomegranate-peel-polyphenols
#13
Thaisa Baccarin, Elenara Lemos-Senna
Pomegranate peel and seeds have demonstrated to possess antioxidant compounds with potential application to protect the skin against the ultraviolet radiation damage. However, the photoprotection activity is dependent on the amount of these compounds that reach the viable skin layers. In this paper, we describe the in vitro skin permeation and retention of the major pomegranate peel polyphenols using Franz diffusion cells, after entrapping a ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) from Punica granatum peel extract into nanoemulsions (NEs) prepared with pomegranate seed oil (PSO) or medium chain triglyceride oil (MCT)...
June 8, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593495/association-of-ferredoxin-nadp-oxidoreductase-with-the-photosynthetic-apparatus-modulates-electron-transfer-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#14
Laura Mosebach, Claudia Heilmann, Risa Mutoh, Philipp Gäbelein, Janina Steinbeck, Thomas Happe, Takahisa Ikegami, Guy Hanke, Genji Kurisu, Michael Hippler
Ferredoxins (FDX) and the FDX:NADP(+) oxidoreductase (FNR) represent a key junction of electron transport downstream of photosystem I (PSI). Dynamic recruitment of FNR to the thylakoid membrane has been considered as a potential mechanism to define the fate of photosynthetically derived electrons. In this study, we investigated the functional importance of the association of FNR with the photosynthetic apparatus in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In vitro assays based on NADP(+) photoreduction measurements as well as NMR chemical shift perturbation analyses showed that FNR preferentially interacts with FDX1 compared to FDX2...
June 7, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590454/lignins-and-their-derivatives-with-beneficial-effects-on-human-health
#15
REVIEW
Maria Pilar Vinardell, Montserrat Mitjans
A review of the pharmacological applications of lignins provides evidence of their protective role against the development of different diseases. In many cases, the effects of lignins could be explained by their antioxidant capacity. Here, we present a systematic review of the literature from the period 2010-2016 which provides information concerning new applications of lignins derived from recent research. The most promising findings are reported, including the methodologies employed and results obtained with lignins or their derivatives which may improve human health...
June 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584967/effect-of-uv-b-radiation-and-desiccation-stress-on-photoprotective-compounds-accumulation-in-marine-leptolyngbya-sp
#16
Devika Joshi, C Mohandass, Mohan Dhale
Increased awareness regarding the harmful effects of ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation has led to the search for new sources of natural UV-B protecting compounds. Mycosporine-like amino acids are one of such promising compounds found in several organisms. Cyanobacteria are ideal organisms for isolation of these compounds due to their compatibility and adaptability to thrive under harsh environmental conditions. In the following investigation, we report the production of shinorine in Leptolyngbya sp. isolated from the intertidal region...
June 6, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580469/photoprotection-extending-lessons-learned-from-studying-natural-sunscreens-to-the-design-of-artificial-sunscreen-constituents
#17
REVIEW
Lewis A Baker, Barbara Marchetti, Tolga N V Karsili, Vasilios G Stavros, Michael N R Ashfold
Evolution has ensured that plants and animals have developed effective protection mechanisms against the potentially harmful effects of incident ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Tanning is one such mechanism in humans, but tanning only occurs post-exposure to UVR. Hence, there is ever growing use of commercial sunscreens to pre-empt overexposure to UVR. Key requirements for any chemical filter molecule used in such a photoprotective capacity include a large absorption cross-section in the UV-A and UV-B spectral regions and the availability of one or more mechanisms whereby the absorbed photon energy can be dissipated without loss of the molecular integrity of the chemical filter...
June 19, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571005/importance-of-light-filters-in-modern-vitreoretinal-surgery-an-update-of-the-literature
#18
Michele Coppola, Maria Vittoria Cicinelli, Alessandro Rabiolo, Giuseppe Querques, Francesco Bandello
PURPOSE: Direct endobulbar illumination during vitreoretinal surgery causes light-induced retinal damage known as phototoxicity. Spectral filters have been proposed to eliminate hazardous wavelengths from the emission spectrum before entering the eye. The purpose of our paper is to review advances in vitreoretinal surgery, focusing on intraoperative light filters. METHODS: A PubMed and Medline database search was carried out using the terms "spectral filters" associated with "vitreoretinal surgery," "phototoxicity," and "vitrectomy...
June 2, 2017: Ophthalmic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570907/melanin-gamma-rays-assistants-for-bismuth-oxide-nanoparticles-synthesis-at-room-temperature-for-enhancing-antimicrobial-and-photocatalytic-activity
#19
Ahmed I El-Batal, Gharieb S El-Sayyad, Abbas El-Ghamry, Kerolos M Agaypi, Mohamed A Elsayed, Mohamed Gobara
Melanin pigment has been deemed as a natural photoprotector with strong hydrophobicity. It allured considerable compatibility with many applications in medicine, food, and nanotechnology. Penicillium chrysogenium has been devoted to the green synthesis of melanin whereby optimizing its culture and environmental conditions. The impacts of alternative economic L-tyrosine natural sources (unprecedented alternate origins) and gamma radiation were pledged for the potential growing of the pigment. Herein, notable increases in melanin yield (6...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570058/elucidating-the-photoprotection-mechanism-of-eumelanin-monomers
#20
Paulami Ghosh, Debashree Ghosh
Eumelanin, the functional polymer in human skin, forms a heterogeneous layered structure intrinsic to its broadband monotonic spectra. The inherent structural heterogeneity of eumelanin makes the photoprocesses very complex and diverse in nature. Due to this diversity, a complete mechanistic picture of these photoprocesses, essential to understanding the photoprotective properties, has been missing to date. In this study, we recreate the potential energy surfaces of the low-lying excited states of the multiple monomeric forms of eumelanin constituents that play a prominent role in either photoprotection or photodamage pathways...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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