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Jing Ma, Zhisheng Xu, Guofei Tan, Feng Wang, Aisheng Xiong
Carotenoid, a group of lipophilic molecules, is widely distributed in nature, and is important for plant photosynthesis and photoprotection. In carrot taproot, different types of dominant carotenoid accumulation lead to yellow, orange, and red colors. In this study, six different carrot cultivars were used to simultaneously analyze carotenoid contents by high performance liquid chromatography. The expression levels of genes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis of carrot were also detected by real-time quantitative PCR...
September 1, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
Alberta Pinnola, Matteo Ballottari, Ilaria Bargigia, Marcelo Alcocer, Cosimo D'Andrea, Giulio Cerullo, Roberto Bassi
Light harvesting for oxygenic photosynthesis is regulated to prevent the formation of harmful photoproducts by activation of photoprotective mechanisms safely dissipating the energy absorbed in excess. Lumen acidification is the trigger for the formation of quenching states in pigment binding complexes. With the aim to uncover the photoprotective functional states responsible for excess energy dissipation in green algae and mosses, we compared the fluorescence dynamic properties of the light-harvesting complex stress-related (LHCSR1) protein, which is essential for fast and reversible regulation of light use efficiency in lower plants, as compared to the major LHCII antenna protein, which mainly fulfills light harvesting function...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kohli, S Chaowattanapanit, T F Mohammad, C L Nicholson, S Fatima, G Jacobsen, N Kollias, H W Lim, I H Hamzavi
BACKGROUND: Visible light (VL) induces multiple cutaneous effects. Sunscreen testing protocols recommended by regulatory bodies throughout the world require the use of solar simulators with spectral output in ultraviolet (UV) domain only. However, sunlight contains VL and infrared radiation also. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the contributions of VL and UVA on pigmentation and erythema, and optimize parameters for in-vivo testing. METHODS: Ten subjects with Fitzpatrick skin phototype IV-VI were enrolled...
September 6, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
Graziela Scheuer Gomes, Tamara Ramos Maciel, Eduarda Martini Piegas, Luana Roberta Michels, Letícia Marques Colomé, Rodrigo José Freddo, Daiana Silva de Ávila, Andre Gundel, Sandra Elisa Haas
Quinine, a treatment used in chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria, was loaded into poly(ɛ-caprolactone) or Eudragit(®) RS100 nanocapsules using Curcuma oil as the oil-based core. Until now, the effect of cationic nanocapsules on malaria has not been reported. A 2(4) factorial design was adopted using, as independent variables, the concentration of Curcuma oil, presence of quinine, type of polymer, and aqueous surfactant. Diameter, zeta potential, and pH were the responses studied. The formulations were also evaluated for drug content, encapsulation efficiency, photostability, and antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei-infected mice...
September 5, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
Jun Liu, Robert L Last
Despite our increasingly sophisticated understanding of mechanisms ensuring efficient photosynthesis under laboratory-controlled light conditions, less is known about the regulation of photosynthesis under fluctuating light. This is important because-in nature-photosynthetic organisms experience rapid and extreme changes in sunlight, potentially causing deleterious effects on photosynthetic efficiency and productivity. Here we report that the chloroplast thylakoid lumenal protein MAINTENANCE OF PHOTOSYSTEM II UNDER HIGH LIGHT 2 (MPH2; encoded by At4g02530) is required for growth acclimation of Arabidopsis thaliana plants under controlled photoinhibitory light and fluctuating light environments...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Shosuke Ito, Kazumasa Wakamatsu, Tadeusz Sarna
Eumelanin is photoprotective for pigmented tissues while pheomelanin is phototoxic. In this review, we summarize current understanding of how eumelanin and pheomelanin structures are modified by ultraviolet A (UVA) and also by visible light and how reactive oxygen species participate in those processes. Alkaline hydrogen peroxide oxidation was employed to characterize eumelanin and benzothiazole-type pheomelanin, giving pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (PTCA) and thiazole-2,4,5-tricarboxylic acid (TTCA), respectively...
September 5, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Jia-Wei Li, Xiao-Dong Chen, Xiang-Yang Hu, Lan Ma, Shi-Bao Zhang
A terrestrial orchid, Cymbidium sinense appears to utilizes "remedy strategy", while an epiphytic orchid, C. tracyanum , employs a "precaution strategy" to drought stress based on morphological, physiological and proteomic analysis. Drought condition influences plant growth and productivity. Although the mechanism by which plants adapt to this abiotic stress has been studied extensively, the water-adaptive strategies of epiphytes grown in water-limited habitats remain undefined. Here, root and leaf anatomies, dynamic changes in physiological and proteomic responses during periods of drought stress and recovery studied in an epiphytic orchid (Cymbidium tracyanum) and a terrestrial orchid (C...
September 4, 2017: Planta
Anjali Singh, Madhu Bala Tyagi, Ashok Kumar
The present study describes cyanobacterial species composition and their dominance in biological crusts from barks of different trees, roof top of building and soil of agricultural field. An attempt was also made to explore the presence of photoprotective compounds such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in the crust samples. Microscopic examination and growth studies revealed the presence of Oscillatoria species in all the crust samples excluding the crust of roof top of a building. Study on the abundance of dominant genera showed marked differences among various crust samples but Hapalosiphon, Lyngbya, Oscillatoria and Scytonema sp...
August 31, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Dehai Xian, Xiaoqing Gao, Xia Xiong, Jixiang Xu, Lingyu Yang, Lun Pan, Jianqiao Zhong
BACKGROUND: Skin photodamage is associated with UV-induced overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the inactivation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Skin-derived precursor cells (SKPs), a population of dermal stem cells, are considered to be involved in wound repair and skin regeneration through the activation of Nrf2. However, no reports concentrate on the treatment of skin photodamage with SKPs. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the photoprotective role of SKPs against UV-induced damage in mice...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Rainer Voegeli, Jean-Marc Monneuse, Rotraut Schoop, Beverley Summers, Anthony V Rawlings
BACKGROUND: The effect of photodamage on facial stratum corneum (SC) is still poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To describe the SC proteome from tape strippings of Caucasian SC from photoexposed cheek and photoprotected post auricular (PA) site a global analysis of photodamage on the skin will be developed leading to a better understanding of keratinocyte signalling pathways and identification of new molecular targets for the treatment of photoaged skin. METHODS: Female Caucasian subjects had 9 consecutive tape strippings taken from their cheeks and PA site...
September 2, 2017: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
J X Sui, M X Wen, L L Jia, Y J Chen, C H Li, L Zhang
In this study, impacts of O3 on four cultivars ('Rose', 'Pink', 'Blush' and 'White') of the polka dot plant with variegated leaves were investigated for the first time. Ozone fumigation [(120 ± 20 ppb) for 14 days (8 h day(-1), from 8:30 to 16:30)] resulted in visible foliar injuries, decreased contents of pigments (chlorophyll a and b, and carotenoid), the inhibition of photosynthesis, the increase of quantum yield of non-regulated heat dissipation and fluorescence emission (Y(NO)), and the damage of cell membrane...
August 31, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Shamshad Alam, Anu Pal, Dhirendra Singh, Kausar Mahmood Ansari
BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation is the major contributor to skin inflammation which leads to the development of skin cancer. Hence, in this study, we studied the effect of Nexrutine (NX) on UVB-induced cutaneous inflammation and its mediators. METHODS: UV absorption spectra of NX were measured by spectrophotometer. To conduct the photoprotective studies, SKH-1 hairless mice were topically treated with NX, 30 minutes before to the UVB (180 mJ/cm(2) ) exposure...
August 30, 2017: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
Fei Gao, Sha Yu, Qun Tao, Weiming Tan, Liusheng Duan, Zhaohu Li, Haixin Cui
Abscisic acid (ABA), as a commonly used plant growth regulator, is easy to be degraded and lose its bioactivity under sunshine. To select an eco-friendly and efficient photoprotectant for the improvement of photostability and bioactivity of ABA when exposed to UV light, we tested the effects of three biodegradable natural derived high polymers - sodium lignosulfonates 3A (molecular weight (MW) > 50000, degree of sulfonation (DS) 0.48), NA (20000 < MW < 50000, DS 0.7) and calcium lignosulfonate CASA (MW < 20000, DS 0...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Anna A Hippmann, Nina Schuback, Kyung-Mee Moon, John P McCrow, Andrew E Allen, Leonard J Foster, Beverley R Green, Maria T Maldonado
There is an intricate interaction between iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) physiology in diatoms. However, strategies to cope with low Cu are largely unknown. This study unveils the comprehensive restructuring of the photosynthetic apparatus in the diatom Thalassiosira oceanica (CCMP1003) in response to low Cu, at the physiological and proteomic level. The restructuring results in a shift from light harvesting for photochemistry-and ultimately for carbon fixation-to photoprotection, reducing carbon fixation and oxygen evolution...
2017: PloS One
Enrica Flori, Arianna Mastrofrancesco, Daniela Kovacs, Barbara Bellei, Stefania Briganti, Vittoria Maresca, Giorgia Cardinali, Mauro Picardo
Increasing attention is addressed to identify products able to enhance skin photoprotection and to prevent skin carcinogenesis. Several studies have demonstrated that the α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH), acting on a functional MC1R, provides a photoprotective effect by inducing pigmentation, antioxidants and DNA repair. We discovered a link between αMSH and the nuclear receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ (PPARγ), suggesting that some of the αMSH protective effects may be dependent on PPARγ transcriptional activity...
August 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Qing-Mei Hu, Wen-Juan Yi, Meng-Yun Su, Shan Jiang, Shi-Zheng Xu, Tie-Chi Lei
OBJECTIVES: The transfer of melanosomes from melanocytes to neighbouring keratinocytes is critical to protect the skin from the deleterious effects of ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation; however, the initial factor(s) that stimulates melanosome transfer remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the induction of retinal-dependent calcium (Ca(2+) ) influx in melanocytes (MCs) by UVA or UVB irradiation and the effect of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 1 (TRPM1) (melastatin1)-related Ca(2+) influx on melanosome transfer...
August 23, 2017: Cell Proliferation
Anthony N Cauley, James N Wilson
We report a library of functionalized lignins and demonstrate their utility as nanocontainers for organic dyes in biologically relevant applications. Kraft lignin was modified via SN2 reaction at the phenolic -OH group utilizing a mild base, potassium carbonate, and various alkyl halides, several bearing additional functionalities, with dimethylsulfoxide as solvent. The resulting phenoxy ethers were characterized by (1)H-NMR and IR spectroscopy, as well as DLS and SEM to evaluate their morphology and supramolecular organization...
August 23, 2017: Biomaterials Science
Jessica Walburn, Robert Sarkany, Sam Norton, Lesley Foster, Myfanwy Morgan, Kirby Sainsbury, Vera Araújo-Soares, Rebecca Anderson, Isabel Garrood, Jakob Heydenreich, Falko F Sniehotta, Rute Vieira, Hans Christian Wulf, John Weinman
INTRODUCTION: Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare genetic condition caused by defective nucleotide excision repair and characterised by skin cancer, ocular and neurological involvement. Stringent ultraviolet protection is the only way to prevent skin cancer. Despite the risks, some patients' photoprotection is poor, with a potentially devastating impact on their prognosis. The aim of this research is to identify disease-specific and psychosocial predictors of photoprotection behaviour and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) dose to the face...
August 21, 2017: BMJ Open
Mikko Tikkanen, Steffen Grebe
Photosystem I (PSI) has evolved in anaerobic atmosphere conditions and until today remains susceptible to oxygen. To minimize the probability of damaging side reactions, plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to control electron transfer, and PSI becomes inhibited only when malfunctions of these regulatory mechanisms occur. Due to the complicated induction of PSI photoinhibition, a detailed investigation of the process and following reactions are still largely missing. Here we introduce the theoretical framework and a novel method for an easy and controlled induction of PSI photoinhibition in vivo...
August 16, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Charusheela Ramanan, Marco Ferretti, Henny van Roon, Vladimir I Novoderezhkin, Rienk van Grondelle
LHCII, the major light harvesting antenna from plants, plays a dual role in photosynthesis. In low light it is a light-harvester, while in high light it is a quencher that protects the organism from photodamage. The switching mechanism between these two orthogonal conditions is mediated by protein dynamic disorder and photoprotective energy dissipation. The latter in particular is thought to occur in part via spectroscopically 'dark' states. We searched for such states in LHCII trimers from spinach, at both room temperature and at 77 K...
August 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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