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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223149/long-term-behavioral-change-as-a-result-of-acute-ethanol-exposure-in-zebrafish-evidence-for-a-role-for-sonic-hedgehog-but-not-retinoic-acid-signaling
#1
Derek F Burton, Chengjin Zhang, Oswald Boa-Amponsem, Shanta Mackinnon, Gregory J Cole
BACKGROUND: Developmental exposure to ethanol is recognized to produce long-term neurobehavioral impairment in multiple animal models. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these deficits remain poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to ascertain whether two well-characterized targets of prenatal alcohol exposure, sonic hedgehog (Shh) and retinoic acid (RA), that induce the hallmark morphological phenotypes of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), are involved in the generation of behavioral alterations as a result of alcohol exposure...
February 20, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215296/neurotrophins-in-the-brain-interaction-with-alcohol-exposure-during-development
#2
K E Boschen, A Y Klintsova
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a result of the teratogenic effects of alcohol on the developing fetus. Decades of research examining both individuals with FASDs and animal models of developmental alcohol exposure have revealed the devastating effects of alcohol on brain structure, function, behavior, and cognition. Neurotrophic factors have an important role in guiding normal brain development and cellular plasticity in the adult brain. This chapter reviews the current literature showing that alcohol exposure during the developmental period impacts neurotrophin production and proposes avenues through which alcohol exposure and neurotrophin action might interact...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203487/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-agonists-potential-therapeutics-for-neuropathology-associated-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#3
Paul D Drew, Cynthia J M Kane
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) result from fetal exposure to alcohol during pregnancy. These disorders present a variety of sequelae including involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) with lasting impact on cognitive function and behavior. FASD occur at an alarming rate and have significant personal and societal impact. There are currently no effective treatments for FASD. Recent studies demonstrate that ethanol induces potent neuroinflammation in many regions of the developing brain. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory agents such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ agonists suppress ethanol-induced neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187949/long-term-alterations-to-dna-methylation-as-a-biomarker-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-from-mouse-models-to-human-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Benjamin I Laufer, Eric J Chater-Diehl, Joachim Kapalanga, Shiva M Singh
Rodent models of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) have revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) results in differential DNA cytosine methylation in the developing brain. The resulting genome-wide methylation changes are enriched in genes with neurodevelopmental functions. The profile of differential methylation is dynamic and present in some form for life. The methylation changes are transmitted across subsequent mitotic divisions, where they are maintained and further modified over time. More recent follow up has identified a profile of the differential methylation in the buccal swabs of young children born with FASD...
November 22, 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186713/fetal-alcohol-research-caring-for-patients-with-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-a-needs-assessment
#5
Vincent C Smith, Phillip Matthias, Yasmin N Senturias, Renee M Turchi, Janet F Williams
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is the United States' most common preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and developmental disabilities collectively referred to as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to identify gaps in pediatric providers' knowledge and practices regarding FASD patient identification, diagnosis, management and referral, and to inform needs-based FASD resource development. METHODS: Pediatric providers (pediatricians, trainees, nurse practitioners) were exposed to survey links embedded in newsletters electronically distributed to the membership of two national professional societies...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173632/impact-of-the-choices-intervention-in-preventing-alcohol-exposed-pregnancies-in-american-indian-women
#6
Jessica D Hanson, Morgan E Nelson, Jamie L Jensen, Amy Willman, Jacque Jacobs-Knight, Karen Ingersoll
BACKGROUND: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) comprise a continuum of lifelong outcomes in those born prenatally exposed to alcohol. Although studies have shown no differences in rates by race, FASD is of particular concern for American Indian communities. One tribally-run prevention program is the Oglala Sioux Tribe (OST) CHOICES Program, which is modeled after the evidence-based CHOICES program that was focused on preconceptional prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP) by reducing risky drinking in women at-risk for pregnancy and/or preventing unintended pregnancy...
February 7, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168434/fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-characteristics-complications-and-treatment
#7
Lauren F Wilhoit, David A Scott, Brooke A Simecka
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) includes a continuum of disorders that occur in children as a result of their mothers' consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. The most severe of these disorders is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). FASD presents differently in every child, but all children with FASD have intellectual and/or behavioral impairments. There is no cure for FASD, but research shows that early intervention and life-long support help those born with FASD to manage the difficulties that come with it...
February 6, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157448/the-lived-experience-of-paroled-offenders-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-and-comorbid-psychiatric-disorder
#8
Caroline L Tait, Mansfield Mela, Garth Boothman, Melissa A Stoops
This case study presents the life history and postincarceration experiences of two forensic psychiatric patients diagnosed with comorbid mental illness and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The men first met in prison and a few years after their release became roommates at the suggestion of their community support worker and parole officer. With shared and coordinated clinical and mentorship supports, the men were able to establish stability in their lives and manage their mental illness. However, changes in support and gaps within the continuum of care contributed to a sudden breakdown in their stability...
February 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140743/the-roles-of-motor-activity-and-environmental-enrichment-in-intellectual-disability
#9
Andrea De Giorgio
In people with intellectual disabilities, an enriched environment can stimulate the acquisition of motor skills and could partially repair neuronal impairment thanks to exploration and motor activity. A deficit in environmental and motor stimulation leads to low scores in intelligence tests and can cause serious motor skill problems. Although studies in humans do not give much evidence for explaining basic mechanisms of intellectual disability and for highlighting improvements due to enriched environmental stimulation, animal models have been valuable in the investigation of these conditions...
January 31, 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125440/fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-in-africa
#10
Colleen M Adnams
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize data published in the scientific literature and available on official websites on fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) in Africa. RECENT FINDINGS: There is a paucity of published literature and evidence-based information on prenatal exposure to alcohol in the African continent and the majority of the continent's literature on FASD emanates from South Africa. A small number of scientific publications document FASD and drinking in pregnancy in other Sub-Saharan African countries and these findings provide evidence that FASD occurs across the continent...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105691/the-alcohol-sensitive-period-during-early-octavolateral-organ-development-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#11
Lilliann Y Zamora, Kayla C Miguel, Zhongmin Lu
Fetal alcohol exposure can cause Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), completely preventable developmental disabilities characterized by permanent birth defects. However, specific gestational timing when developing organs are most sensitive to alcohol exposure is unclear. In this study, we examined the temporal effects of embryonic alcohol exposure on octavolateral organs in zebrafish (Danio rerio), including inner ears and lateral line neuromasts that function in hearing, balance, and hydrodynamic detection, respectively...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075019/differential-recruitment-of-brain-regions-during-response-inhibition-in-children-prenatally-exposed-to-alcohol
#12
Vikas N Kodali, Joseph L Jacobson, Nadine M Lindinger, Neil C Dodge, Christopher D Molteno, Ernesta M Meintjes, Sandra W Jacobson
BACKGROUND: Response inhibition is a distinct aspect of executive function that is frequently impaired in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We used a Go/NoGo (GNG) task in a functional MRI protocol to investigate differential activation of brain regions in the response inhibition network in children diagnosed with full or partial fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS/PFAS), compared with healthy controls. METHODS: A rapid, event-related task with 120 Go and 60 NoGo trials was used to study children aged 8 to 12 years-8 with FAS/PFAS, 17 controls...
February 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069986/mechanisms-involved-in-porcine-early-embryo-survival-following-ethanol-exposure
#13
Florence Pagé-Larivière, Céline Campagna, Marc-André Sirard
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is still a cause of preventable birth defects and developmental disabilities. However, little is known about the impact of ethanol on preimplantation embryos and the molecular mechanisms involved. We aimed to determine the toxicogenomic impacts and the mechanisms involved in preimplantation embryonic survival following 0.2% ethanol exposure in porcine embryos. Gene expression changes were measured with a porcine embryo specific microarray and confirmed by RT-qPCR. Compared to control, ethanol exposure led to a 43% decrease in blastocyst rate and activated pathways associated with oxidative stress and nervous system damage, such as TP53 and TGF...
January 9, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069796/high-dietary-folate-in-pregnant-mice-leads-to-pseudo-mthfr-deficiency-and-altered-methyl-metabolism-with-embryonic-growth-delay-and-short-term-memory-impairment-in-offspring
#14
Renata H Bahous, Nafisa M Jadavji, Liyuan Deng, Marta Cosín-Tomás, Jessica Lu, Olga Malysheva, Kit-Yi Leung, Ming-Kai Ho, Mercè Pallàs, Perla Kaliman, Nicholas DE Greene, Barry J Bedell, Marie A Caudill, Rima Rozen
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) generates methyltetrahydrofolate for methylation reactions. Severe MTHFR deficiency results in homocystinuria and neurologic impairment. Mild MTHFR deficiency (677C>T polymorphism) increases risk for complex traits, including neuropsychiatric disorders. Although low dietary folate impacts brain development, recent concerns have focused on high folate intake following food fortification and increased vitamin use. Our goal was to determine whether high dietary folate during pregnancy affects brain development in murine offspring...
January 9, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046103/transcriptome-profiling-identifies-ribosome-biogenesis-as-a-target-of-alcohol-teratogenicity-and-vulnerability-during-early-embryogenesis
#15
Mark E Berres, Ana Garic, George R Flentke, Susan M Smith
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a leading cause of neurodevelopmental disability. Individuals with FASD may exhibit a characteristic facial appearance that has diagnostic utility. The mechanism by which alcohol disrupts craniofacial development is incompletely understood, as are the genetic factors that can modify individual alcohol vulnerability. Using an established avian model, we characterized the cranial transcriptome in response to alcohol to inform the mechanism underlying these cells' vulnerability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987413/intervention-recommendations-and-subsequent-access-to-services-following-clinical-assessment-for-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#16
Jacqueline Pei, Lauren Baugh, Gail Andrew, Carmen Rasmussen
BACKGROUND: Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) experience multiple difficulties requiring various interventions. Researchers have called for investigation into service use with respect to clinically recommended interventions. AIMS: To examine intervention recommendations for children with FASD/PAE and subsequent access to these recommended interventions. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Intervention recommendations following FASD assessment were examined for children (1-17 years)...
January 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987329/fetal-alcohol-exposure-alters-blood-flow-and-neurological-responses-to-transient-cerebral-ischemia-in-adult-mice
#17
Shameena Bake, Rachel Gardner, Joseph D Tingling, Rajesh C Miranda, Farida Sohrabji
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can result in physical and neurocognitive deficits that are collectively termed "fetal alcohol spectrum disorders" (FASD). Although FASD is associated with lifelong intellectual disability, the mechanisms mediating the emergence of secondary mental health and physical disabilities are poorly understood. Based on our previous data showing that maternal ethanol (EtOH) exposure in mice resulted in an immediate reduction in cranially directed fetal blood flow, we hypothesized that such exposure would also result in persistent alterations in cranially directed blood flow in the prenatally alcohol-exposed (PAE) adult...
January 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966224/the-development-of-a-culturally-appropriate-school-based-intervention-for-australian-aboriginal-children-living-in-remote-communities-a-formative-evaluation-of-the-alert-program-%C3%A2-intervention
#18
Bree Wagner, James Fitzpatrick, Martyn Symons, Tracy Jirikowic, Donna Cross, Jane Latimer
BACKGROUND/AIM: Although previous research has demonstrated the benefits of targeting self-regulation in non-Aboriginal children, it is unclear whether such programs would be effective for Aboriginal children attending school in remote communities. Some of these children have been diagnosed with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) impairing their ability to self-regulate. The aim of this article is to describe a three phase formative process to develop and pilot a curriculum version of the Alert Program(®) , a promising intervention for improving self-regulation that could be used in remote community schools...
December 13, 2016: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925227/an-erp-study-of-response-inhibition-in-the-auditory-domain-in-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#19
Matthew M Gerhold, Sandra W Jacobson, Joseph L Jacobson, Christopher D Molteno, Ernesta M Meintjes, Colin M Andrew
BACKGROUND: Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies of response inhibition in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) have used a visual Go/NoGo task to study the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on response inhibition. No studies exist using auditory versions of the task; thus, it is unclear how the deficits observed in visual tasks translate into the auditory domain. METHODS: This study examined ERPs using an auditory Go/NoGo paradigm in a sample of 35 school-age children-18 with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and 17 normally developing controls...
January 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893083/cohesive-referencing-errors-during-narrative-production-as-clinical-evidence-of-central-nervous-system-abnormality-in-school-aged-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#20
John C Thorne, Truman E Coggins
Purpose: Previous evidence suggests that cohesive referencing errors made during narratives may be a behavior that is revealing of underlying central nervous system abnormality in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The current research extends this evidence. Method: Retrospective analysis of narrative and clinical data from 152 children (ages 6 to 14), 72 of whom had confirmed FASD, was used. Narrative analysis was conducted blind to diagnostic status, age, or gender...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
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