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Mirjam N Landgraf, Lucia Albers, Birte Rahmsdorf, Katharina Vill, Lucia Gerstl, Michaela Lippert, Florian Heinen
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to evaluate the knowledge about fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and the implementation of the German guideline for FASD among different professionals in the health and social system and among parents with children with FASD. METHODS: A questionnaire about FASD, containing 20 items, was sent by post to all children's hospitals (n = 287), all hospitals for child and adolescent psychiatry (n = 173), all social paediatric centres (n = 162), all neuropaediatricians (n = 129) and all youth welfare offices (n = 672) in Germany...
March 2, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Jeffrey R Wozniak, Anna Y Klintsova, Derek A Hamilton, Sandra M Mooney
The 2017 Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group (FASDSG) meeting was titled "Prenatal alcohol exposure in the context of multiple factors affecting brain development." The theme was reflected in the interactions between members of the Teratology Society and the FASDSG this year. The first keynote speaker, Elaine Faustman, Ph.D., was a liaison between the societies and spoke about systems biology and the multiple genetic and environmental influences on development. The second keynote speaker, Rebecca Knickmeyer, Ph...
November 1, 2017: Alcohol
Brenda Si Elias, Ana Hanlon-Dearman, Betty Head, Geoffrey G Hicks
Translating to the Community (T2C) is a social bio-repository designed to advance new diagnostic tools and realign community-clinical processes, with the aim to mitigate the short-and-long term impacts of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), prenatal alcohol exposure, and its co-morbidities and behaviors. In this paper, we describe the evolution of this repository as a new translational partnership to advance a precision medicine approach to FASD. Key to its evolution was a partnership between academic researchers, Indigenous communities, families and a regional diagnostic clinic...
March 15, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Ludmila N Bakhireva, Jean Lowe, Laura M Garrison, Sandra Cano, Yuridia Leyva, Fares Qeadan, Julia M Stephen
INTRODUCTION: Earlier identification of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to identify neurobehavioral (NB) outcomes associated with PAE in infants. METHODS: This manuscript evaluates NB outcomes at 6.33±1.12 months of age in 93 infants (39 PAE and 54 No-PAE) recruited prospectively into the ENRICH cohort. PAE was assessed by prospective repeated TLFB interviews and a panel of ethanol biomarkers. NB outcomes were evaluated by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-III), Parenting Stress Index (PSI), Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ-R), and Infant Sensory Profile (ISP)...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Mehdi Zarrei, Geoffrey G Hicks, James N Reynolds, Bhooma Thiruvahindrapuram, Worrawat Engchuan, Molly Pind, Sylvia Lamoureux, John Wei, Zhouzhi Wang, Christian R Marshall, Richard F Wintle, Albert E Chudley, Stephen W Scherer
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is characterized by a combination of neurological, developmental, and congenital defects that may occur as a consequence of prenatal alcohol exposure. Earlier reports showed that large chromosomal anomalies may link to FASD. Here, we examined the prevalence and types of copy number variations (CNVs) in FASD cases previously diagnosed by a multidisciplinary FASD team in sites across Canada. We genotyped 95 children with FASD and 87 age-matched, typically developing controls on the Illumina Human Omni2...
March 13, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Lídia Cantacorps, Héctor González-Pardo, Jorge L Arias, Olga Valverde, Nélida M Conejo
Prenatal and perinatal alcohol exposure caused by maternal alcohol intake during gestation and lactation periods can have long-lasting detrimental effects on the brain development and behaviour of offspring. Children diagnosed with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) display a wide range of cognitive, emotional and motor deficits, together with characteristic morphological abnormalities. Maternal alcohol binge drinking is particularly harmful for foetal and early postnatal brain development, as it involves exposure to high levels of alcohol over short periods of time...
March 8, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Shivakumar Subbanna, Nagaraja N Nagre, Madhu Shivakumar, Vikram Joshi, Delphine Psychoyos, Abdullah Kutlar, Nagavedi S Umapathy, Balapal S Basavarajappa
Alcohol exposure can affect brain development, leading to long-lasting behavioral problems, including cognitive impairment, which together is defined as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). However, the fundamental mechanisms through which this occurs are largely unknown. In this study, we report that the exposure of postnatal day 7 (P7) mice to ethanol activates caspase-3 via cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1R) in neonatal mice and causes a reduction in methylated DNA binding protein (MeCP2) levels. The developmental expression of MeCP2 in mice is closely correlated with synaptogenesis and neuronal maturation...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Timothy J Hendrickson, Bryon A Mueller, Elizabeth R Sowell, Sarah N Mattson, Claire D Coles, Julie A Kable, Kenneth L Jones, Christopher J Boys, Susanne Lee, Kelvin O Lim, Edward P Riley, Jeffrey R Wozniak
OBJECTIVES: Cortical abnormalities in prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) are known, including in gyrification (LGI), thickness (CT), volume (CV), and surface area (CS). This study provides longitudinal and developmental context to the PAE cortical development literature. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Included: 58 children with PAE and 52 controls, ages 6-17 at enrollment, from four Collaborative Initiative on FASD (CIFASD) sites. Participants underwent a formal evaluation of physical anomalies and dysmorphic facial features associated with PAE...
February 21, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Helena Domeij, Gunilla Fahlström, Göran Bertilsson, Monica Hultcrantz, Heather Munthe-Kaas, Christina Nehlin Gordh, Gert Helgesson
AIM: To identify and assess available evidence from qualitative studies exploring experiences of individuals living with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) or those living with a child with FASD, as well as experiences of interventions aimed at supporting individuals with FASD and their families. METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted in six electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Scopus. Included studies were analysed using manifest content analysis...
February 26, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Anna Banerji, Chandrakant Shah
Background: Although fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) can have a disproportionate impact in some Indigenous communities, there is a paucity of literature on its epidemiology. Objective: To characterize the epidemiology of Indigenous individuals under the age of 18 years who were diagnosed with FASD at Anishnawbe Health Toronto over a 10-year period. Methods: Children who were assessed at Anishnawbe Health Toronto from 2002 to 2012 and met the 2005 criteria for FASD were included...
June 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
Patrick W Corrigan, Binoy Biren Shah, Juana Lorena Lara, Kathleen T Mitchell, Diana Simmes, Kenneth L Jones
BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are a group of developmental disabilities that may result from the mother's consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. The present study examined the effects of health literacy and stigma on the public health agenda for preventing FASD. METHODS: Three hundred and forty-one participants were sampled to ascertain levels of endorsement of the public health priorities of FASD, and FASD health literacy. Stigma towards women who consume alcohol during pregnancy, and towards biological mothers of children with FASD were operationalized using ratings of difference and disdain...
February 14, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Michelle Keightley, Sabrina Agnihotri, Sivaniya Subramaniapillai, Julia Gray, Jennifer Keresztesi, Angela Colantonio, Helene J Polatajko, Debra Cameron, Catherine Wiseman-Hakes
BACKGROUND: Theatre-based interventions use artistic media to facilitate social and emotional awareness and have therapeutic benefits for persons with developmental disabilities and mental health problems. The role of these interventions with Indigenous youth who have emotional, behavioural, and cognitive sequelae related to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) has not been explored. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences and acceptability of a theatre-based approach for facilitating social communication and engagement in youth with FASD...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy. Revue Canadienne D'ergothérapie
K D Sowell, J Y Uriu-Adams, J Van de Water, C D Chambers, C D Coles, J A Kable, L Yevtushok, N Zymak-Zakutnya, W Wertelecki, C L Keen
Excessive alcohol consumption has been shown to increase serum plasma levels of numerous immune cytokines. Maternal immune activation and elevated cytokines have been implicated in certain neurological disorders (e.g., autism and schizophrenia) in the offspring. We investigated the hypothesis that elevated cytokines during pregnancy are a risk factor in women who gave birth to a child with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) or a child with neurobehavioral impairment, regardless of prenatal alcohol exposure...
August 12, 2017: Alcohol
Carol Bower, Rochelle E Watkins, Raewyn C Mutch, Rhonda Marriott, Jacinta Freeman, Natalie R Kippin, Bernadette Safe, Carmela Pestell, Candy S C Cheung, Helen Shield, Lodewicka Tarratt, Alex Springall, Jasmine Taylor, Noni Walker, Emma Argiro, Suze Leitão, Sharynne Hamilton, Carmen Condon, Hayley M Passmore, Roslyn Giglia
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) among young people in youth detention in Australia. Neurodevelopmental impairments due to FASD can predispose young people to engagement with the law. Canadian studies identified FASD in 11%-23% of young people in corrective services, but there are no data for Australia. DESIGN: Multidisciplinary assessment of all young people aged 10-17 years 11 months and sentenced to detention in the only youth detention centre in Western Australia, from May 2015 to December 2016...
February 13, 2018: BMJ Open
Shiyu Tang, Su Xu, Rao P Gullapalli, Alexandre E Medina
BACKGROUND: Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) often have deficits associated with multisensory processing. Because ethanol disrupts activity-dependent neuronal plasticity, a process that is essential for refining connections during cortical development, we hypothesize that early alcohol exposure results in alterations in multisensory cortical networks, which could explain the multisensory processing deficits seen in FASD. Here, we use a gyrencephalic animal model to test the prediction that early alcohol exposure alters the functional connectivity and microstructural features of the rostral posterior parietal cortex (PPr), a visual-tactile integrative area...
February 13, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Katherine Flannigan, Kamaldeep Gill, Jacqueline Pei, Gail Andrew, Hasu Rajani, Audrey McFarlane, Teresa O'Riordan, Brent Symes, Carmen Rasmussen
Early intervention for individuals with FASD is paramount, thus exploring factors that affect the diagnostic process is critical. This process can be complicated by challenges gathering background information, accurately evaluating higher-level cognitive skills across ages, and teasing apart the impact of life adversities from the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. This study is a retrospective file review of 154 children (44% female; mean age 8.4 years, range 1.0 to 16.9) deferred at their first FASD assessment, and 51 (43% female; mean 9...
February 12, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Katie L Davis-Anderson, Hendrik Wesseling, Lara M Siebert, Emilie R Lunde-Young, Vishal D Naik, Hanno Steen, Jayanth Ramadoss
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) describe neurodevelopmental deficits in children exposed to alcohol in utero. We hypothesized that gestational alcohol significantly alters fetal brain regional protein signature. Pregnant rats were binge-treated with alcohol or pair-fed and nutritionally-controlled. Mass spectrometry identified 1,806, 2,077, and 1,456 quantifiable proteins in the fetal hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum, respectively. A stronger effect of alcohol exposure on the hippocampal proteome was noted: over 600 hippocampal proteins were significantly (P < 0...
January 31, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Saumya S Jamuar, Jonathan D Picker, Joan M Stoler
OBJECTIVE: To study the utility of genetic evaluation and testing in patients with suspected fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients (n = 36) referred for evaluation for suspected FASD to the genetics clinic at Boston Children's Hospital between January 2006 and January 2013. Records of all patients were reviewed to obtain the medical history, family history, examination findings, and investigations, including genetic testing...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
C M Goeke, M L Roberts, J G Hashimoto, D A Finn, M Guizzetti
Some of the neurobehavioral deficits identified in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) have been recapitulated in a binge model of gestational third trimester-equivalent ethanol (EtOH) exposure, in which Sprague-Dawley rats are intragastrically intubated between post-natal day (PD) 4 and PD9 with high doses of EtOH. In this model, the ameliorating effects of choline (Chol) administration on hippocampus-dependent behaviors altered by EtOH have also been extensively documented. In the present study, we investigated the effects of EtOH (5 g/kg/day) and/or Chol (100 mg/kg/day) on morphometric parameters of CA1 pyramidal neurons by Golgi-Cox staining followed by Neurolucida tracing and analysis...
January 29, 2018: Neuroscience
Berardino Petrelli, Joanne Weinberg, Geoffrey G Hicks
The potential impact of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) varies considerably among exposed individuals, with some displaying serious alcohol-related effects and others showing few or even no overt signs of a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). In animal models variables such as nutrition, genetic background, health, other drugs, and stress, as well as dosage, duration and gestational timing of alcohol exposure can all be controlled in a way not possible in a clinical situation. In this review we examine mouse PAE models and focus on those with demonstrated craniofacial malformations, abnormal brain development, or behavioural phenotypes that may be considered FASD-like outcomes...
January 25, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
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