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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925227/an-erp-study-of-response-inhibition-in-the-auditory-domain-in-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#1
Matthew M Gerhold, Sandra W Jacobson, Joseph L Jacobson, Christopher D Molteno, Ernesta M Meintjes, Colin M Andrew
BACKGROUND: Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies of response inhibition in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) have used a visual Go/NoGo task to study the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on response inhibition. No studies exist using auditory versions of the task; thus, it is unclear how the deficits observed in visual tasks translate into the auditory domain. METHODS: This study examined ERPs using an auditory Go/NoGo paradigm in a sample of 35 school-age children-18 with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and 17 normally developing controls...
December 7, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893083/cohesive-referencing-errors-during-narrative-production-as-clinical-evidence-of-central-nervous-system-abnormality-in-school-aged-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#2
John C Thorne, Truman E Coggins
Purpose: Previous evidence suggests that cohesive referencing errors made during narratives may be a behavior that is revealing of underlying central nervous system abnormality in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The current research extends this evidence. Method: Retrospective analysis of narrative and clinical data from 152 children (ages 6 to 14), 72 of whom had confirmed FASD, was used. Narrative analysis was conducted blind to diagnostic status, age, or gender...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892236/1-in-100-babies-the-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-pathway
#3
Kerry Lyons
Alcohol consumed during pregnancy is the nation's leading preventable cause of developmental disabilities and birth defects. One in 100 babies is estimated to be born with alcohol-related damage, according to the World Health Organization. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are more common than autism but are under-diagnosed.
November 23, 2016: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891300/fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-fasd-an-approach-to-effective-prevention
#4
REVIEW
Sylvia Roozen, D Black, G-J Y Peters, G Kok, D Townend, J G Nijhuis, G H Koek, L M G Curfs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of the current contribution is to propose an evidence-based, six-step approach to develop effective programs for prevention of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite widespread campaigns aimed to reduce prenatal alcohol exposure, the number of affected children continues to be high. Current strategies to reduce prenatal alcohol exposure may be ineffective or counterproductive. However, proven principles of health promotion could be applied to reduce drinking in pregnancy...
2016: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888055/dietary-choline-levels-modify-the-effects-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-in-rats
#5
Nirelia M Idrus, Kristen R Breit, Jennifer D Thomas
Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause a range of physical and behavioral alterations; however, the outcome among children exposed to alcohol during pregnancy varies widely. Some of this variation may be due to nutritional factors. Indeed, higher rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are observed in countries where malnutrition is prevalent. Epidemiological studies have shown that many pregnant women throughout the world may not be consuming adequate levels of choline, an essential nutrient critical for brain development, and a methyl donor...
November 23, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888019/ifenprodil-infusion-in-agranular-insular-cortex-alters-social-behavior-and-vocalizations-in-rats-exposed-to-moderate-levels-of-ethanol-during-prenatal-development
#6
Clark W Bird, Daniel Barto, Christy M Magcalas, Carlos I Rodriguez, Tia Donaldson, Suzy Davies, Daniel D Savage, Derek A Hamilton
Moderate exposure to alcohol during development leads to subtle neurobiological and behavioral effects classified under the umbrella term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Alterations in social behaviors are a frequently observed consequence of maternal drinking, as children with FASDs display inappropriate aggressive behaviors and altered responses to social cues. Rodent models of FASDs mimic the behavioral alterations seen in humans, with rats exposed to ethanol during development displaying increased aggressive behaviors, decreased social investigation, and altered play behavior...
November 22, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883930/reconciling-community-based-indigenous-research-and-academic-practices-knowing-principles-is-not-always-enough
#7
Melody E Morton Ninomiya, Nathaniel J Pollock
Historically, Indigenous health research in Canada has failed to engage Indigenous peoples and communities as primary stakeholders of research evidence. Increasingly, research ethics and methodologies are being positioned as tools for Indigenous self-determination. In response, mainstream institutions have developed new ethical principles for research involving Indigenous people. While these transformations are necessary steps towards re-orienting research practices, they are not prescriptive. In this paper, we make visible three dilemmas from a case study in which Indigenous health research frameworks provided limited guidance or were unclear about how to balance community priorities with Indigenous research principles...
November 5, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883195/the-use-of-cardiac-orienting-responses-as-an-early-and-scalable-biomarker-of-alcohol-related-neurodevelopmental-impairment
#8
Diego A Mesa, Julie A Kable, Claire D Coles, Kenneth Lyons Jones, Lyubov Yevtushok, Yaroslav Kulikovsky, Wladimir Wertelecki, Todd P Coleman, Christina D Chambers
BACKGROUND: Considered the leading cause of developmental disabilities worldwide, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are a global health problem. To take advantage of neural plasticity, early identification of affected infants is critical. The cardiac orienting response (COR) has been shown to be sensitive to the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and is an inexpensive, easy to administer assessment tool. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the COR effectiveness in assessing individual risk of developmental delay...
November 24, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844059/developmental-ethanol-exposure-leads-to-long-term-deficits-in-attention-and-its-underlying-prefrontal-circuitry
#9
Emma L Louth, Warren Bignell, Christine L Taylor, Craig D C Bailey
Chronic prenatal exposure to ethanol can lead to a spectrum of teratogenic outcomes that are classified in humans as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). One of the most prevalent and persistent neurocognitive components of FASD is attention deficits, and it is now thought that these attention deficits differ from traditional attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in their quality and response to medication. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying attention deficits in FASD are not well understood...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830992/factors-predictive-of-a-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-neuropsychological-assessment
#10
Leah N Enns, Nicole M Taylor
A variety of neurodevelopmental impairments related to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) diagnoses have been consistently documented. However, it is not clear whether such variables are predictive of a diagnosis. The purpose of the present study is to use logistic regressions to identify predictors of FASD in neuropsychological assessment. Charts of 180 children and adolescents with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) who underwent psychological and diagnostic assessment for FASD were retrospectively reviewed...
November 10, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829119/social-perception-in-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#11
Sara A Stevens, Hayyah Clairman, Kelly Nash, Joanne Rovet
Although the profile of social cognitive difficulties is well recognized in children with certain neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this profile is not as well established in other clinical pediatric populations. The objective of the present study is to examine patterns of social perception in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) compared to typically-developing (TD) control children. A total of 56 children between 8 and 12 years of age-35 with FASD and 21 TD-completed the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task - Children's Version (RMET-C)...
November 9, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828986/plasma-mirna-profiles-in-pregnant-women-predict-infant-outcomes-following-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#12
Sridevi Balaraman, Jordan J Schafer, Alexander M Tseng, Wladimir Wertelecki, Lyubov Yevtushok, Natalya Zymak-Zakutnya, Christina D Chambers, Rajesh C Miranda
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are difficult to diagnose since many heavily exposed infants, at risk for intellectual disability, do not exhibit craniofacial dysmorphology or growth deficits. Consequently, there is a need for biomarkers that predict disability. In both animal models and human studies, alcohol exposure during pregnancy resulted in significant alterations in circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in maternal blood. In the current study, we asked if changes in plasma miRNAs in alcohol-exposed pregnant mothers, either alone or in conjunction with other clinical variables, could predict infant outcomes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806977/randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial-of-choline-supplementation-in-school-aged-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#13
Tanya T Nguyen, Rashmi D Risbud, Sarah N Mattson, Christina D Chambers, Jennifer D Thomas
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure results in a broad range of cognitive and behavioral impairments. Because of the long-lasting problems that are associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), the development of effective treatment programs is critical. Preclinical animal studies have shown that choline, which is an essential nutrient, can attenuate the severity of alcohol-related cognitive impairments. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to translate preclinical findings to a clinical population to investigate whether choline supplementation can ameliorate the severity of memory, executive function, and attention deficits in children with FASDs...
November 2, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790739/behavioral-responses-to-novelty-or-to-a-predator-stimulus-are-not-altered-in-adult-zebrafish-by-early-embryonic-alcohol-exposure
#14
Diane Seguin, Soaleha Shams, Robert Gerlai
BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) may vary in symptoms and severity. In the milder and more prevalent forms of the disease, behavioral abnormalities may include impaired social behavior, for example, difficulty interpreting social cues. Patients with FASD remain often undiagnosed due to lack of biomarkers, and treatment is unavailable because the mechanisms of the disease are not yet understood. Animal models have been proposed to facilitate addressing these problems...
December 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790525/prevalence-and-predictors-of-alcohol-consumption-during-pregnancy-in-south-eastern-nigeria
#15
Chidinma Ifechi Onwuka, Emmanuel Onyebuchi Ugwu, Cyril Chukwudi Dim, Ifeanyi Emmanuel Menuba, Emeka Ifeanyi Iloghalu, Chidozie Ifechi Onwuka
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a major public health problem because of the enormous deleterious effects on a developing fetus. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is among the highest per capita rates of alcohol consumption in the world, thus suggesting a high burden of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder (FASD) in the sub-region. Despite this, there is limited data on alcohol exposed pregnancies for most SSA countries including Nigeria. AIM: To determine the prevalence and predictors of alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Enugu, South-Eastern Nigeria...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788773/maternal-choline-supplementation-in-a-sheep-model-of-first-trimester-binge-alcohol-fails-to-protect-against-brain-volume-reductions-in-peripubertal-lambs
#16
Sharla M Birch, Mark W Lenox, Joe N Kornegay, Beatriz Paniagua, Martin A Styner, Charles R Goodlett, Tim A Cudd, Shannon E Washburn
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a leading potentially preventable birth defect. Poor nutrition may contribute to adverse developmental outcomes of prenatal alcohol exposure, and supplementation of essential micronutrients such as choline has shown benefit in rodent models. The sheep model of first-trimester binge alcohol exposure was used in this study to model the dose of maternal choline supplementation used in an ongoing prospective clinical trial involving pregnancies at risk for FASD. Primary outcome measures including volumetrics of the whole brain, cerebellum, and pituitary derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 6-month-old lambs, testing the hypothesis that alcohol-exposed lambs would have brain volume reductions that would be ameliorated by maternal choline supplementation...
September 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742482/interventions-in-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-an-international-perspective
#17
Christie L M Petrenko, Michelle E Alto
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are present across countries and cultures, with prevalence rates threatening to rise in the coming years. In order to support children and families with FASD around the world, researchers must work to disseminate and implement evidence-based interventions. However, each cultural context presents unique elements and barriers to the implementation process. This review considers the challenges of addressing FASD in an international context. It summarizes existing FASD interventions that have empirical support in the domains of parenting and education, attention and self-regulation, adaptive functioning, and nutrition and medication...
October 11, 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736681/the-continuum-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-in-a-community-in-south-africa-prevalence-and-characteristics-in-a-fifth-sample
#18
Philip A May, Anna-Susan Marais, Marlene M de Vries, Wendy O Kalberg, David Buckley, Julie M Hasken, Colleen M Adnams, Ronel Barnard, Belinda Joubert, Marise Cloete, Barbara Tabachnick, Luther K Robinson, Melanie A Manning, Kenneth Lyons Jones, Heidre Bezuidenhout, Soraya Seedat, Charles D H Parry, H Eugene Hoyme
BACKGROUND: The prevalence and characteristics of the continuum of diagnoses within fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were researched in a fifth sample in a South African community. METHODS: An active case ascertainment approach was employed among all first grade learners in this community (n=862). Following individual examination by clinical geneticists/dysmorphologists, cognitive/behavioral testing, and maternal interviews, final diagnoses were made in multidisciplinary case conferences...
November 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734306/functional-connectivity-abnormalities-and-associated-cognitive-deficits-in-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-fasd
#19
Jeffrey R Wozniak, Bryon A Mueller, Sarah N Mattson, Claire D Coles, Julie A Kable, Kenneth L Jones, Christopher J Boys, Kelvin O Lim, Edward P Riley, Elizabeth R Sowell
: Consistent with well-documented structural and microstructural abnormalities in prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), recent studies suggest that functional connectivity (FC) may also be disrupted. We evaluated whole-brain FC in a large multi-site sample, examined its cognitive correlates, and explored its potential to objectively identify neurodevelopmental abnormality in individuals without definitive dysmorphic features. Included were 75 children with PAE and 68 controls from four sites...
October 12, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729236/a-review-of-the-physical-features-of-the-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#20
Miguel Del Campo, Kenneth Lyons Jones
The fetal alcohol spectrum of disorders (FASD) includes four diagnostic categories for the clinical consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the unborn child. Physical features are necessary for the diagnosis of the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial pFAS. Moreover, these features are specific and a diagnosis of FAS can be made even in the absence of knowledge of PAE. Not only growth deficits, microcephaly and the 3 facial features (short palpebral fissures, smooth philtrum and narrow vermillion of the upper lip) are characteristic, since other dysmorphic features particularly in the hands are key to the recognition of FAS...
October 10, 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
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