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Stephen Yiu Chuen Choi, Susan L Ettinger, Dong Lin, Hui Xue, Xinpei Ci, Noushin Nabavi, Robert H Bell, Fan Mo, Peter W Gout, Neil E Fleshner, Martin E Gleave, Colin C Collins, Yuzhuo Wang
Development of neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) is emerging as a major problem in clinical management of advanced prostate cancer (PCa). As increasingly potent androgen receptor (AR)-targeting antiandrogens are more widely used, PCa transdifferentiation into AR-independent NEPC as a mechanism of treatment resistance becomes more common and precarious, since NEPC is a lethal PCa subtype urgently requiring effective therapy. Reprogrammed glucose metabolism of cancers, that is elevated aerobic glycolysis involving increased lactic acid production/secretion, plays a key role in multiple cancer-promoting processes and has been implicated in therapeutics development...
June 14, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Caroline L Benn, Pinky Dua, Rachel Gurrell, Peter Loudon, Andrew Pike, R Ian Storer, Ciara Vangjeli
Gout is the most common form of inflammatory arthritis and is a multifactorial disease typically characterized by hyperuricemia and monosodium urate crystal deposition predominantly in, but not limited to, the joints and the urinary tract. The prevalence of gout and hyperuricemia has increased in developed countries over the past two decades and research into the area has become progressively more active. We review the current field of knowledge with emphasis on active areas of hyperuricemia research including the underlying physiology, genetics and epidemiology, with a focus on studies which suggest association of hyperuricemia with common comorbidities including cardiovascular disease, renal insufficiency, metabolic syndrome and diabetes...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
MaryAnn Zhang, Daniel H Solomon, Rishi J Desai, Eun Ha Kang, Jun Liu, Tuhina Neogi, Seoyoung C Kim
Background -Hyperuricemia and gout are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Xanthine oxidase inhibitors (XOI), allopurinol and febuxostat, are the mainstay of urate lowering treatment for gout and may have different effects on cardiovascular risk in patients with gout. Methods -Using U.S. Medicare claims data (2008-2013), we conducted a cohort study for comparative cardiovascular safety of initiating febuxostat versus allopurinol among gout patients aged ≥65 years. The primary outcome was a composite endpoint of hospitalization for myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke...
June 13, 2018: Circulation
Lan-Zhu Li, Guo-Xiu Zhou, Jia Li, Wei Jiang, Bao-Lin Liu, Wen Zhou
Compounds containing trace elements copper or zinc are potential gout and hyperuricemia suppressant by virtue of their inhibiting effect on xanthine oxidase/xanthine dehydrogenase (XOD/XDH) and anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative function. In this study, compounds Cu(hmy-paa)·SO4 ·H2 O (simplified as CuHP) and Zn(hmy-paa)·SO4 ·H2 O (simplified as ZnHP) are synthesized, where hmy-paa stands for 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-N-(1H-pyrazol-3-yl)acrylamide). The ligand hmy-paa is composed of functional ferulic acid and 3-aminopyrazole...
September 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Lieke E J M Scheepers, Andrea M Burden, Ilja C W Arts, Bart Spaetgens, Patrick Souverein, Frank de Vries, Annelies Boonen
Objectives: When urate lowering therapy is indicated in patients with gout, medication adherence is essential. This study assesses non-persistence and non-adherence in patients with newly diagnosed gout, and identifies factors associated with poor medication adherence. Methods: A retrospective data analysis was performed within the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (1987-2014) among incident gout patients, aged ⩾40 years and starting allopurinol (n = 48 280)...
June 8, 2018: Rheumatology
Fei Shu, Yan Shi
Crystalline/particulate substances trigger a plethora of signaling events in host cells. The most prominent consequence is the inflammatory reactions that underlie crystal arthropathies, such as gout and pseudogout. However, their impact on our health was underestimated. Recent work on the role of cholesterol crystal in the development of atherosclerosis and the harm of environmental particulates has set up new frontiers in our defense against their detrimental effects. On the other hand, in the last 100 years, crystalline/particulate substances have been used with increasing frequencies in our daily lives as a part of new industrial manufacturing and engineering...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Olwyn R Mahon, Aisling Dunne
It is now well established that intra-articular deposition of endogenous particulates, such as osteoarthritis-associated basic calcium phosphate crystals, gout-associated monosodium urate crystals, and calcium deposition disease-associated calcium pyrophosphate crystals, contributes to joint destruction through the production of cartilage-degrading enzymes and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, exogenous wear-debris particles, generated from prosthetic implants, drive periprosthetic osteolysis which impacts on the longevity of total joint replacements...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yessica Zamudio-Cuevas, Javier Fernández-Torres, Gabriela Angélica Martínez-Nava, Karina Martínez-Flores, Alberto López-Reyes
The anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of nanoparticles in several chronic diseases have been extensively researched. The aim of this review is to examine how nanoparticles modulate the inflammatory pathways that characterize the most prevalent forms of microcrystal-induced arthritis, including gout, pseudogout, and BCP-induced arthritis. The nanoparticles of chitosan-coated calcium phosphate, uricase, aceclofenac, and gold have been investigated in crystal-inducedarthritis. The most important results of the studies outlined in this review show that nanoparticles can inhibit the expression and the release of some pro-inflammatory mediators and proteolytic enzymes, and the activity of different transcriptional factors in vitro, as well as decrease the uric acid levels in several studies of in vitro and in vivo models of gout, which show interesting results in terms of decreasing the amount of crystals and tissue damage, respectively...
June 8, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Claudio Tana, Luca Busetto, Angelo di Vincenzo, Fabrizio Ricci, Andrea Ticinesi, Fulvio Lauretani, Antonio Nouvenne, Maria Adele Giamberardino, Francesco Cipollone, Roberto Vettor, Tiziana Meschi
Background Hyperuricemia and gout represent important issues in the obese patients. Considering the epidemic trend of overweight and obesity in developed countries, the impact of these conditions is likely to increase. At present, bariatric surgery represents the most effective treatment for the management of severe obesity for reducing weight and the impact of associated comorbidities, but its effects on hyperuricemia and gout have not been fully elucidated. Methods In this narrative review, we discuss the current knowledge about hyperuricemia and gout in obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery...
June 9, 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
Jasvinder A Singh, John D Cleveland
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether gout is associated with a higher or lower risk of a new diagnosis of giant cell arteritis (GCA) in older adults, adjusting for known risk factors of GCA. METHODS: We used the 5% Medicare claims to conduct a multivariable Cox regression analyses to assess the association of gout with incident GCA in adults 65 years or older adjusting for age, gender, race (known risk factors for GCA) and Charlson-Romano comorbidity score, the use of medications for cardiovascular diseases (statins, beta-blockers, diuretics, ACE-inhibitors) and gout (allopurinol, febuxostat)...
June 7, 2018: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
Xiaoyu Niu, Jiajun Tian, Jing Yang, Xiaoning Jiang, Hongzhi Wang, Hao Chen, Tang Yi, Youxiang Diao
In 2017, an emerging disease outbreak with high mortality in goslings occurred in China. A novel goose astrovirus was isolated and identified as the causative agent of this disease. Genomic analysis revealed that this virus strain was significantly distinct from published astrovirus strains.
July 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Andrzej N Majda, Aleksandra Majdan, Paweł Piłat, Paweł Cisek
Gout tophi around auricular area are common in old men. The differential diagnosis of papules or nodules on the ear includes tophaceous gout, rheumatoid nodules, basal or squamous cell cancer, melanoma, verruca vulgaris or actinic keratosis. The presence of the skin cancer, most commonly located on the head and neck, is often related to the long exposure of the skin to sunlight. Elderly patients are the predominant group of patients with skin malignancies. The aim of this study is to emphasize the importance of early cancer detection in elderly people and use of appropriate therapeutic options that take into account the special requirements of geriatric patients...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Simon Bossart, Daniel Sidler, Roland Blum, Robert E Hunger
This case highlights the need to consider tophaceous gout in patients with post-transplant renal insufficiency, chronic immunosuppression, and hypertension, who develop atypical papules or nodules on the soles, which can cause problems in differentiation from other skin diseases.
June 2018: Clinical Case Reports
A Galletto Pregliasco, A Collin, A Guéguen, M A Metten, J Aboab, R Deschamps, O Gout, L Duron, J C Sadik, J Savatovsky, A Lecler
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR imaging is the key examination in the follow-up of patients with MS, by identification of new high-signal T2 brain lesions. However, identifying new lesions when scrolling through 2 follow-up MR images can be difficult and time-consuming. Our aim was to compare an automated coregistration-fusion reading approach with the standard approach by identifying new high-signal T2 brain lesions in patients with multiple sclerosis during follow-up MR imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective monocenter study included 94 patients (mean age, 38...
June 7, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Masayuki Sakiyama, Hirotaka Matsuo, Hirofumi Nakaoka, Yusuke Kawamura, Makoto Kawaguchi, Toshihide Higashino, Akiyoshi Nakayama, Airi Akashi, Jun Ueyama, Takaaki Kondo, Kenji Wakai, Yutaka Sakurai, Ken Yamamoto, Hiroshi Ooyama, Nariyoshi Shinomiya
BACKGROUND: Gout is a common disease resulting from hyperuricemia which causes acute arthritis. A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) of gout identified three new loci for gout in Han Chinese: regulatory factor X3 (RFX3), potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily Q member 1 (KCNQ1), and breast carcinoma amplified sequence 3 (BCAS3). The lack of any replication studies of these three loci using other population groups prompted us to perform a replication study with Japanese clinically defined gout cases and controls...
June 7, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
Rosa J Torres, Juan G Puig
BACKGROUND: Patients with deficient hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) activity present hyperuricemia and/or hyperuricosuria, with a variable degree of neurological manifestations. Hyperuricemia in HPRT deficiency is due to uric acid overproduction and is frequently treated with allopurinol. Renal uric acid excretion is sharply increased in these patients. In recent years, several renal tubular urate transporter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including those of the GLUT9, ABCG2 and URAT1 genes, have been described that influence the renal handling of uric acid and modulate serum urate levels...
June 2018: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
Yannan Zhang, Huanzhen Zhang, Dong Chang, Fuchuan Guo, Hongzhi Pan, Yuexin Yang
BACKGROUND: Gout is a metabolic disease and is the most common form of inflammatory arthritis affecting men. However, the pathogenesis of gout is still uncertain, and novel biomarkers are needed for early prediction and diagnosis of gout. The aim of this study was to develop a systemic metabolic profile of patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia (HUA) and gout by using a metabolomics approach, and find potential pathophysiological mechanisms of and markers of predisposition to gout. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from 149 subjects, including 50 patients with HUA, 49 patients with gout and 50 healthy controls...
June 5, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Hyon Choi, Tuhina Neogi, Lisa Stamp, Nicola Dalbeth, Robert Terkeltaub
Recently, the FDA issued a public safety alert, responding to results of the now-published Cardiovascular Safety of Febuxostat and Allopurinol in Patients With Gout and Cardiovascular Morbidities (CARES) trial. CARES showed no significant difference between allopurinol and febuxostat in the primary composite endpoint of cardiovascular (CV) events in subjects with gout and established cardiovascular comorbidities at baseline. However, there was significantly increased risk of cardiac and all-cause mortality with febuxostat...
June 5, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Qiao Wang, Le-Hang Guo, Xiao-Long Li, Chong-Ke Zhao, Ming-Xu Li, Ling Wang, Xin-Ying Liu, Hui-Xiong Xu
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the value of ultrasound (US) in differentiating the acute phase of gout from the intercritical phase, particularly using shear wave elastography (SWE). METHODS: 57 gout patients were prospectively enrolled and divided into acute phase and intercritical phase groups. The patients underwent US and SWE examinations for the first metatarsophalangeal joints with the same protocol. Maximum synovial thickness was measured. US features were reviewed by two radiologists independently...
June 4, 2018: European Radiology
Masanari Shiramoto, Sha Liu, Zancong Shen, Xiaohong Yan, Amy Yamamoto, Michael Gillen, Yasushi Ito, Jesse Hall
Objectives: Verinurad (RDEA3170) is a high-affinity inhibitor of the URAT1 transporter in clinical development for treating gout and asymptomatic hyperuricaemia. The aim of this Phase 2a, randomized, open-label study was to investigate the multiple-dose pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and safety of oral verinurad combined with febuxostat vs febuxostat alone and verinurad alone. Methods: Japanese male subjects aged 21-65 years with gout (n = 37) or asymptomatic hyperuricaemia (n = 35) and serum urate (sUA) ⩾8 mg/dl were randomized to febuxostat (10, 20, 40 mg) in combination with verinurad (2...
June 1, 2018: Rheumatology
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