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Jian-Xin Chen, Xiao-Xiang Yu, Yu Ye, Xiao-Bo Yang, Ai-Hua Tan, Xiao-Ying Xian, Su-Chun Wei, Jun Long, Zeng-Nan Mo
OBJECTIVE: Upper urinary calculi (UUC) is considered to be a comprehensive disease associated with many risk factors, but the role of physical activity (PA) is undefined. Here, we conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate this relationship in Asian populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients diagnosed with UUC were the subjects of study and those who participated in a health examination in local medical center were included as controls. Information was collected through the same standard questionnaire...
October 21, 2016: Urologia Internationalis
Andrew Jeyaruban, Muriel Soden, Sarah Larkins
To examine the management of gout in general practice in Townsville, Australia, and to explore comorbid conditions in patients with gout. Study will also explore how closely guidelines are being followed in managing gout. Retrospective chart review was conducted from May to November 2014 in three general practices in Townsville. Registers for patients were established by searching "gout" and "gouty arthritis". Three hundred and twenty-one patients were included in the study after excluding inactive patients, patients below age of 18 and patients with cancer...
October 21, 2016: Rheumatology International
Adey A Berhanu, Svetlana Krasnokutsky, Robert T Keenan, Michael H Pillinger
INTRODUCTION: Pegloticase is a highly effective therapy for patients with refractory and/or tophaceous gout, but has a high discontinuation rate (30-50%) due to development of anti-drug antibodies causing loss of efficacy and risk of infusion reactions. OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of azathioprine or other immunosuppressive therapies as a pegloticase adjunct to prevent pegloticase immunogenicity when treating gout. METHODS: Case report of azathioprine use in a patient receiving pegloticase therapy for refractory tophaceous gout, and review of the literature for the impact of immunosuppressive agents on development of anti-drug antibodies...
September 20, 2016: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
Durga Mahor, Anu Priyanka, Gandham S Prasad, Krishan Gopal Thakur
Consumption of foods and beverages with high purine content increases the risk of hyperuricemia, which causes gout and can lead to cardiovascular, renal, and other metabolic disorders. As patients often find dietary restrictions challenging, enzymatically lowering purine content in popular foods and beverages offers a safe and attractive strategy to control hyperuricemia. Here, we report structurally and functionally characterized purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) from Kluyveromyces lactis (KlacPNP), a key enzyme involved in the purine degradation pathway...
2016: PloS One
Sarah E Petite
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Therapeutics
Nishone Thompson, Zainab Boone-Kukoyi, Raquel Shortt, Carisse Lansiquot, Bridgit Kioko, Enock Bonyi, Salih Toker, Birol Ozturk, Kadir Aslan
Gout is caused by the overproduction of uric acid and the inefficient metabolism of dietary purines in humans. Current treatments of gout, which include anti-inflammatory drugs, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, and systemic glucocorticoids, have harmful side-effects. Our research laboratory has recently introduced an innovative approach for the decrystallization of biological and chemical crystals using the Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Evaporative Decrystallization (MAMAD) technique. In the MAMAD technique, microwave energy is used to heat and activate gold nanoparticles that behave as "nano-bullets" to rapidly disrupt the crystal structure of biological crystals placed on planar surfaces...
October 18, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Fatma Eminaga, Jonathan Le-Carratt, Adrian Jones, A Abhishek
The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature on effect of initiating urate-lowering treatment (ULT) during an acute attack of gout on duration of index attack and persistence on ULT. OVID (Medline), EMBASE and AMED were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of ULT initiation during acute gout attack published in English language. Two reviewers appraised the study quality and extracted data independently. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and relative risk (RR) were used to pool continuous and categorical data...
October 19, 2016: Rheumatology International
Guang-Ming Tan, Bryan P Yan
Colchicine is a well-established drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the prevention and treatment of gout. It processes unique anti-inflammatory properties. Interests in the usage of colchicine in cardiovascular medicine have been rekindled recently with several large trials been carried out to investigate its efficacy in treatment of various cardiac conditions including pericarditis, postpericardiotomy syndrome, atrial fibrillation and coronary artery disease. In this review, the basic pharmacological properties of colchicine will be discussed, and the evidences of its benefits for different applications in cardiovascular medicine will be reviewed...
October 13, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
Andrew Finch Rheumatology, Paul Kubler Rheumatologist
Gout is a common inflammatory arthritis that is increasing in prevalence. It is caused by the deposition of urate crystals. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, colchicine and corticosteroids are options for the management of acute gout. They are equally efficacious and comorbidities guide the best choice. Allopurinol is an effective treatment for reducing concentrations of uric acid. Renal function guides the starting dose of allopurinol and the baseline serum uric acid concentration guides the maintenance dose...
August 2016: Australian Prescriber
Suzanne Oparil
Heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure are leading causes of death worldwide, and hypertension is a significant risk factor for each. Hypertension is less common in women, compared to men, in those younger than 45 years of age. This trend is reversed in those 65 years and older. In the US between 2011-2014, the prevalence of hypertension in women and men by age group was 6% vs 8% (18-39 years), 30% vs 35% (40-59 years), and 67% vs 63% (60 years and over). Awareness, treatment, and control rates differ between genders with women being more aware of their diagnosis (85% vs 80%), more likely to take their medications (81% vs 71%) and more frequently having controlled hypertension (55% vs 49%)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Matthew Weir, Martha Mayo, Dahlia Garza, Susan Arthur, Lance Berman, David Bushinsky, Daniel Wilson, Murray Epstein
OBJECTIVE: Diuretics, alone or in combination, are frequently prescribed in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and heart failure (HF) patients to reduce volume, blood pressure, and/or for symptom control. Clinicians may also use them to reduce the risk of hyperkalemia, but high doses of diuretics may lead to adverse events from intravascular volume depletion or gout. Patiromer is a non-absorbed K-binding polymer recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of hyperkalemia (HK). We compared patiromer's effects in RAASi-treated CKD patients with HK on different types of diuretics to patients not receiving diuretics in the treatment phase of OPAL-HK...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Bishoy Kamel, Garry G Graham, Kenneth M Williams, Kevin D Pile, Richard O Day
Febuxostat is a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor that has been developed to treat chronic gout. In healthy subjects, the pharmacokinetic parameters of febuxostat after multiple oral dose administration include an oral availability of about 85 %, an apparent oral clearance (CL/F) of 10.5 ± 3.4 L/h and an apparent volume of distribution at steady state (V ss/F) of 48 ± 23 L. The time course of plasma concentrations follows a two-compartment model. The initial half-life (t ½) is approximately 2 h and the terminal t ½ determined at daily doses of 40 mg or more is 9...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Valentina Giuffra, Simona Minozzi, Angelica Vitiello, Antonio Fornaciari
OBJECTIVES: Throughout history, gout has been referred to as the "disease of the kings", and has been clearly associated with the lifestyle of the aristocratic social classes. According to the written sources, several members of the famous Medici family of Florence suffered from an arthritic disease that contemporary physicians called "gout". A paleopathological study carried out on the skeletal remains of some members of the family, exhumed from their tombs in the Church of San Lorenzo in Florence, offered a unique opportunity to directly investigate the evidence of the arthritic diseases affecting this elite group...
September 7, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Alexis Ogdie, William J Taylor, Tuhina Neogi, Jaap Fransen, Tim L Jansen, H Ralph Schumacher, Worawit Louthrenoo, Janitzia Vazquez-Mellado, Maxim Eliseev, Geraldine McCarthy, Lisa K Stamp, Fernando Perez-Ruiz, Francisca Sivera, Hang-Korng Ea, Martijn Gerritsen, Giovanni Cagnotto, Lorenzo Cavagna, Chingtsai Lin, Yin-Yi Chou, Anne-Kathrin Tausche, Manuella Lima Gomes Ochtrop, Matthijs Janssen, Jiunn-Horng Chen, Ole Slot, Juris Lazovskis, Douglas White, Marco A Cimmino, Till Uhlig, Nicola Dalbeth
OBJECTIVES: To examine the performance of ultrasound for the diagnosis of gout using presence of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals as the gold standard. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Study for Updated Gout Classification Criteria (SUGAR), a large, multi-center observational cross-sectional study of consecutive subjects with at least one swollen joint who conceivably may have gout. All subjects underwent arthrocentesis; cases were subjects with MSU crystal confirmation...
October 16, 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Eugene Y Kissin, Michael H Pillinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Robert Morlock, Pierre Chevalier, Laura Horne, Javier Nuevo, Chris Storgard, Lalitha Aiyer, Dionne M Hines, Xavier Ansolabehere, Fredrik Nyberg
INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to assess disease control, health resource utilization (HRU), and healthcare costs, and their predictors in gout patients across the USA, UK, Germany, and France. METHODS: Data were extracted from the PharMetrics Plus (USA), Clinical Practice Research Datalink-Hospital Episode Statistics (UK), and Disease Analyzer databases (Germany and France) for adult gout patients over a 3-year period: 2009-2011 (all dates +1 year for France)...
June 2016: Rheumatol Ther
Patrick Omoumi, Pascal Zufferey, Jacques Malghem, Alexander So
In this article, the authors consider the manifestations of intraarticular and periarticular crystal deposits. Most cases of crystal deposits are asymptomatic and represent incidental findings at imaging. In symptomatic arthropathies, imaging can play an important role in the diagnosis and assessment of disease progression and the extent of crystal deposits. Conventional radiography is the most common imaging modality. But ultrasound, conventional computerized tomography (CT), dual-energy CT, and MRI play an increasing role...
November 2016: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
Laura László, Balázs Sarkadi, Tamás Hegedűs
ABCG2/BCRP is a membrane protein, involved in xenobiotic and endobiotic transport in key pharmacological barriers and drug metabolizing organs, in the protection of stem cells, and in multidrug resistance of cancer. Pharmacogenetic studies implicated the role of ABCG2 in response to widely used medicines and anticancer agents, as well as in gout. Its Q141K variant exhibits decreased functional expression thus increased drug accumulation and decreased urate secretion. Still, there has been no reliable molecular model available for this protein, as the published structures of other ABC transporters could not be properly fitted to the ABCG2 topology and experimental data...
2016: PloS One
Michael Lynch, Matthew S Ackerman, Jean-Francois Gout, Hongan Long, Way Sung, W Kelley Thomas, Patricia L Foster
As one of the few cellular traits that can be quantified across the tree of life, DNA-replication fidelity provides an excellent platform for understanding fundamental evolutionary processes. Furthermore, because mutation is the ultimate source of all genetic variation, clarifying why mutation rates vary is crucial for understanding all areas of biology. A potentially revealing hypothesis for mutation-rate evolution is that natural selection primarily operates to improve replication fidelity, with the ultimate limits to what can be achieved set by the power of random genetic drift...
October 14, 2016: Nature Reviews. Genetics
Jin-Jin Lu, Bing-Jie Jia, Lin Yang, Wen Zhang, Xin Dong, Ping Li, Jun Chen
It has been proved that the purine metabolic pathway has been implicated in various biological disorders including gout, diabetes, coronary heart diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. The analysis of the purine metabolic pathway in organisms reveals important alterations under different physiological and pathological conditions, which contributes to the pathological study, diagnosis, and therapy of related diseases. In the present study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-UV-MS/MS) method was developed for conducting the comprehensive analysis of the metabolite profiles of the purine pathway in rat plasma through a single analysis...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
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