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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914688/systematic-review-of-rheumatic-disease-epidemiology-in-the-indigenous-populations-of-canada-the-united-states-australia-and-new-zealand
#1
REVIEW
Cairistin McDougall, Kelle Hurd, Cheryl Barnabe
OBJECTIVE: Past publications have highlighted an excess rheumatic disease incidence and prevalence in indigenous populations of Canada (First Nations, Inuit, and Métis), and the United States of America (Alaska Native and American Indian). We have updated these reviews and expanded the scope to include New Zealand (Maori) and Australia (Aborigine) indigenous populations. METHODS: We performed a broad search using medical literature databases, indigenous specific online indexes, and government websites to identify publications reporting the incidence and/or prevalence of arthritis conditions (rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthropathies, gout, osteoarthritis, systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis) in the indigenous populations of Canada, America, New Zealand, and Australia...
November 1, 2016: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909088/construct-validity-of-radiographs-of-the-feet-to-assess-joint-damage-in-patients-with-gout
#2
Bart Spaetgens, Caroline van Durme, Casper Webers, An Tran-Duy, Thea Schoonbrood, Annelies Boonen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate construct validity of radiographic damage of the feet in gout. METHODS: Radiographs of the feet were scored using the Sharp/van der Heijde method. Factors associated with damage were investigated by a negative binomial model, and contribution of damage to health by linear regressions. RESULTS: Age, disease duration, serum uric acid, and tophi were associated with being erosive and erosion score. Tophi were associated with joint space narrowing...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906639/ultrasonography-in-the-diagnosis-of-asymptomatic-hyperuricemia-and-gout
#3
J G Puig, L M Beltrán, C Mejía-Chew, D Tevar, R J Torres
Sonography has detected urate deposits in 34%-42% of the patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia. This may prompt reclassification of asymptomatic hyperuricemia into "asymptomatic gout" and consideration of urate lowering therapy (ULT) to resolve urate deposits. In patients with gout and no visible tophi, sonography has detected urate deposits in half of the patients. This may allow diagnosing "tophaceous gout" and influencing the serum urate target level, prophylaxis to avoid acute gout flares during ULT, and clinical follow-up...
December 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906623/orotate-orotic-acid-an-essential-and-versatile-molecule
#4
M Löffler, E A Carrey, E Zameitat
Orotate (OA) is well-known as a precursor in biosynthesis of pyrimidines; in mammals it is released from the mitochondrial dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) for conversion to UMP by the cytoplasmic UMP synthase enzyme. OA is also a normal part of the diet, being found in milk and dairy products, and it is converted to uridine for use in the pyrimidine salvage pathway predominantly in liver, kidney and erythrocytes. Early research into nutrition identified orotate as "vitamin B13," and its use as a complex with organic cations or metal ions was promulgated in body-building, and in assisting therapies of metabolic syndromes...
December 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906618/expression-of-a-human-npt1-slc17a1-missense-variant-which-increases-urate-export
#5
Masayuki Sakiyama, Hirotaka Matsuo, Shushi Nagamori, Wei Ling, Yusuke Kawamura, Akiyoshi Nakayama, Toshihide Higashino, Toshinori Chiba, Kimiyoshi Ichida, Yoshikatsu Kanai, Nariyoshi Shinomiya
Human sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter type 1 (NPT1/SLC17A1) is one of the urate transporters in the kidney. Our recent study revealed that a common missense variant, I269T (rs1165196), of NPT1 decreases the risk of renal underexcretion gout. Moreover, we demonstrated that human NPT1 is localized to the apical membrane of the renal proximal tubule, and that I269T is the gain-of-function variant which increases the NPT1-mediated urate export. However, the mechanism by which I269T variant increases the urate export remains to be clarified...
December 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903742/p2y6-receptor-antagonist-mrs2578-inhibits-neutrophil-activation-and-aggregated-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-induced-by-gout-associated-monosodium-urate-crystals
#6
Payel Sil, Craig P Hayes, Barbara J Reaves, Patrick Breen, Shannon Quinn, Jeremy Sokolove, Balázs Rada
Human neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes [PMNs]) generate inflammatory responses within the joints of gout patients upon encountering monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are found abundantly in the synovial fluid of gout patients. The detailed mechanism of MSU crystal-induced NET formation remains unknown. Our goal was to shed light on possible roles of purinergic signaling and neutrophil migration in mediating NET formation induced by MSU crystals. Interaction of human neutrophils with MSU crystals was evaluated by high-throughput live imaging using confocal microscopy...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902172/is-it-easy-to-clinically-distinguish-inflammatory-arthritis-of-bacterial-origin-from-monoarthritis-attacks-of-gout-disease
#7
O Şahap Atik, Yılmaz Ergişi, Tacettin Ayanoğlu, Mehmet Ali Tokgöz, Erdem Aras Sezgin, Pınar Uyar Göçün
Acute monoarthritis is a common situation in orthopedic emergency where the patient presents with typical inflamed joint. It is hard to clinically distinguish inflammatory arthritis of bacterial origin from monoarthritis attacks of gout disease. If these two situations, which are the most common causes of acute monoarthritis, are misdiagnosed, outcomes might be catastrophic and costly. Synovial fluid analysis is the most reliable method for confirming the diagnosis although it might not always lead to definitive diagnosis...
December 2016: Eklem Hastalıkları Ve Cerrahisi, Joint Diseases & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900275/spinal-gout-a-review-with-case-illustration
#8
Hossein Elgafy, Xiaochen Liu, Joseph Herron
AIM: To summarize clinical presentations and treatment options of spinal gout in the literature from 2000 to 2014, and present theories for possible mechanism of spinal gout formation. METHODS: The authors reviewed 68 published cases of spinal gout, which were collected by searching "spinal gout" on PubMed from 2000 to 2014. The data were analyzed for clinical features, anatomical location of spinal gout, laboratory studies, imaging studies, and treatment choices...
November 18, 2016: World Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899376/gwas-of-clinically-defined-gout-and-subtypes-identifies-multiple-susceptibility-loci-that-include-urate-transporter-genes
#9
Akiyoshi Nakayama, Hirofumi Nakaoka, Ken Yamamoto, Masayuki Sakiyama, Amara Shaukat, Yu Toyoda, Yukinori Okada, Yoichiro Kamatani, Takahiro Nakamura, Tappei Takada, Katsuhisa Inoue, Tomoya Yasujima, Hiroaki Yuasa, Yuko Shirahama, Hiroshi Nakashima, Seiko Shimizu, Toshihide Higashino, Yusuke Kawamura, Hiraku Ogata, Makoto Kawaguchi, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Inaho Danjoh, Atsumi Tokumasu, Keiko Ooyama, Toshimitsu Ito, Takaaki Kondo, Kenji Wakai, Blanka Stiburkova, Karel Pavelka, Lisa K Stamp, Nicola Dalbeth, Yutaka Sakurai, Hiroshi Suzuki, Makoto Hosoyamada, Shin Fujimori, Takashi Yokoo, Tatsuo Hosoya, Ituro Inoue, Atsushi Takahashi, Michiaki Kubo, Hiroshi Ooyama, Toru Shimizu, Kimiyoshi Ichida, Nariyoshi Shinomiya, Tony R Merriman, Hirotaka Matsuo
OBJECTIVE: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of gout and its subtypes was performed to identify novel gout loci, including those that are subtype-specific. METHODS: Putative causal association signals from a GWAS of 945 clinically defined gout cases and 1213 controls from Japanese males were replicated with 1396 cases and 1268 controls using a custom chip of 1961 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We also first conducted GWASs of gout subtypes. Replication with Caucasian and New Zealand Polynesian samples was done to further validate the loci identified in this study...
November 29, 2016: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898996/calcium-pyrophosphate-deposition-disease-and-associated-medical-co-morbidities-a-national-cross-sectional-study-of-us-veterans
#10
Crystal Kleiber Balderrama, Ann K Rosenthal, Daniel Lans, Jasvinder A Singh, Christie M Bartels
OBJECTIVE: Calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition disease (CPDD) is a common cause of acute and chronic arthritis, yet there are few large epidemiologic studies of CPDD. We sought to characterize CPDD in the national Veterans Affairs (VA) population. METHODS: Patients with International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision (ICD-9) codes for CPDD seen at any VA medical center from 2010 through 2014 were matched by age and gender with control patients without CPDD, using data from the Department of Veterans Affairs Corporate Data Warehouse...
November 29, 2016: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894951/a-pilot-study-of-cxcl8-levels-in-crystal-proven-gout-patients-during-allopurinol-treatment-and-their-association-with-cardiovascular-disease
#11
Laura Kienhorst, Hein Janssens, Tim Radstake, Piet van Riel, Hans Jacobs, Elly van Koolwijk, Ellen van Lochem, Matthijs Janssen
OBJECTIVES: Gout is associated with cardiovascular diseases, and systemic inflammation has a role in this. CXCL8 (interleukin 8) levels were increased in synovial fluid of gout patients, and in serum in gout patients irrespective of their disease activity. We hypothesized that the well-known cardiovascular protective effects of allopurinol could be related to effects of this drug on CXCL8 levels. METHODS: Patients with a crystal proven gout diagnosis, who newly started allopurinol treatment, were included in this prospective cohort study...
November 25, 2016: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893683/clinical-characteristics-of-early-and-late-onset-gout-a-cross-sectional-observational-study-from-a-chinese-gout-clinic
#12
Bingqing Zhang, Weigang Fang, Xuejun Zeng, Yun Zhang, Ya Ma, Feng Sheng, Xinlei Zhang
A retrospective cross-sectional study using data from an outpatient clinic in China was conducted to investigate the clinical features of early-onset gout patients.All patients diagnosed with gout were asked about clinical characteristics of their gout and comorbid diseases. Patients presenting with acute flares were asked about common triggers before the flare. "Early-onset" gout was defined as onset of gout before 40 years and "late-onset" as onset ≥40 years. Major joint involvement, flare frequency before presentation, the cumulative number of involved joints, proportions of tophi complications at presentation, flare triggers, as well as any metabolic, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and renal comorbidities, were compared between the 2 groups...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891274/a-rare-case-of-lateral-canthal-gouty-tophus-presenting-as-an-eyelid-mass
#13
Austin S Nakatsuka, Timothy F McDevitt, Pamela S Tauchi-Nishi
A 41-year-old man with a history of gout presented with an enlarging eyelid growth. Clinical examination revealed a mildly indurated nodule at the lateral canthus. Following resection, histopathological examination revealed needle-shaped, crystalline material surrounded by multinucleated giant cells, findings consistent with gouty tophus. This represents just the sixth case of gouty tophus of the eyelid reported in the literature.
2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889764/high-uric-acid-activates-the-ros-ampk-pathway-impairs-cd68-expression-and-inhibits-oxldl-induced-foam-cell-formation-in-a-human-monocytic-cell-line-thp-1
#14
Chaohuan Luo, Xueke Lian, Liangli Hong, Jingfang Zou, Zhi Li, Yuzhang Zhu, Tianliang Huang, Yongneng Zhang, Yaqiu Hu, Huier Yuan, Tengfei Wen, Wanling Zhuang, Bozhi Cai, Xin Zhang, Ichiro Hisatome, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Jiexiong Huang, Jidong Cheng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hyperuricemia is part of the metabolic-syndrome cluster of abdominal obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Monocytes/macrophages are critical in the development of metabolic syndrome, including gout, obesity and atherosclerosis. However, how high uric acid (HUA) exposure affects monocyte/macrophage function remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of HUA exposure in monocytes/macrophages and its impact on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced foam-cell formation in a human monocytic cell line, THP-1...
November 25, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886694/update-on-crystal-induced-arthritides
#15
REVIEW
Hossam El-Zawawy, Brian F Mandell
The prevalence of gout increases with age. Once serum concentration of urate exceeds the saturation/solubility point, it deposits in and around the joints. Clinical presentation in the elderly often has "atypical" features and is challenging to diagnose. Treatment depends on the stage of the disease and the patient's health status and comorbidities. Elderly patients often have several confounding issues; thus, treatment decisions can be complicated and therapeutic options limited. To prevent the recurrence of gout attacks, serum concentration of urate should be maintained well below the saturation threshold of 6...
February 2017: Clinics in Geriatric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885718/purinergic-receptors-new-targets-for-the-treatment-of-gout-and-fibrosis
#16
REVIEW
Thomas Gicquel, Brendan Le Daré, Elisabeth Boichot, Vincent Lagente
Adenosine triphosphate is involved in many metabolic reactions, but it has also a role as a cellular danger signal transmitted through purinergic receptors (PRs). Indeed, ATP can bind to PRs which are found in the membrane of many cell types, although the relative proportions of the receptor subtypes differ. PRs are classified according to genetic and pharmacological criteria and especially their affinities for agonists and their transduction mechanism (i.e. as metabotropic P2YRs or ionotropic P2XRs). Extracellular ATP release by activated or necrotic cells may activate various PRs and especially P2X7R, the best-characterized PR, on immune cells...
November 25, 2016: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883103/-gout-new-approaches-to-diagnostics-and-treatment
#17
Till Uhlig, Tron Eskild, Hilde Berner Hammer
An attack of gout is extremely painful. Recurrent attacks of arthritis in one or more joints or tendon sheaths accompanied by intense pain are typical of this commonly occurring condition. As these symptoms indicate acute inflammation due to uric acid crystal deposition, good diagnostics are essential to enable initiation of drug treatment which removes the crystals deposited in tissue.
November 2016: Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881692/monitoring-of-urate-lowering-therapy-among-us-veterans-following-the-2012-american-college-of-rheumatology-guidelines-for-management-of-gout
#18
Jonathan C Hughes, Jessica L Wallace, Candace L Bryant, Brent E Salvig, T Neal Fourakre, William J Stone
BACKGROUND: With the prevalence of and hospitalizations for gout increasing, optimizing care for patients with gout is imperative. The 2012 American College of Rheumatology gout guidelines emphasize that timely monitoring is key to achieving serum urate (SUA) goals. Few studies have examined this metric following the 2012 update, and to our knowledge, none have examined a veteran population. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate adherence to urate-lowering therapy (ULT) monitoring guidelines in a veteran population...
November 22, 2016: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881135/cat-s-whiskers-orthosiphon-stamineus-tea-modulates-arthritis-pathogenesis-via-the-angiogenesis-and-inflammatory-cascade
#19
Yasser M Tabana, Fouad Saleih R Al-Suede, Mohamed B Khadeer Ahamed, Saad S Dahham, Loiy E Ahmed Hassan, Saba Khalilpour, Mohamad Taleb-Agha, Doblin Sandai, Aman S Abdul Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid
BACKGROUND: Orthosiphon stamineus is used traditionally to treat gout, arthritis, and inflammatory related conditions. The in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of the plant have been scientifically investigated. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the potential of the 50% ethanol extract of O. stamineus (EOS) to treat rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: Anti-arthritic activity was assessed using the in vitro heat denaturation test and the (FCA)-induced arthritis model...
November 24, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878622/effects-of-febuxostat-on-insulin-resistance-and-expression-of-high-sensitivity-c-reactive-protein-in-patients-with-primary-gout
#20
Juan Meng, Yanchun Li, Xiaoxu Yuan, Yuewu Lu
We aimed to investigate the effects of febuxostat on IR and the expression of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with primary gout. Forty-two cases of primary gout patients without uric acid-lowering therapy were included in this study. After a physical examination, 20 age- and sex-matched patients were included as normal controls. The levels of fasting insulin (INS), fasting blood glucose (FBG), and hs-CRP were determined. IR was assessed using the Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR)...
November 23, 2016: Rheumatology International
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