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Soohoon Kwon, Dong Ho Lee, Jae Bin Kang, Nayoung Kim, Young Soo Park, Cheol Min Shin, Hyuk Yoon, Yoon Jin Choi
Background/Aims: Hybrid therapy was successful in eradicating Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) according to previous reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have only been a few studies evaluating the optimal choice after hybrid failure. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of moxifloxacin-containing triple therapy after hybrid therapy failure in H. pylori eradication. Methods: Between January 2013 and March 2016, we retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent failed hybrid therapy, as first line treatment, in eradicating H...
August 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
Jae-Jung Ha, Ka-Young Yang, Dong-Yep Oh, Jun-Koo Yi, Jong Joo Kim
Objective: This study was conducted to analyze the effects of stocking density on growth and carcass quality, and behaviors of Hanwoo cattle to achieve the status of livestock husbandry in accordance with global trends, targeting animal welfare production through the practice of environmentally friendly condition. Methods: Thirty six steers were randomly assigned to three treatment groups (C: 5 heads, T1: 4 heads, T2: 3 heads) and reared in separate pens with a constant stocking density of 50m2 (C: 10 m2/head, T1: 12...
August 22, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Hyeonmin R Kong, Nicholas B Anthony, Kaylee C Rowland, Bhuwan Khatri, Byungwhi C Kong
Objective: Meat quality including muscle color in chickens is an important trait and continuous selective pressures for fast growth and high yield have negatively impacted this trait. This study was conducted to investigate genetic variations responsible for regulating muscle color. Methods: Whole genome re-sequencing analysis using Illumina HiSeq paired end read method was performed with pooled DNA samples isolated from two broiler chicken lines divergently selected for muscle color [high muscle color (HMC) and low muscle color (LMC)] along with their random bred control line (RAN)...
August 22, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Elizabeth C Lee, Jason M Asher, Sandra Goldlust, John D Kraemer, Andrew B Lawson, Shweta Bansal
Spatial big data have the velocity, volume, and variety of big data sources and contain additional geographic information. Digital data sources, such as medical claims, mobile phone call data records, and geographically tagged tweets, have entered infectious diseases epidemiology as novel sources of data to complement traditional infectious disease surveillance. In this work, we provide examples of how spatial big data have been used thus far in epidemiological analyses and describe opportunities for these sources to improve disease-mitigation strategies and public health coordination...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Amy Wesolowski, Caroline O Buckee, Kenth Engø-Monsen, C J E Metcalf
Human travel can shape infectious disease dynamics by introducing pathogens into susceptible populations or by changing the frequency of contacts between infected and susceptible individuals. Quantifying infectious disease-relevant travel patterns on fine spatial and temporal scales has historically been limited by data availability. The recent emergence of mobile phone calling data and associated locational information means that we can now trace fine scale movement across large numbers of individuals. However, these data necessarily reflect a biased sample of individuals across communities and are generally aggregated for both ethical and pragmatic reasons that may further obscure the nuance of individual and spatial heterogeneities...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Gabriel Sergio Costa Alves, Luana Ferreira Torres, Eveline Déchamp, Jean-Christophe Breitler, Thierry Joët, Frédéric Gatineau, Alan Carvalho Andrade, Benoît Bertrand, Pierre Marraccini, Hervé Etienne
Despite the importance of the DREB1D gene (also known as CBF4) in plant responses to water deficit and cold stress, studies analysing its regulation by transgenic approaches are lacking. In the current work, a functional study of three CcDREB1D promoter haplotypes (named HP15, HP16 and HP17) isolated from drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive clones of Coffea canephora was carried out in plants of C. arabica stably transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens by analysing their ability to regulate the expression of the uidA reporter gene in response to water deficit mimicked by polyethylene glycol (-2...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
W Xu, S Bobet, J Le Gourrierec, D Grain, D De Vos, A Berger, F Salsac, Z Kelemen, J Boucherez, A Rolland, G Mouille, J M Routaboul, L Lepiniec, C Dubos
Flavonoids are secondary metabolites that fulfil a multitude of functions during the plant life cycle. In Arabidopsis proanthocyanidins (PAs) are flavonoids that specifically accumulate in the innermost integuments of the seed testa (i.e. endothelium), as well as in the chalaza and micropyle areas, and play a vital role in protecting the embryo against various biotic and abiotic stresses. PAs accumulation in the endothelium requires the activity of the MADS box transcription factor TRANSPARENT TESTA (TT) 16 (ARABIDOPSIS B-SISTER/AGAMOUS-LIKE 32) and the UDP-glycosyltransferase TT15 (UGT80B1)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Maria C Dzialo, Rahel Park, Jan Steensels, Bart Lievens, Kevin J Verstrepen
Yeast cells are often employed in industrial fermentation processes for their ability to efficiently convert relatively high concentrations of sugars into ethanol and carbon dioxide. Additionally, fermenting yeast cells produce a wide range of other compounds, including various higher alcohols, carbonyl compounds, phenolic compounds, fatty acid derivatives and sulfur compounds. Interestingly, many of these secondary metabolites are volatile and have pungent aromas that are often vital for product quality. In this review, we summarize the different biochemical pathways underlying aroma production in yeast as well as the relevance of these compounds for industrial applications and the factors that influence their production during fermentation...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Chien-Wei Huang, Michelle E Walker, Bruno Fedrizzi, Richard C Gardner, Vladimir Jiranek
The rotten-egg odour of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) produced by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has attracted considerable research interest due to its huge impact on the sensory quality of fermented foods and beverages. To date, the yeast genetic mechanisms of H2S liberation during wine fermentation are well understood and yeast strains producing low levels of H2S have been developed. Studies have also revealed that H2S is not just a by-product in the biosynthesis of the sulfur-containing amino acids, but indeed a vital molecule involved in detoxification, population signalling and extending cellular life span...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
Bryan E Shepherd, Meridith Blevins Peratikos, Peter F Rebeiro, Stephany N Duda, Catherine C McGowan
Reproducible research is important for assessing the integrity of findings and disseminating methods, but it requires making original study data sets publicly available. This requirement is difficult to meet in settings with sensitive data, which can mean that resulting studies are not reproducible. For studies in which data cannot be shared, we propose a pragmatic approach to make research quasi-reproducible. On a publicly available website without restriction, researchers should post 1) analysis code used in the published study, 2) simulated data, and 3) results obtained by applying the analysis code used in the published study to the simulated data...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
Ondrej Nešuta, Miloš Budešínský, Romana Hadravová, Lenka Monincová, Jana Humpolicková, Václav Cerovský
HYL-20 (GILSSLWKKLKKIIAK-NH2) is an analogue of a natural antimicrobial peptide (AMP) previously isolated from the venom of wild bee. We examined its antimicrobial activity against three strains of Enterococcus faecalis while focusing on its susceptibility to proteolytic degradation by two known proteases-gelatinase (GelE) and serine protease (SprE)-which are secreted by these bacterial strains. We found that HYL-20 was primarily deamidated at its C-terminal which made the peptide susceptible to consecutive intramolecular cleavage by GelE...
September 29, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
James W Marsh, Karrera Y Djoko, Alastair G McEwan, Wilhelmina M Huston
Lipophilic copper (Cu)-containing complexes have shown promising antibacterial activity against a range of bacterial pathogens. To examine the susceptibility of the intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis to copper complexes containing bis(thiosemicarbazone) ligands [Cu(btsc)], we tested the in vitro effect of CuII-diacetyl- and CuII-glyoxal-bis[N(4)-methylthiosemicarbazonato] (Cu(atsm) and Cu(gtsm), respectively) on C. trachomatis. Cu(atsm) and to a greater extent, Cu(gtsm), prevented the formation of infectious chlamydial progeny...
September 29, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
Xiaolan Zhang, Chunmei Lu, Fengmin Zhang, Yingli Song, Minghui Cai, Hui Zhu
Streptococcal heme binding protein (Shp) is involved in the process of heme acquisition in group A Streptococcus (GAS). However, no research thus far has examined the contribution of Shp to the virulence of GAS. To this end, we generated an isogenic strain lacking the shp gene (Δshp) and its complemented strain (Δshp-c) using the parent strain MGAS5005 (WT). Deletion of shp increased survival rates and neutrophil recruitment and reduced skin lesion sizes and GAS loads in the blood and the liver, lung, kidney and spleen in subcutaneous infections of mice...
September 29, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
Alexandrine Robert, Irvin R Schultz, Nicolas Hucher, Tiphaine Monsinjon, Thomas Knigge
The disposition and metabolism of fluoxetine in the European shore crab and the Dungeness crab were assessed. Crabs received intracardiac doses of either 0.13 μg/kg or 0.5 mg/kg fluoxetine, respectively. In addition, fluoxetine was administered to Metacarcinus cancer by oral gavage at 7.8 mg/kg. The distribution of fluoxetine was quantified in haemolymph and digestive gland for both crabs, as well as brain, muscle, and testis of Carcinus maenas, over 12 days. The metabolite norfluoxetine, was also measured in C...
August 9, 2017: Chemosphere
Foppe Smedes, Tatsiana P Rusina, Henry Beeltje, Philipp Mayer
Polymers are increasingly used for passive sampling of neutral hydrophobic organic substances (HOC) in environmental media including water, air, soil, sediment and even biological tissue. The equilibrium concentration of HOC in the polymer can be measured and then converted into equilibrium concentrations in other (defined) media, which however requires appropriate polymer to media partition coefficients. We determined thus polymer-lipid partition coefficients (KPL) of various PCB, PAH and organochlorine pesticides by equilibration of two silicones and low density polyethylene (LDPE) with fish oil and Triolein at 4 °C and 20 °C...
August 11, 2017: Chemosphere
Warren C W Chan, Manish Chhowalla, Sharon Glotzer, Yury Gogotsi, Jason H Hafner, Paula T Hammond, Mark C Hersam, Ali Javey, Cherie R Kagan, Kazunori Kataoka, Ali Khademhosseini, Nicholas A Kotov, Shuit-Tong Lee, Yan Li, Helmuth Möhwald, Paul Mulvaney, Andre E Nel, Peter J Nordlander, Wolfgang J Parak, Reginald M Penner, Andrey L Rogach, Raymond E Schaak, Molly M Stevens, Andrew T S Wee, C Grant Willson, Laura E Fernandez, Paul S Weiss
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2017: ACS Nano
Hao Zheng, Xiao Wang, Xianxiang Luo, Zhenyu Wang, Baoshan Xing
Biochar can sequestrate carbon (C) in soils and affect native soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization via priming effects. However, the roles of soil aggregation and microbial regulation in priming effects of biochars on SOC in coastal wetland soils are poorly understood. Thus, a coastal wetland soil (δ(13)C -22‰) was separated into macro-micro aggregates (53-2000μm, MA) and silt-clay fractions (<53μm, SF) to investigate the priming effect using two (13)C enriched biochars produced from corn straw (δ(13)C -11...
August 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Claudia M C S Listopad, Melanie Köbel, Adriana Príncipe, Paula Gonçalves, Cristina Branquinho
Climate change and increasing socio-economic pressure is placing many ecosystems of high ecological and economic value at risk. This is particularly urgent in dryland ecosystems, such as the montado, a multifunctional savannah-like system heavily modeled by grazing. There is still an ongoing debate about the trade-offs between livestock grazing and the potential for ecosystem regeneration. While it is consensual that overgrazing hinders the development of the shrubs and trees in this system, the effects of undergrazing or grazing exclusion are unclear...
August 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Bárbara Baêsso Moura, Edenise Segala Alves, Mauro Alexandre Marabesi, Silvia Ribeiro de Souza, Marcus Schaub, Pierre Vollenweider
In southern Brazil, the recent increase in tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations poses an additional threat to the biodiverse but endangered and fragmented remnants of the Atlantic Forest. Given the mostly unknown sensitivity of tropical species to oxidative stress, the principal objective of this study was to determine whether the current O3 levels in the Metropolitan Region of Campinas (MRC), downwind of São Paulo, affect the native vegetation of forest remnants. Foliar responses to O3 of three tree species typical of the MRC forests were investigated using indoor chamber exposure experiments under controlled conditions and a field survey...
August 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Trevon L Fuller, Paul R Sesink Clee, Kevin Y Njabo, Anthony Tróchez, Katy Morgan, Demetrio Bocuma Meñe, Nicola M Anthony, Mary Katherine Gonder, Walter R Allen, Rachid Hanna, Thomas B Smith
Although a number of recent studies suggest that climate associated shifts in agriculture are affecting social and economic systems, there have been relatively few studies of these effects in Africa. Such studies would be particularly useful in Central Africa, where the impacts of climate warming are predicted to be high but coincide with an area with low adaptive capacity. Focusing on plantain (Musa paradisiaca), we assess whether recent climate change has led to reduced yields. Analysis of annual temperature between 1950 and 2013 indicated a 0...
August 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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