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Nazanin Namazi Sarvestani, Saeedeh Saberi Firouzi, Reza Falak, Mohammad Yahya Karimi, Mohammad Davoodzadeh Gholami, Akram Rangbar, Asieh Hosseini
Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is the most common diabetic complication. It is estimated diabetic population will increase to 592 million by the year 2035. This is while at least 50-60% of all diabetic patients will suffer from neuropathy in their lifetime. Oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, and inflammation are crucial pathways in development and progression of DN. Since there is also no selective and effective therapeutic agent to prevent or treat high glucose (HG)-induced neuronal cell injury, it is crucial to explore tools by which one can reduce factors related to these pathways...
April 30, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Akiko Kimoto, Hanae Izu, Churan Fu, Sofya Suidasari, Norihisa Kato
Accumulating epidemiological evidence suggests light to moderate alcohol intake reduces risk of several chronic diseases. However, there is limited information regarding the effects of low alcohol intake in animal studies. This study investigated the effect of low ethanol dosage on senescence-accelerated mouse (SAMP8), an animal model of aging and neurodegenaration. Male SAMP8 mice (11 weeks old) had free access to a commercial stock diet with drinking water containing 0, 1 or 2% (v/v) ethanol for 15 weeks...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Anil Khushalrao Shendge, Tapasree Basu, Dipankar Chaudhuri, Sourav Panja, Nripendranath Mandal
BACKGROUND: Free radicals such as reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, generated in the body, play an important role in the fulfillment of various physiological functions but their imbalance in the body lead to cellular injury and various clinical disorders such as cancer, neurodegenaration, and inflammation. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to fight this problem, natural antioxidant from plants can be considered as possible protective agents against various diseases such as cancer which might also modify the redox microenvironment to reduce the genetic instability...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Koneru Naga Sravanthi, Nadendla Rama Rao
OBJECTIVES: The study was performed to evaluate the cerebroprotective activity of methanolic extract (ME) of Pentapetes phoenicea - a folk medicine used as anti-inflammatory and in central nervous system ailments. It has high phenolic and flavonoid contents including rutin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Global cerebral ischemia was induced in male albino Wistar rats by temporary bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) for 30 min, followed by 4 h reperfusion. Groups of rats were pretreated for 10 days with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of ME of P...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Shafiq Ur Rehman, Shahid Ali Shah, Tahir Ali, Jong Il Chung, Myeong Ok Kim
Aging is a major factor involved in neurological impairments, decreased anti-oxidant activities, and enhanced neuroinflammation. D-galactose (D-gal) has been considered an artificial aging model which induces oxidative stress and inflammatory response resulting in memory and synaptic dysfunction. Dietary supplementation exerts valuable effects against oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Polyphenolic flavonoids, such as anthocyanins, have been reported as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agents against various neurodegenerative diseases...
January 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
Ildikó Miklya, Noémi Pencz, Florencia Hafenscher, Patricia Göltl
α-synuclein, a small protein (140 amino acids) encoded by the SNCA gene is the best known isoform of the synuclein protein family. Though its physiological role is still not fully clarified, there is growing experimental evidence for a causal role of α-synuclein in the so-called conformational-neurodegenerative diseases. Conformational changes in the structure of the native soluble protein form insoluble neurotoxic aggregates and finally contribute to the formation of inclusion Lewy-bodies and Lewy-neurites...
June 2014: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
Parichehreh Yaghmaei, Raheleh Kheirbakhsh, Mehrooz Dezfulian, Ali Haeri-Rohani, Bagher Larijani, Azadeh Ebrahim-Habibi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible neurodegenerative condition in which abnormal accumulation of amyloid plaques is observed, and for which no effective treatment still exist. In recent years, many aromatic small molecules have been observed to have anti-amyloid effect, and may have the potential to attenuate AD symptoms. The indole core and the flavonoid precursor trans-chalcone have been studied here as representative of these group of molecules. Formation of amyloid plaques has been induced in a rat model of AD, after what the two compounds were given to experimental groups...
September 2013: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
Arivalagan Muthusamy, Cheng-Mao Lin, Sumathi Shanmugam, Heather M Lindner, Steven F Abcouwer, David A Antonetti
Retinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) induces neurodegenaration as well as blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown causing vascular permeability. Whereas the neuronal death has been extensively studied, the molecular mechanisms related to BRB breakdown in IR injury remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the early changes in tight junctional (TJ) proteins in response to IR injury. Ischemia-reperfusion injury was induced in male rat retinas by increasing the intraocular pressure for 45 minutes followed by natural reperfusion...
March 2014: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Karol Szadejko, Krzysztof Szabat, Anna Ludwichowska, Jarosław Sławek
Homocysteine (Hcy) has recently become the focus of interest in the research on Parkinson's disease (PD) and other neurodegenarative disorders. Chronic treatment with levodopa (LD), considered the standard treatment for PD, leads to an increase in homocysteine concentration in serum and cerebro-spinal fluid. Independently from this effect, homocysteine is also regarded as a marker of neurodegenerative disorders. Main interest was focused on hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcy) as the potential risk factor for atheromatosis...
2013: Przegla̧d Lekarski
M V Davydovskaia, A N Boĭko, A E Podoprigora, I N Pronin, V N Kornienko, E I Gusev
The aim of the study was to investigate the change of NAA/Cr ratio in the brain parenchyma in patients with MS with the help of protonic multivoxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy (PMMRS) and to detect the correlation between this factor and clinical status of the patients. The study was also performed in order to investigate whether this method can be potentially used for monitoring of the severity of the disease and severity of the neurodegenerative process. On the basis of this knowledge potential neuroprotective effect of the interferon beta 1a (IFN Β1а) i...
2012: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Moon-Jung Goo, Seul Min Choi, Soon-Hoe Kim, Byoung Ok Ahn
This study investigated the effects of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) in secondarily-induced cerebral chronic ischemia models using rats with permanent ligation of bilateral common carotid arteries (BCCL) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Additionally, we used normal aged rats as a primary dementia model. Chronic ALC administration at 100 mg/kg (p.o.) for 4 weeks significantly attenuated neurodegenerative changes. In groups receiving 50 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg, ALC inhibited the active astrocyte increase in cerebral tissues of both BCCL and SHR models...
January 2012: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Tigari Prakash, Dupadahalli Kotresha, Rama Rao Nedendla
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to evaluate the neuroprotective activity of Wedelia calendulacea against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion induced oxidative stress in the rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The global cerebral ischemia was induced in male albino Wistar rats by occluding the bilateral carotid arteries for 30 min followed by 1 h and 4 h reperfusion. At various times of reperfusion, the histopathological changes and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) activity and brain water content were measured...
November 2011: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Annadurai Anandhan, Kuppusamy Tamilselvam, Thangaiyan Radhiga, Shalinee Rao, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Thamilarasan Manivasagam
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by loss of dopominergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta, and can be experimentally induced by the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Chronic administration of MPTP/probenecid (MPTP/p) leads to oxidative stress, induction of apoptosis, and loss of dopominergic neurons which results in motor impairments. Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between tea consumption and susceptibility to PD...
January 18, 2012: Brain Research
B K Binukumar, Amanjit Bal, Ramesh J L Kandimalla, Kiran Dip Gill
BACKGROUND: In recent years, several lines of evidence have shown an increase in Parkinson's disease prevalence in rural environments where pesticides are heavily used. Although, the underlying mechanism for neuronal degeneration in sporadic PD remains unknown, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and proteasomal dysfunction are proposed as contributing factors. In this study rats were chronically and continuously exposed to the pesticide, dichlorvos to identify the molecular mechanism of nigrostaital neuronal degeneration...
2010: Molecular Brain
Zhiyin Xun, Thomas C Kaufman, David E Clemmer
The alpha-synuclein protein is associated with several neurodegenarative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD). In humans, only mutated forms of alpha-synuclein are linked to PD; however, panneural expression of human wild-type (WT) alpha-synuclein induces Parkinson's like-symptoms in Drosophila. Here, we report a quantitative proteomic analysis of WT alpha-synuclein transgenic flies with age-matched controls at the presymptomatic stage utilizing a global isotopic labeling strategy combined with multidimensional liquid chromatographies and tandem mass spectrometry...
September 2008: Journal of Proteome Research
Enikö Raceková, Judita Orendácová
This review surveys the main data published at the Institute of Neurobiology, Slovak Republic, pertaining to both morphological and functional observations in the olfactory bulbectomy model. The review utilized this experimental approach in homo- and heterotopic transplantations, in experiments for studying neurodegenaration/regeneration and phenomena of adult neurogenesis. The results, discussed in context of relevant literary data, indicate that the model of olfactory bulbectomy can be utilized to investigate problems not only related to the olfactory system but it can also address the problems of neuronal development, neuronal plasticity and interaction concerning the nervous system as a whole...
August 2007: International Journal of Neuroscience
Yan Wu, You Shang, Sheng-Gang Sun, Ren-Gang Liu, Wen-Qiong Yang
OBJECTIVE: The neuroprotective effect of erythropoietin (EPO) against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced oxidative stress in cultured PC12 cells, as well as the underlying mechanism, were investigated. METHODS: PC12 cells impaired by MPP(+) were used as the cell model of Parkinson's disease. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) was used to assay the viability of the PC12 cells exposed to gradient concentrations of EPO, and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay was used to analyze the apoptosis ratio of PC12 cells...
May 2007: Neuroscience Bulletin
K Mantelingu, B A Ashok Reddy, V Swaminathan, A Hari Kishore, Nagadenahalli B Siddappa, G V Pavan Kumar, G Nagashankar, Nagashayana Natesh, Siddhartha Roy, Parag P Sadhale, Udaykumar Ranga, Chandrabhas Narayana, Tapas K Kundu
Reversible acetylation of histone and nonhistone proteins plays pivotal role in cellular homeostasis. Dysfunction of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) leads to several diseases including cancer, neurodegenaration, asthma, diabetes, AIDS, and cardiac hypertrophy. We describe the synthesis and characterization of a set of p300-HAT-specific small-molecule inhibitors from a natural nonspecific HAT inhibitor, garcinol, which is highly toxic to cells. We show that the specific inhibitor selectively represses the p300-mediated acetylation of p53 in vivo...
June 2007: Chemistry & Biology
Abdulhakeem A Al-Majed, Fadhel A Al-Omar, Mahmoud N Nagi
Increasing evidence demonstrates that oxidative stress plays an important role in brain injury in experimental models of brain ischemia. Thymoquinone, the main constituents of the volatile oil from Negella sativa seeds, is reported to possess strong antioxidant properties. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of thymoquinone against transient forebrain ischemia-induced neuronal damage in the rat hippocampus. Rats were divided randomly into five groups: control, sham, ischemia, thymoquinone and ischemia+thymoquinone...
August 14, 2006: European Journal of Pharmacology
Lucyna Antkiewicz-Michaluk, Jerzy W Lazarewicz, Antoni Patsenka, Malgorzata Kajta, Elzbieta Zieminska, Elzbieta Salinska, Agnieszka Wasik, Krystyna Golembiowska, Jerzy Vetulani
1-Methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (1MeTIQ), unlike several other tetrahydroisoquinolines, displays neuroprotective properties. To elucidate this action we compared the effects of 1MeTIQ with 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (TIQ), a compound sharing many activities with 1MeTIQ (among them reducing free radicals formed during dopamine catabolism), but offering no clear neuroprotection. We found that the compounds similarly inhibit free-radical generation in an abiotic system, as well as indices of neurotoxicity (caspase-3 activity and lactate dehydrogenase release) induced by glutamate in mouse embryonic primary cell cultures (a preparation resistant to NMDA toxicity)...
May 2006: Journal of Neurochemistry
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