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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333521/nanomaterials-for-convection-enhanced-delivery-of-agents-to-treat-brain-tumors
#1
Young-Eun Seo, Tom Bu, W Mark Saltzman
Nanomaterials represent a promising and versatile platform for the delivery of therapeutics to the brain. Treatment of brain tumors has been a long-standing challenge in the field of neuro-oncology. The current standard of care - a multimodal approach of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy - yields only a modest therapeutic benefit for patients with malignant gliomas. A major obstacle for treatment is the failure to achieve sufficient delivery of therapeutics at the tumor site. Recent advances in local drug delivery techniques, along with the development of highly effective brain-penetrating nanocarriers, have significantly improved treatment and imaging of brain tumors in preclinical studies...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322505/impact-of-bistrand-abasic-sites-and-proximate-orientation-on-dna-global-structure-and-duplex-energetics
#2
Conceição A Minetti, Jeffrey Y Sun, Daniel P Jacobs, Inkoo Kang, David P Remeta, Kenneth J Breslauer
Bistrand lesions embedded within a single helical turn of tridecameric deoxyoligonucleotide duplexes represent a model system for exploring the impact of clustered lesions that occur in vivo and pose a significant challenge to cellular repair machineries. Such investigations are essential for understanding the forces that dictate lesion-induced mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and cytotoxicity within a context that mimics local helical perturbations caused by an ionizing radiation event. This study characterizes the structural and energy profiles of DNA duplexes harboring synthetic abasic sites (tetrahydrofuran, F) as models of clustered bistrand abasic (AP) lesions...
January 11, 2018: Biopolymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322094/electrically-switchable-metadevices-via-graphene
#3
Osman Balci, Nurbek Kakenov, Ertugrul Karademir, Sinan Balci, Semih Cakmakyapan, Emre O Polat, Humeyra Caglayan, Ekmel Özbay, Coskun Kocabas
Metamaterials bring subwavelength resonating structures together to overcome the limitations of conventional materials. The realization of active metadevices has been an outstanding challenge that requires electrically reconfigurable components operating over a broad spectrum with a wide dynamic range. However, the existing capability of metamaterials is not sufficient to realize this goal. By integrating passive metamaterials with active graphene devices, we demonstrate a new class of electrically controlled active metadevices working in microwave frequencies...
January 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314843/multipolar-nanocube-plasmon-mode-mixing-in-finite-substrates
#4
Charles Cherqui, Guoliang Li, Jacob A Busche, Steven C Quillin, Jon P Camden, David J Masiello
Facile control of the radiative and nonradiative properties of plasmonic nanostructures is of practical importance to a wide range of applications in the biological, chemical, optical, information, and energy sciences. For example, the ability to easily tune not only the plasmon spectrum but also the degree of coupling to light and/or heat, quality factor, and optical mode volume would aid the performance and function of nanophotonic devices and molecular sensors that rely upon plasmonic elements to confine and manipulate light at nanoscopic dimension...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310420/the-role-of-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-in-oligometastatic-colorectal-cancer-clinical-case-report-of-a-long-responder-patient-treated-with-regorafenib-beyond-progression
#5
Michela Roberto, Rosa Falcone, Federica Mazzuca, Livia Archibugi, Nadia Castaldi, Andrea Botticelli, Mattia Falchetto Osti, Paolo Marchetti
RATIONALE: Regorafenib is the new standard third-line therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, the reported 1-year overall survival rate does not exceed 25%. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 55-year-old man affected by mCRC, treated with regorafenib combined with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), showing a durable response. INTERVENTIONS: After 6 months of regorafenib, a PET/CT scan revealed a focal uptake in a solid lung nodule which was treated with SBRT, whereas continuing regorafenib administration...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309981/surgical-treatment-of-spinal-ependymomas-experience-in-49-patients
#6
Florian Wild, Christian Hartmann, Hans E Heissler, Bujung Hong, Joachim K Krauss, Makoto Nakamura
BACKGROUND: Ependymomas are rare tumors of the central nervous system. The local tumor distribution in the central nervous system is highly age-dependent as among adults ependymomas occur mostly in the spinal cord, whereas among children intracranial manifestations are more common. To date, there are no prospective studies about treatment strategies for ependymomas. In most cases complete tumor resection is recommended. The role of radiation therapy in low-grade ependymomas remains unclear...
January 5, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309720/radical-multimodality-therapy-for-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#7
REVIEW
Omar Abdel-Rahman, Zeinab Elsayed, Hadeer Mohamed, Mostafa Eltobgy
BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an almost always fatal tumour, for which palliative platinum-based chemotherapy is currently the standard treatment. Multimodal therapeutic strategies incorporating surgery, radiation therapy or photodynamic therapy and chemotherapy have been recommended for selected patients but there is no consensus about their effectiveness. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of radical multimodal treatment options (including radical surgery ± radical radiotherapy ± photodynamic therapy ± systemic therapy) compared to each other or to palliative treatments, for people with malignant pleural mesothelioma...
January 8, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309464/gorham-disease
#8
Kofi Agyeman, Juan Pretell-Mazzini, Ty Subhawong, Darcy A Kerr, Jean Jose
Gorham disease, a rare condition of unknown etiology, presents as skeletal lucency on radiographs, prompting the classic eponym of vanishing bone disease. Initial clinical presentation varies considerably but typically involves prolonged soreness in the affected region and, rarely, acute pathologic fracture. The nonspecific nature of complaints, lack of markers of systemic illness, and rarity of the disease contribute to delayed diagnosis. Several imaging studies (eg, plain radiographs, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear studies) provide nonspecific findings, but frank cortical destruction and true "disappearance" of bone with extensive soft-tissue edema are evident...
November 2017: American Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309126/enhanced-self-biased-magnetoelectric-coupling-in-laser-annealed-pb-zr-ti-o3-thick-film-deposited-on-ni-foil
#9
Haribabu Palneedi, Deepam Maurya, Liwei D Geng, Hyun-Cheol Song, Geon-Tae Hwang, Mahesh Peddigari, Venkateswarlu Annapureddy, Kyung Song, Yoon Seok Oh, Su-Chul Yang, Yu U Wang, Shashank Priya, Jungho Ryu
Enhanced and self-biased magnetoelectric (ME) coupling is demonstrated in a laminate heterostructure comprising of 4 μm-thick Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) film deposited on 50 μm-thick flexible Nickel (Ni) foil. A unique fabrication approach, combining room temperature deposition of PZT film by granule spray in vacuum (GSV) process and localized thermal treatment of the film by laser radiation, is utilized. This approach addresses the challenges in integrating ceramic films on metal substrates, which is often limited by the interfacial chemical reactions occurring at high processing temperatures...
January 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307350/brain-metastases-radiosurgery
#10
Amparo Wolf, Douglas Kondziolka
Stereotactic radiosurgery has revolutionized the management of brain metastases. It delivers focused, highly conformal, ionizing radiation to a tumor delineated using high-resolution imaging, with low toxicity to adjacent brain structures. Randomized controlled and prospective trials have demonstrated a survival advantage and high local control rates after stereotactic radiosurgery for metastatic disease to the central nervous system, including for up to 10 brain metastases. Its minimal-access nature makes it an attractive alternative to surgical resection...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307210/bleeding-in-cancer-patients-and-its-treatment-a-review
#11
Candice Johnstone, Shayna E Rich
Bleeding is a common problem in cancer patients, related to local tumor invasion, tumor angiogenesis, systemic effects of the cancer, or anti-cancer treatments. Existing bleeds can also be exacerbated by medications such as bevacizumab, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and anticoagulants. Patients may develop acute catastrophic bleeding, episodic major bleeding, or low-volume oozing. Bleeding may present as bruising, petechiae, epistaxis, hemoptysis, hematemesis, hematochezia, melena, hematuria, or vaginal bleeding...
December 18, 2017: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304773/breast-carcinoma-with-21-gene-recurrence-score-lower-than-18-rate-of-locoregional-recurrence-in-a-large-series-with-clinical-follow-up
#12
Gulisa Turashvili, Edi Brogi, Monica Morrow, Maura Dickler, Larry Norton, Clifford Hudis, Hannah Y Wen
BACKGROUND: The 21-gene recurrence score (RS) assay determines the benefit of adding chemotherapy to endocrine therapy for patients with early stage, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer. The RS risk groups predict the likelihood of distant recurrence and have recently been associated with an increased risk of locoregional recurrence (LRR). This study analyzed clinicopathologic features of patients with low RS and LRR. METHODS: In our institutional database, we identified 1396 consecutive female patients with lymph node negative, ER+/HER2- invasive breast carcinoma and low RS (<18) results, treated at our center from 2008 to 2013...
January 6, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304475/tracing-aquatic-bioavailable-hg-in-three-different-regions-of-china-using-fish-hg-isotopes
#13
Cheng-Bin Liu, Xiu-Bing Hua, Hong-Wei Liu, Ben Yu, Yu-Xiang Mao, Ding-Yong Wang, Yong-Guang Yin, Li-Gang Hu, Jian-Bo Shi, Gui-Bin Jiang
To trace the most concerned bioavailable mercury (Hg) in aquatic environment, fish samples were collected from three typical regions in China, including 3 rivers and 1 lake in the Tibetan Plateau (TP, a high altitude background region with strong solar radiation), the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR, the largest artificial freshwater reservoir in China), and the Chinese Bohai Sea (CBS, a heavily human-impacted semi-enclosed sea). The Hg isotopic compositions in fish muscles were analyzed. The results showed that anthropogenic emissions were the main sources of Hg in fish from TGR and CBS because of the observed negative δ202Hg and positive Δ199Hg in these two regions (TGR, δ202Hg: - 0...
January 2, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300872/a-generic-individual-based-model-to-simulate-morphogenesis-c-n-acquisition-and-population-dynamics-in-contrasting-forage-legumes
#14
Gaëtan Louarn, Lucas Faverjon
Background and Aims: Individual-based models (IBMs) are promising tools to disentangle plant interactions in multi-species grasslands and foster innovative species mixtures. This study describes an IBM dealing with the morphogenesis, growth and C-N acquisition of forage legumes that integrates plastic responses from functional-structural plant models. Methods: A generic model was developed to account for herbaceous legume species with contrasting above- and below-ground morphogenetic syndromes and to integrate the responses of plants to light, water and N...
December 29, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299375/radiation-generates-an-abscopal-response-and-complete-resolution-of-metastatic-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-anal-canal-a-case-report
#15
Moss Bruton Joe, Julian J Lum, Peter H Watson, R Petter Tonseth, John Paul McGhie, Pauline T Truong
The abscopal effect is a rare phenomenon in the setting of radiation therapy (RT) for metastatic cancer where tumor regression occurs distant from the site of treatment. A proposed mechanism of the abscopal effect is the activation of a systemic antitumor immune response by localized RT. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of the abscopal effect in squamous carcinoma of the anal canal with metastases to pelvic lymph nodes, liver and bone. After palliative RT to the pelvis with sensitizing chemotherapy, complete response was observed not only in the primary tumor but also in bone and multiple liver metastases at 4 months after treatment, an effect that remained durable at 4-year follow-up...
December 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299359/short-course-radiation-as-a-component-of-definitive-multidisciplinary-treatment-for-select-patients-with-metastatic-rectal-adenocarcinoma
#16
Emma B Holliday, Andrew Hunt, Y Nancy You, George J Chang, John M Skibber, Miguel A Rodriguez-Bigas, Brian K Bednarski, Cathy Eng, Eugene J Koay, Bruce D Minsky, Cullen Taniguchi, Sunil Krishnan, Joseph M Herman, Prajnan Das
Background: Select patients with rectal adenocarcinoma with metastatic disease at presentation can be cured with multimodality management. However, the optimal components and sequencing of therapy is unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate outcomes for patients treated with chemotherapy, short course radiation therapy (SCRT) and surgical resection. Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed metastatic rectal adenocarcinoma who received SCRT from 2010-2016 were identified...
December 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297495/treatment-effects-in-prostate-cancer
#17
Andrew J Evans
Nonsurgical treatments for prostate cancer include androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT), radiation therapy (RT), ablative therapies, chemotherapy, and newly emerging immunotherapies. These approaches can be used alone or in combination depending on the clinical scenario. ADT is typically reserved for high-risk locally or systemically advanced disease that is not amenable to curative surgery. Radiation therapy can be used instead of surgery as primary therapy with curative intent for low-intermediate-risk disease as well as for control of locally advanced disease not suitable for surgery...
January 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297053/anatomical-wiring-and-functional-networking-changes-in-the-visual-system-following-optic-neuritis
#18
Yael Backner, Joseph Kuchling, Said Massarwa, Timm Oberwahrenbrock, Carsten Finke, Judith Bellmann-Strobl, Klemens Ruprecht, Alexander U Brandt, Hanna Zimmermann, Noa Raz, Friedemann Paul, Netta Levin
Importance: Clinical outcome in multiple sclerosis was suggested to be driven by not only remyelination but also adaptive reorganization. This mechanism needs to be further understood. Objective: To explore anatomical and functional visual networks in patients with optic neuritis (ON) to assess the relative weight of each connectivity modality to expedite visual recovery. Design, Setting, and Participants: Between March 11, 2011, and May 26, 2014, 39 patients with either clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) ON (n = 18) or other CIS (non-ON) (n = 21) were recruited 1 to 28 months following an initial clinical event...
January 2, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290072/operations-for-suspected-neoplasms-in-a-resource-limited-setting-experience-and-challenges-in-the-eastern-democratic-of-congo
#19
Luc Malemo Kalisya, Jacques Fadhili Bake, Richard Bigabwa, David H Rothstein, Sarah B Cairo
INTRODUCTION: Surgery is an essential component of a functional health system, with surgical conditions accounting for nearly 11-15% of world disability. While communicable diseases continue to burden low- and low-middle-income countries, non-communicable diseases, such as cancer, are an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Preliminary data on malignancies in low- and middle-income countries, specifically in Africa, suggest a higher mortality compared to other regions of the world, a difference partially explained by limited availability of screening and early detection systems as well as poorer access to treatment...
December 31, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286676/enhancing-coherent-light-matter-interactions-through-microcavity-engineered-plasmonic-resonances
#20
Pai Peng, Yong-Chun Liu, Da Xu, Qi-Tao Cao, Guowei Lu, Qihuang Gong, Yun-Feng Xiao
Quantum manipulation is challenging in localized-surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) due to strong dissipations. To enhance quantum coherence, here we propose to engineer the electromagnetic environment of LSPRs by placing metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) in optical microcavities. An analytical quantum model is first built to describe the LSPR-microcavity interaction, revealing the significantly enhanced coherent radiation and the reduced incoherent dissipation. Furthermore, when a quantum emitter interacts with the LSPRs in the cavity-engineered environment, its quantum yield is enhanced over 40 times and the radiative power over one order of magnitude, compared to those in the vacuum environment...
December 8, 2017: Physical Review Letters
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