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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803718/total-neoadjuvant-therapy-a-shifting-paradigm-in-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer-management
#1
REVIEW
Aaron J Franke, Hiral Parekh, Jason S Starr, Sanda A Tan, Atif Iqbal, Thomas J George
Colorectal carcinoma is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, with rectal cancer accounting for approximately one-third of newly diagnosed cases, thus representing a major socioeconomic health burden. Although minimally invasive procedures (ie, transanal excision) may be appropriate for a subset of patients with small, superficially invasive tumors, a more comprehensive trimodality approach with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, total mesorectal excision, and systemic chemotherapy is recommended for medically operable patients with nonmetastatic, locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC)...
June 27, 2017: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803168/metastatic-cardiac-angiosarcoma-to-the-lung-spine-and-brain-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Chih-Ta Lin, Katrina Ducis, Suzanne Tucker, Bruce Tranmer
BACKGROUND: Metastatic angiosarcoma to the brain is a rare entity without an established management protocol. CASE DESCRIPTION: The authors describe a case of primary cardiac angiosarcoma with a rare brain metastasis in an adult. This patient underwent successful resection of his brain metastasis and was initiated on only chemotherapy for his systemic disease. The patient did not develop local recurrence. A review of primary and metastatic CNS angiosarcoma, its pathologic features, clinical disease course, treatment strategies and genomics is also described...
August 9, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800634/utilizing-the-r-v-marcus-g-langseth-s-streamer-to-measure-the-acoustic-radiation-of-its-seismic-source-in-the-shallow-waters-of-new-jersey-s-continental-shelf
#3
Timothy J Crone, Maya Tolstoy, James C Gibson, Gregory Mountain
Shallow water marine seismic surveys are necessary to understand a range of Earth processes in coastal environments, including those that represent major hazards to society such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and sea-level rise. Predicting the acoustic radiation of seismic sources in shallow water, which is required for compliance with regulations designed to limit impacts on protected marine species, is a significant challenge in this environment because of variable reflectivity due to local geology, and the susceptibility of relatively small bathymetric features to focus or shadow acoustic energy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798812/clinical-epidemiological-and-therapeutic-profile-of-patients-with-a-retinoblastoma-diagnosis-experience-in-the-costa-rica-national-children-s-hospital-oncology-unit-from-january-2009-to-december-2015
#4
Jennie Chen Lo, Carlos Rodríguez, Rigoberto Monestel, Arnoldo Zúñiga
INTRODUCTION: Retinoblastoma represents only 3% of paediatric cancers, but it is the most prevalent intraocular tumour in this population. It develops in the retina as a primitive neuroectodermal tumour that affects development during gestation. The tumour presents in two different forms depending on whether or not it expresses a genetic modification. For patients diagnosed at preschool age, 75% are unilateral non-hereditary cases. While enucleation is the preferred treatment for advanced stages of the tumour, other modalities, such as systemic and intraocular chemotherapy, radiotherapy and local treatments with thermotherapy, cryotherapy, and brachytherapy can be used to try to preserve the eye...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797171/novel-composite-drug-delivery-system-as-a-novel-radio-sensitizer-for-the-local-treatment-of-cervical-carcinoma
#5
Shan Xu, Yu Ying Tang, Yan Xin Yu, Qin Yun, Jing Pin Yang, Heng Zhang, Qiuxia Peng, Xiaoyang Sun, Ling Lin Yang, ShaoZhi Fu, Jing Bo Wu
In this study, we investigated in vivo radiosensitizing effects of a gel-based dual drug delivery system (DDS) (PECE/DDP + mPEG-PCL/PTX, or PDMP) in a cervical cancer model, and determined its possible mechanisms of action. A xenograft cervical cancer model was used to investigate the radio sensitization effect of PDMP. Mice underwent paclitaxel (PTX) + cisplatin (DDP), PECE, or PDMP treatment followed by single radiation doses ranging from 0 Gy to 20 Gy. Radio sensitization was analyzed by tumor regrowth delay (TGD)...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796645/on-the-use-of-particle-filters-for-electromagnetic-tracking-in-high-dose-rate-brachytherapy
#6
Theresa Ida Götz, Godehard Lahmer, Tobias Brandt, Karoline Kallis, Vratislav Strnad, Christoph Bert, Bernhard Hensel, Ana Maria Tome, Elmar W Lang
Modern radiotherapy of female breat cancers often employ high dose rate Brachytherapy, where a radioactive source is moved inside catheters, implanted in the female breast, according to a prescribed treatment plan. Source localization relative to the patient's anatomy is determined with solenoid sensors whose spatial positions are measured with an electromagnetic tracking system. Precise sensor dwell position determination is of utmost importance to assure irradiation of the cancerous tissue according to the treatment plan...
August 10, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794852/radiation-induced-angiosarcoma-of-the-breast-outcomes-from-a-retrospective-case-series
#7
R B Cohen-Hallaleh, H G Smith, R C Smith, G F Stamp, O Al-Muderis, K Thway, A Miah, K Khabra, I Judson, R Jones, C Benson, A J Hayes
BACKGROUND: Radiation induced angiosarcoma (RIAS) of the breast is a rare and aggressive complication of radiotherapy. Due to the rarity of this disease, much of the evidence for its management is based on case reports or small retrospective series. We sought to describe the management and outcomes of RIAS in a large single-institution series. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with RIAS between January 2000 and January 2014 were identified from an institutional database...
2017: Clinical Sarcoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793884/therapeutic-comparison-between-treatments-for-vulvar-lichen-sclerosus-study-protocol-of-a-randomized-prospective-and-controlled-trial
#8
Renata A Belotto, Maria Cristina Chavantes, João Paulo Tardivo, Roberto Euzébio Dos Santos, Raquel Civolani Marques Fernandes, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini Horliana, Christiane Pavani, Daniela Fátima Teixeira da Silva
BACKGROUND: Vulvar lichen sclerosus (VLS) is a lymphocyte-mediated disease of unknown etiology that can cause intense itching as well stenosis, hindering the evacuation and urination. It can also limit the sex life due to severe local pruritus, pain and dyspareunia (pain during sexual intercourse). The standard treatment for this disease is the use of topical corticosteroids to reduce the clinical symptoms and to try to increase disease-free intervals. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a treatment that associates a light radiation with a photosensitizing agent and photobiomodulation (PBM) are therapies that can promote effective immunomodulatory responses at the application site by means of photophysical and photochemical phenomena from the molecular to the systemic level, which promote their use in chronic dermatoses...
August 10, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791251/combining-oncolytic-adenovirus-with-radiation-a-paradigm-for-the-future-of-radiosensitization
#9
REVIEW
Sean M O'Cathail, Tzveta D Pokrovska, Timothy S Maughan, Kerry D Fisher, Leonard W Seymour, Maria A Hawkins
Oncolytic viruses and radiotherapy represent two diverse areas of cancer therapy, utilizing quite different treatment modalities and with non-overlapping cytotoxicity profiles. It is, therefore, an intriguing possibility to consider that oncolytic ("cancer-killing") viruses may act as cancer-selective radiosensitizers, enhancing the therapeutic consequences of radiation treatment on tumors while exerting minimal effects on normal tissue. There is a solid mechanistic basis for this potential synergy, with many viruses having developed strategies to inhibit cellular DNA repair pathways in order to protect themselves, during genome replication, from unwanted interference by cell processes that are normally triggered by DNA damage...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791250/immunotherapy-combined-with-large-fractions-of-radiotherapy-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-brain-metastases-implications-for-intraoperative-radiotherapy-after-resection
#10
REVIEW
Carsten Herskind, Frederik Wenz, Frank A Giordano
Brain metastases (BM) affect approximately a third of all cancer patients with systemic disease. Treatment options include surgery, whole-brain radiotherapy, or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) while chemotherapy has only limited activity. In cases where patients undergo resection before irradiation, intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) to the tumor bed may be an alternative modality, which would eliminate the repopulation of residual tumor cells between surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. Accumulating evidence has shown that high single doses of ionizing radiation can be highly efficient in eliciting a broad spectrum of local, regional, and systemic tumor-directed immune reactions...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791026/decrease-of-markers-related-to-bone-erosion-in-serum-of-patients-with-musculoskeletal-disorders-after-serial-low-dose-radon-spa-therapy
#11
Aljona Cucu, Kateryna Shreder, Daniela Kraft, Paul Friedrich Rühle, Gerhart Klein, Gerhard Thiel, Benjamin Frey, Udo S Gaipl, Claudia Fournier
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the most frequent cause of disability in Europe. Reduced mobility and quality of life of the patients are often associated with pain due to chronic inflammation. The inflammatory process, accompanied by a destruction of the cartilage and bone tissue, is discussed as a result of (A) the infiltration of immune cells into the joints, (B) an altered homeostasis of the joint cavity (synovium) with a critical role of bone remodeling cells, and (C) release of inflammatory factors including adipokines in the arthritic joint...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783038/photon-caliper-to-achieve-submillimeter-positioning-accuracy
#12
Kyle Joseph Gallagher, Jennifer Wong, Junan Zhang
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a commercial two-dimensional (2D) detector array with an inherent detector spacing of 5 mm to achieve submillimeter accuracy in localizing the radiation isocenter. This was accomplished by delivering the Vernier "dose" caliper to a 2D detector array where the nominal scale was the 2D detector array and the non-nominal Vernier scale was the radiation dose strips produced by the high-definition (HD) multileaf collimators (MLCs) of the linear accelerator...
August 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779974/impact-of-early-salvage-radiation-therapy-in-patients-with-persistently-elevated-or-rising-prostate-specific-antigen-after-radical-prostatectomy
#13
Nicola Fossati, R Jeffrey Karnes, Michele Colicchia, Stephen A Boorjian, Alberto Bossi, Thomas Seisen, Nadia Di Muzio, Cesare Cozzarini, Barbara Noris Chiorda, Claudio Fiorino, Giorgio Gandaglia, Paolo Dell'Oglio, Shahrokh F Shariat, Gregor Goldner, Steven Joniau, Antonino Battaglia, Karin Haustermans, Gert De Meerleer, Valérie Fonteyne, Piet Ost, Hendrik Van Poppel, Thomas Wiegel, Francesco Montorsi, Alberto Briganti
BACKGROUND: Salvage radiation therapy (SRT) is a recommended treatment option for biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy (RP). However, its effectiveness may be limited to specific categories of patients. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify the optimal candidates for early SRT after RP. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The study included 925 node-negative patients treated with SRT after RP at seven institutions. Patients received SRT for either prostate-specific antigen (PSA) rising, or PSA persistence after RP that was defined as PSA level ≥0...
August 2, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776956/first-follow-up-radiographic-response-is-one-of-the-predictors-of-local-tumor-progression-and-radiation-necrosis-after-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-brain-metastases
#14
Mayur Sharma, Xuefei Jia, Manmeet Ahluwalia, Gene H Barnett, Michael A Vogelbaum, Samuel T Chao, John H Suh, Erin S Murphy, Jennifer S Yu, Lilyana Angelov, Alireza M Mohammadi
Local progression (LP) and radiation necrosis (RN) occur in >20% of cases following stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases (BM). Expected outcomes following SRS for BM include tumor control/shrinkage, local progression and radiation necrosis. 1427 patients with 4283 BM lesions were treated using SRS at Cleveland Clinic from 2000 to 2012. Clinical, imaging and radiosurgery data were collected from the database. Local tumor progression and RN were the primary end points and correlated with patient and tumor-related variables...
August 4, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773807/on-the-mechanism-of-microwave-flash-sintering-of-ceramics
#15
Yury V Bykov, Sergei V Egorov, Anatoly G Eremeev, Vladislav V Kholoptsev, Ivan V Plotnikov, Kirill I Rybakov, Andrei A Sorokin
The results of a study of ultra-rapid (flash) sintering of oxide ceramic materials under microwave heating with high absorbed power per unit volume of material (10-500 W/cm³) are presented. Ceramic samples of various compositions-Al₂O₃; Y₂O₃; MgAl₂O₄; and Yb(LaO)₂O₃-were sintered using a 24 GHz gyrotron system to a density above 0.98-0.99 of the theoretical value in 0.5-5 min without isothermal hold. An analysis of the experimental data (microwave power; heating and cooling rates) along with microstructure characterization provided an insight into the mechanism of flash sintering...
August 11, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766217/the-influence-of-breast-density-on-preoperative-mri-findings-and-outcome-in-patients-with-a-known-diagnosis-of-breast-cancer
#16
Erin Alexa Elder, Alyssa Ferlin, Laura A Vallow, Zhuo Li, Tammeza C Gibson, Sanjay P Bagaria, Sarah A McLaughlin
BACKGROUND: The role of breast density as an indication for preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for surgical planning in women with breast cancer is unknown. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed breast cancer patients diagnosed from 2007 to 2011 who underwent preoperative MRI. We obtained clinical and pathological data and grouped patients by mammographic breast density, with Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) density A and B considered low density, and C and D considered high density...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766211/intraoperative-radiation-using-low-kilovoltage-x-rays-for-early-breast-cancer-a-single-site-trial
#17
Melvin J Silverstein, Melinda S Epstein, Kevin Lin, Peter Chen, Sadia Khan, Lincoln Snyder, Lisa E Guerra, Cristina De Leon, Ralph Mackintosh, Colleen Coleman, January Lopez, Brian Kim
INTRODUCTION: Two prospective, randomized trials, TARGIT-A and ELIOT, have shown intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) to be a safe alternative to whole breast radiation therapy following breast-conserving surgery for selected low-risk patients. However, minimal data are available about the clinical effectiveness of this modality of treatment using the Xoft(®) Axxent(®) Electronic Brachytherapy (eBx(®)) System(®). METHODS: A total of 201 patients with 204 early-stage breast cancers were enrolled in a prospective X-ray IORT trial from June 2010 to September 2013...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762334/controlled-formation-of-gold-nanostructures-on-biopolymer-films-upon-electromagnetic-radiation
#18
Andrea Mescola, Claudio Canale, Despina Fragouli, Athanassia Athanassiou
The localized formation of gold nanostructures with controlled size and shape on chitosan films doped with gold precursor upon electromagnetic irradiation of various types is here demonstrated. Such controlled formation is achieved by tuning the wavelength, the energy and the interaction time of the radiation with the composite films. In particular, the use of a single UV nanosecond laser pulse results in the formation of gold sub-micron platelets with specific crystal structure, while increasing the number of pulses, further precursor reduction and photofragmentation induce the formation of gold nanoparticles...
August 1, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759889/mitotic-progression-following-dna-damage-enables-pattern-recognition-within-micronuclei
#19
Shane M Harding, Joseph L Benci, Jerome Irianto, Dennis E Discher, Andy J Minn, Roger A Greenberg
Inflammatory gene expression following genotoxic cancer therapy is well documented, yet the events underlying its induction remain poorly understood. Inflammatory cytokines modify the tumour microenvironment by recruiting immune cells and are critical for both local and systemic (abscopal) tumour responses to radiotherapy. A poorly understood feature of these responses is the delayed onset (days), in contrast to the acute DNA-damage responses that occur in minutes to hours. Such dichotomous kinetics implicate additional rate-limiting steps that are essential for DNA-damage-induced inflammation...
July 31, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757689/management-outcome-s-in-eyes-with-retinoblastoma-previously-inadequately-treated-with-systemic-chemotherapy-alone-without-focal-therapy
#20
Yacoub A Yousef, Rashed M Nazzal, Mohammed B Khalil, Rasha Deebajah, Mustafa Mehyar, Shatha Hajja, Mona Mohammad, Reem Al Jabary, Imad Jaradat, Iyad Sultan, Ibrahim Al Nawaiseh
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of management in eyes with intraocular retinoblastoma (RB) that had received inadequate initial therapy (chemotherapy without focal therapy) before eventually receiving necessary consolidation therapy at a tertiary referral center. METHODS: A retrospective observational case series of 30 eyes from 26 RB patients who had initially received systemic chemotherapy as a sole therapy. The main outcome measures were demographics, laterality, International Classification of RB (ICRB), treatments, tumor control, and survival...
May 2017: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
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