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Flat panel detectors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449282/a-patient-dose-reduction-technique-for-neuroendovascular-image-guided-interventions-image-quality-comparison-study
#1
A Sonig, S V Setlur Nagesh, V S Fennell, S Gandhi, L Rangel-Castilla, C N Ionita, K V Snyder, L N Hopkins, D R Bednarek, S Rudin, A H Siddiqui, E I Levy
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The ROI-dose-reduced intervention technique represents an extension of ROI fluoroscopy combining x-ray entrance skin dose reduction with spatially different recursive temporal filtering to reduce excessive image noise in the dose-reduced periphery in real-time. The aim of our study was to compare the image quality of simulated neurointerventions with regular and reduced radiation doses using a standard flat panel detector system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten 3D-printed intracranial aneurysm models were generated on the basis of a single patient vasculature derived from intracranial DSA and CTA...
February 15, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442733/thermal-stability-and-x-ray-attenuation-studies-on-%C3%AE-bi%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-%C3%AE-bi%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-and-bi-based-nanocomposites-for-radiopaque-fabrics
#2
Sangeetha Jayakumar, T Saravanan, John Philip
Nanocomposites containing α-Bi2O3, β-Bi2O3 and Bi nanoparticles as nanofillers in vulcanized silicone resin as a matrix are prepared and their diagnostic X-ray attenuation property is studied. The nanocomposites are prepared using a simple solution casting technique, with nanofiller concentration varying from 2-50 wt%. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry are performed to study the thermal stability of the nanocomposites. The attenuation property is studied by exposing the nanocomposites containing α-Bi2O3, β-Bi2O3 and Bi nanoparticles to X-rays of energy 30-60 keV...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424364/performance-evaluation-of-a-direct-conversion-flat-panel-detector-system-in-imaging-and-quality-assurance-for-a-high-dose-rate-sup-192-sup-ir-source
#3
Yoshinori Miyahara, Yuki Hara, Hiroto Nakashima, Tomonori Nishimura, Kanae Itakura, Taisuke Inomata, Hajime Kitagaki
In high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy, a direct-conversion flat-panel detector (d-FPD) clearly depicts a 192Ir source without image halation, even under the emission of high-energy gamma-rays. However, it has been unknown why iridium is visible using a d-FPD. The purpose of this study was to clarify reasons for visibility of the source core based on physical imaging characteristics, including the modulation transfer functions (MTF), noise power spectral (NPS), contrast transfer functions (CTF), and linearity of d-FPD to high-energy gamma-rays...
February 9, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389017/a-dedicated-breast-pet-ct-scanner-evaluation-of-basic-performance-characteristics
#4
Raymond R Raylman, Will Van Kampen, Alexander V Stolin, Wenbo Gong, Gangadhar Jaliparthi, Peter F Martone, Mark F Smith, David Sarment, Neal H Clinthorne, Mark Perna
PURPOSE: Application of advanced imaging techniques, such as PET and x-ray CT, can potentially improve detection of breast cancer. Unfortunately, both modalities have challenges in the detection of some lesions. The combination of the two techniques, however, could potentially lead to an overall improvement in diagnostic breast imaging. The purpose of this investigation is to test the basic performance of a new dedicated breast-PET/CT. METHODS: The PET component consists of a rotating pair of detectors...
February 1, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384734/extra-oral-dental-radiography-for-disaster-victims-using-a-flat-panel-x-ray-detector-and-a-hand-held-x-ray-generator
#5
M Ohtani, T Oshima, S Mimasaka
BACKGROUND: Forensic odontologists commonly incise the skin for post-mortem dental examinations when it is difficult to open the victim's mouth. However, it is prohibited by law to incise dead bodies without permission in Japan. Therefore, we attempted using extra-oral dental radiography, using a digital X-ray equipment with rechargeable batteries, to overcome this restriction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A phantom was placed in the prone position on a table, and three plain dental radiographs were used per case: "lateral oblique radiographs" for left and right posterior teeth and a "contact radiograph" for anterior teeth were taken using a flat panel X-ray detector and a hand-held X-ray generator...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381939/utilizing-flat-panel-detector-parenchymal-blood-volume-imaging-fd-pbv-for-quantitative-kidney-perfusion-analysis-during-the-process-of-percutaneous-transluminal-renal-angioplasty-ptra-a-case-report
#6
Chenyang Qiu, Jiang Shao, Xiu Liu, Bao Liu
RATIONALE: Traditional digital subtraction angiography (DSA) provides lumen morphology of renal artery as indicators for vascular patency in patients with renal artery stenosis (RAS). It, however, lacks hemodynamic information toward target kidney. To solve this shortcoming, a novel technique, flat-panel detector parenchymal blood volume imaging (FD-PBV), is introduced, which is able to evaluate hemodynamic changes of target kidney intraoperatively. PATIENTS CONCERNS: A 77-year-old female presented with hypertension, intermittent dizziness, nausea, and fatigue...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376745/prediction-of-detectability-of-the-mandibular-canal-by-quantitative-image-quality-evaluation-using-cone-beam-ct
#7
Yohei Takeshita, Mayumi Shimizu, Gainer R Jasa, Warangkana Weerawanich, Kazutoshi Okamura, Shoko Yoshida, Kenji Tokumori, Junichi Asaumi, Kazunori Yoshiura
OBJECTIVES: To compare the results of a new quantitative image quality evaluation method that requires no observers with the results of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis in detecting the mandibular canal in cone beam CT (CBCT) images. METHODS: A Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) plate phantom with holes of different depths was scanned with two CBCT systems. One CBCT system was equipped with an image intensifier (Experiment 1), and the other was equipped with a flat panel detector (Experiment 2)...
January 29, 2018: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360151/compton-scatter-imaging-a-promising-modality-for-image-guidance-in-lung-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy
#8
Gage Redler, Kevin C Jones, Alistair Templeton, Damian Bernard, Julius Turian, James C H Chu
PURPOSE: Lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) requires delivering large radiation doses with millimeter accuracy, making image guidance essential. An approach to forming images of patient anatomy from photons Compton scattered during lung SBRT is presented. METHODS: To investigate the potential of scatter imaging, a pinhole collimator and flat-panel detector are used for spatial localization and detection of photons scattered during external beam therapy using lung SBRT treatment conditions (6MV FFF beam)...
January 23, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341175/investigation-of-the-axial-gap-clearance-in-a-hydrodynamic-passive-magnetically-levitated-rotary-blood-pump-using-x-ray-radiography
#9
Bente Thamsen, Mathieu Plamondon, Marcus Granegger, Marianne Schmid Daners, Rolf Kaufmann, Antonia Neels, Mirko Meboldt
The HeartWare HVAD is a radial rotary blood pump with a combination of passive magnetic and hydrodynamic bearings to levitate the impeller. The axial gap size between impeller and housing in this bearing and its sensitivity to speed, flow, and pressure difference is difficult to assess. Shear stresses are exceptionally high in this tiny gap making it important for blood damage and related adverse events. Therefore, the aim of this study was to measure the axial gap clearance in the HVAD at different operating conditions employing radiography...
January 17, 2018: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312875/functional-dynamic-radiography-with-computer-analysis-for-physiological-chest-imaging-and-kinematic-joint-imaging
#10
Shigeru Sanada
We developed a functional digital radiography system that provides physiological and functional information of the chest and/or joints using an X-ray flat-panel detector (FPD) system. During chest examination, sequential chest radiographs are taken from inspiration to expiration in order to analyze diaphragmatic movements. Pixel value changes in localized areas of the lung are then assessed to analyze ventilation and circulation. For limb joints, such as the wrist, shoulder, and knee, sequential radiographs during flexion and extension or rotational movement are considered, and movement angles are analyzed...
December 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298859/fast-acquisition-cone-beam-computed-tomography-initial-experience-with-a-10-s-protocol
#11
Visish M Srinivasan, Gouthami Chintalapani, Kevin Matthew Camstra, Sabih T Effendi, Jacob Cherian, Jeremiah N Johnson, Stephen R Chen, Peter Kan
BACKGROUND: Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) facilitates the acquisition of cross-sectional imaging in angiography suites using a rotational C-arm and digital flat panel detectors. The applications are numerous, including evaluation of implanted devices and localization of cerebrovascular lesions. We present and validate the clinical utility of an alternative fast CBCT acquisition protocol in the context of neurovascular device imaging. METHODS: Contrast-enhanced (CE)-CBCT images were acquired using a new 10 s protocol in a phantom head model, swine model, and in patients...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235120/two-dimensional-antiscatter-grid-a-novel-scatter-rejection-device-for-cone-beam-computed-tomography
#12
Timur Alexeev, Brian Kavanagh, Moyed Miften, Cem Altunbas
PURPOSE: Scattered radiation remains to be a major cause of image quality degradation in Flat Panel Detector (FPD) based Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). We have been investigating a novel two dimensional antiscatter grid (2D-ASG) concept to reduce scatter intensity, and hence improve CBCT image quality. We present the first CBCT imaging experiments performed with the 2D-ASG prototype, and demonstrate its efficacy in improving CBCT image quality. METHODS: A 2D-ASG prototype with septa focused to x-ray source was additively manufactured from tungsten and mounted on a Varian TrueBeam CBCT system...
December 12, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175828/retrograde-3d-rotational-venography-3drv-for-venous-sinus-stent-placement-in-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension
#13
Christopher C Young, Ryan P Morton, Basavaraj V Ghodke, Michael R Levitt
BACKGROUND: Dural venous sinus stenting has emerged as an effective and durable treatment for idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). Improved visualization of the venous sinuses can improve stent placement. METHODS: We present two cases of IIH treated with venous sinus stenting in which retrograde three-dimensional rotational venography (3DRV) provided superior anatomical details of the venous sinuses for optimal sizing and positioning of stent. RESULTS: Comparison of pre-stent 3DRV with post-stent contrast-enhanced flat panel detector CT allowed confirmation of stent placement and the result of stenosis dilation...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171067/towards-scintillator-high-gain-avalanche-rushing-photoconductor-active-matrix-flat-panel-imager-sharp-amfpi-initial-fabrication-and-characterization
#14
James R Scheuermann, Adrian Howansky, Marc Hansroul, Sébastien Léveillé, Kenkichi Tanioka, Wei Zhao
PURPOSE: We present the first prototype Scintillator High Gain Avalanche Rushing Photoconductor Active Matrix Flat Panel Imager (SHARP-AMFPI). This detector includes a layer of avalanche amorphous Selenium (a-Se) (HARP) as the photoconductor in an indirect detector to amplify the signal and reduce the effects of electronic noise to obtain quantum noise limited images for low dose applications. It is the first time avalanche a-Se has been used in a solid-state imaging device and poses as a possible solution to eliminate the effects of electronic noise, which is crucial for low-dose imaging performance of AMFPI...
November 24, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159881/characterization-of-photon-counting-multislit-breast-tomosynthesis
#15
Karl Berggren, Björn Cederström, Mats Lundqvist, Erik Fredenberg
PURPOSE: It has been shown that breast tomosynthesis may improve sensitivity and specificity compared to two-dimensional mammography, resulting in increased detection-rate of cancers or lowered call-back rates. The purpose of this study is to characterize a spectral photon-counting multislit breast tomosynthesis system that is able to do single-scan spectral imaging with multiple collimated x-ray beams. The system differs in many aspects compared to conventional tomosynthesis using energy-integrating flat-panel detectors...
November 21, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118787/radiation-exposure-during-neurointerventional-procedures-in-modern-biplane-angiographic-systems-a-single-site-experience
#16
Ameer E Hassan, Sophie Amelot
Background and Purpose: Per the ALARA principle, reducing the dose delivered to both patients and staff must be a priority for endovascular therapists, who should monitor their own practice. We evaluated patient exposure to radiation during common neurointerventions performed with a recent flat-panel detector angiographic system and compared our results with those of recently published studies. Methods: All consecutive patients who underwent a diagnostic cerebral angiography or intervention on 2 modern flat-panel detector angiographic biplane systems (Innova IGS 630, GE Healthcare, Chalfont St Giles, UK) from February to November 2015 were retrospectively analyzed...
October 2017: Interventional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116055/improvement-of-single-detector-proton-radiography-by-incorporating-intensity-of-time-resolved-dose-rate-functions
#17
Rongxiao Zhang, Kyung-Wook Jee, Ethan W Cascio, Gregory C Sharp, Jacob B Flanz, Hsiao-Ming Lu
Proton radiography, which images patients with the same type of particles as what they are to be treated with, is a promising approach to image guidance and water equivalent path length (WEPL) verification in proton radiation therapy. We have shown recently that proton radiographs could be obtained by measuring time-resolved dose rate functions (DRF) using an x-ray amorphous silicon flat panel. The WEPL values were derived solely from the root-mean-square (RMS) of DRFs while the intensity information in the DRFs was filtered out...
November 8, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095489/modeling-and-evaluation-of-a-high-resolution-cmos-detector-for-cone-beam-ct-of-the-extremities
#18
Qian Cao, Alejandro Sisniega, Michael Brehler, J Webster Stayman, John Yorkston, Jeffrey H Siewerdsen, Wojciech Zbijewski
PURPOSE: Quantitative assessment of trabecular bone microarchitecture in extremity cone-beam CT (CBCT) would benefit from the high spatial resolution, low electronic noise, and fast scan time provided by complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) x-ray detectors. We investigate the performance of CMOS sensors in extremity CBCT, in particular with respect to potential advantages of thin (<0.7 mm) scintillators offering higher spatial resolution. METHODS: A cascaded systems model of a CMOS x-ray detector incorporating the effects of CsI:Tl scintillator thickness was developed...
November 2, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092468/x-ray-microtomography-system-for-small-and-light-samples-using-a-flat-panel-detector
#19
A B Vilar, T M P Dos Santos, A S Machado, D F Oliveira, S R Azeredo, R T Lopes
A low-cost system able to perform microtomography of samples such as teeth, insects, or other small materials and low atomic numbers is presented. For this, a small flat panel type sensor was used. The process of characterization of the detector is detailed, as well as its main characteristics. The electromechanical control and the software used are also described. The advantages, some limitations, and comparisons with commercial systems are presented along with some three-dimensional volumetric reconstruction of different materials that served as samples during the development of the system...
October 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064378/technical-characterization-of-five-x-ray-detectors-for-paediatric-radiography-applications
#20
Nicholas W Marshall, Marleen H Smet, Maarten Hofmans, Herman Pauwels, Thomas De Clerq, Hilde Bosmans
Physical image quality of five x-ray detectors used in the paediatric imaging department is characterized with the aim of establishing the range/scope of imaging performance provided by these detectors for neonatal imaging. Two computed radiography (CR) detectors (MD4.0 powder imaging plate (PIP) and HD5.0 needle imaging plate (NIP), Agfa HealthCare NV, B-2640 Mortsel, Belgium) and three flat panel detectors (FPD) (the Agfa DX-D35C and DX-D45C and the DRX-2530C (Carestream Health Inc., Rochester - NY 14608, USA)) were assessed...
October 24, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
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